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FOR THE PEOPLE 

FOR EDVCATION 
FORSCIENCE 






LIBRARY 

OF 

THE AMERICAN MUSEUM 

OF 

NATURAL HISTORY 





THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

VOL. XXII., 1905-6. 



^'-'i 



arxariLi 



Victorian Naturalist : 



THE JOURNAL & MAGAZINE 



i^hl Jiatmiaibb' 4^"^ 4 "f ifl^wa. 



WOJL.. 3ix:ii. 



MAY, 1905, TO APRIL, 1906. 



113011. JEDttor : MR. F. Q. A. BARNARD. 



The Author of each Article is responsible for the facts and 
opinions recorded. 



/IR e I b II r !i c : 
WALKER, MAY & CO., PRINTERS, MACKILLOP STREET 

(off 390 LITTLE COLLINS STREET). 
1906. 



V/*^V^^4^^^. 



INDEX TO VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



"von., 22:2^11. 

1905-6. 



PAGE 

Acacia dealhata - - 52, 77 
Agrotis sjn'na - - - 144 
Alexia - - - - 16 

Algfe, Fresb-water, of Vic- 
toria - - - 31, 62 
Animals, Eyes of - - 175 

Ants, Fights between 18, 35, 75 
Aonidia pidchra, n. sp, - 4 

Aprasia pulchflla - 74, 84 

Asbburton, Excursion to - 85 
Aspidiotus sitbrtd)esce7is - 3 

Assiminea - - - 15 

Australian Journal of Science 160 
Baragvvanatb and Kitson, 
Source of Yarra Eiver, 
&c. - - - - 86 
Baw Baw, Trip to Mt. 19, 58 

Birds of Britisb India - 176 

Birds and Fishes : a Com- 
parison - - - 102 
Birds of Healesville, &c. - 173 
Birds of Wilson's Promontory 199 
Black Swans, Destruction of 145 
Blacks' Spur, Botany, &c., of 171 
Botany at University - 73, 143 
Botany of Grampians - - 45 
Botany of Mallee - - ISO 
Botany of Mt, Erica - - 5S 
Botany of Wilson's Promon- 
tory - - - - 212 
Bracbipods, Fossil - - 85 
Braybrook, Excursion to - 101 
Braybrook, Mosses and 

Lichens of - - - 144 
Butterfly, An Eaily - - 76 
CepJiulotus fol/iodaris - - 143 

Chapman, Kocks of Mt. 

Shad well - - - 11 
Chapman, Abnormal Leaf 

of Gangamopteris - 190 

Cfiio7iaspis Candida, n. sp. - 6 



PAGE 

Coccidfe, New Victorian - 3 
Coccoiuytilus - - - 5 

Cosmariii/m capitulum - - 71 

Cosmariam hardyi - - 72 
Cosmarium tortiim - - 71 
Coxiella - - - - 14 
Crematogaster Iceviceps - - 75 
Delma fraseri - - - 84 
Desmidiacei© - - 1, 31, 62 
Desmidiacese, List of Vic- 
torian - - - 65 
Diemenia textilis - - - 74 
Eel, Distribution of Fresh- 
water - - - 54 
Eel, Fresh-water, in Victoria 80 
Eltham, Excursion to - 85 
Eucalyptus Timber - - 160 
Evaspidiotns - - - -^ 
Ewart, Professor - - 143 
Exchange Notices - - 76 
Eyes of Animals - - 175 
Fern tree Gully, Excursion to 148 
Field Naturalists' Club of 
Victoria — 
Annual Report - - 38 
Conversazione - - - 104 
Excursions — 

Ashburton - - - 85 

Braybrook - - - 101 

Eltham - - - SO 

Ferntree Gully - - 148 

Ringwood - - _ 125 

Royal Park - - - 21 

Warburton - - - 128 

Wilson's Promontory - 191 

Exhibition of Wild Flowers 106 

Financial Statement - 38 

Office-bearers, 1905-6 - 39 

Proceedings, 1, 17, 37, 53, 77. 

85, 101, 125, 145, 161, 177' 

189, 224 



INDEX. 



Fighting Ants - 
Fishes, Birds and : 



PAGE 

18, 35, 75 
Com- 

- 102 
Yic- 



74 
190 



1:5 

12 

144 

75 
, 45 

3 
4 

102 



parison 
Flora, Additions to 

torian - - 51, 8G, OS, 158 

Forestry in New South Wales 174 
Formica pur pur eu - 35, 75 
Fowls and Hawks - - 76 
Foxes _ - - - 

Furina hicucullata 
Oangamopteris spatulata 
Gatliff, Catalogue of Vic- 
torian Estuarine Uni- 
valve Mollusca 
Gatliff, Descriptions of two 
New Shells - - - 
Geelong Field Naturalists' 
Club - - - - 
Geological Map of Victoria, 
New - - - - 
Grampions, Trip to - 19 
Green, Some New Victorian 
CoccidsB . - - 
Gi-eeniella - - - - 
Hail, R., Birds and Fishes: 

a Comparison 
Hall, T. S., Distribution of 

Fi-esh- water Eel - 54, 80 
Hall, T. S., Lizard Mimick- 
ing a Poisonous Snake 54, 74 
Hall, T. S., Rules of Zoo- 
logical Nomenclature 146, 163 
Hardy, Fresh-water Alga3 of 
Victoria - - 1, 31 
Hardy, Notes on Botany, 
&c., of Healesville, &c. 
Hawks and Fowls 
Healesville, Botany, &c., of 171 
Heidelberg, Excursion to - 161 
Hill, Fights between two 

Species of Ants - 18, 35 
Hutton Memorial Fund - 176 
Hypericuiii perfordtuiii - 159 

India, Birds of British 
Indian Minahs - - - 
Jutson, Volcanic History of 
Mt. Shadwell - - - 
Keartland, Range of Alex- 
andra Parrakeet - 55 
Kitson and Baragwanath, 

Source of Yarra, &c. 00, 86 
Kitson, Tramps to Kos- 
ciusko - - - 89, 107 
Kosciusko, Mount - 89, 107 



, 62 

163 
76 



176 

78 



83 



PARE 

Lake Kamg, Trip to - - 22 
Leuconopsis tatei, n. sp. 3, 12 

Leuconopsis virtorice, n. sp. 3, 12, 16 
Lichens of Braybrook - 144 

Lobdia siniph'ciciiulis - - 224 

Maiden, New Victorian Pul- 

tenfceas - - - 86 

Macallister Valley, Trip to 

Upper - - - 190 

Mallee, Botany of - - 180 
Marinula - - - - 16 
Marsupial Remains at Tor- 
quay - - - - 175 
Mattingley, A Naturalist's 

Notes in Queensland 126, 133 
Micrasterias - - - 70 

Micrasterias liardyiy n. sp. - 71 
Microscopical Exhibits - 78 

Mollusca, Estuarine Uni- 
valve - - - - 13 
Mosses, Braybrook - - 144 
Moths, Plague of - - 144 

Mt. Erica (Baw Baw), 

Botany of - - - 58 

Mt. Kosciusko, Geology of 89, 107 
Mt. Shadwell, Volcanic 

History of - - - 8 
Mt. Wellington, Trip to - 22 
Mytilasp'is cassinice, n.'sp. - 4 
Mytihispis hymenantherit, n. 

sp. - - - - 5 

Mytil(is[)is intermedia - - 5 
Mytilaspis raultijjora - - 6 
New South Wales, Forestry 

in - - - - 174 

Nomenclature, Rules of Zoo- 
logical - - - 146, 153 
North, New Bird of Paradise 

146, 156 
Obituary, Late H. T. Tisdall 56 
Ophicardelus - - - 16 
Owls, Grass - - - 78 

Puradisea yranti, n. sp. - 156 

Parrakeet, Princess of Wales 

78, 83 
Parrot, An Abnormal - - 20 
Pitcher Plant, West Aus- 
tralian - - - - 143 
Pleurotamium maraiUaturn, n. 

sp. - - - - 70 
Plants of Gramjjians - - 48 

Plants of Healesville, &c. - 171 
Plants of Mallee - - - 186 
Plants of Mt. Erica - - 61 





INDEX. 


vii 


I 


•AGK 




PAGE 


Plants of Wilson's Promon- 




Thiele, Trip to Macallister 




tory - - - - 


212 


Valley - 


190 


Plants, Some Loug-collccted 


52 


Tisdall, Late H. T. - 


56 


Fidtencea luehmanni, n. sp. - 


100 


Torquay, Marsupial Remains 




Pultentea maideui, n. sp. 


158 


at - - - . 


175 


Pultenoia vrolandi, ii. sp. 


98 


Tree, A Giant - 


36 


Fidtencea weindorfcri, u. sp. 


51 


Truncatella _ _ _ 


14 


Ptdtencea williamsuni, n. sp. 


m 


Victoria, New Geological 




Reader, Contributions to 




Map of - _ - 


75 


Flo% of Victoria 51, 147, 


158 


Victorian Coccida3, New 


3 


Eingwood, Excursion to 


125 


Victorian Desmidiacetc 


65 


Rotifer, Pterodina refltxa 


Kil 


Victorian Desmids, New 


70 


Royal Park, Excursion to - 


21 


Victorian Estuarine Uni- 




Saliuator _ _ - - 


15 


valve Mollusca 


13 


Sarcochilus parvijlorus 


153 


Victorian Flora, Additions to 




Silver Wattles - - 52 


) ">" 


51, 86, 98, 


158 


Source of Yarra River bo 


, 86 


Wallaby at Sea - - - 


224 


Sjjathojjterus alexandrct ~b 


, 83 


Warburton, Excursion to - 


128 


Sphcerococcus pustidans, u. sp. 


7 


Weindorfer, Trip to Gram- 




St. John's Wort - - - 


159 


Ijians - - - U 


, 45 


Staurastrum, New Vaiieties 




Wilson's Promontory 40, 


161, 


of - - - - 


72 


178, 179, 


191 


Sutton, Trip to Mt. BawBaw 




Botany - - - - 


212 


19 


, 58 


Conchology - - - 


207 


Sutton, Botany of Mallee 162, 


180 


Ethnology - _ - 


223 


Tasmanian Field Naturalists' 




Geology - _ _ 


219 


Club - - - - 


160 


Zoology _ _ - 


197 


Tatea- - - - 


15 


Yarra River, Source of 55 


, 86 


Ttrias smilax . _ _ 


76 


Zoological Nomenclature, 




Thiele, Trip to Lake Karng 2 


, 22 


Rules of - - 146, 


153 



INDEX. 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 

PAGE 

Bird of Paradise, Grant's _____ 156 

Coccidae, New Victorian ----- 8 

Lake Karng, Map and Section - - - - - 26 

Leuconopsis, New Shells of Genus - - - - 13 

Micrasterias, New Forms of - - - - - 73 

Mt. Shadwell, Section at ----- 9 

Victoria, Maj) of North-Eastern - - - - 93 

Warburton, Map of - - - - - - 128 

Wilson's Promontory, Map of - - - - - 44 

Wilson's Promontory, Views at - - - 206, 207 



ERRATA. 



Page 55, line 5 — For " Aprasia pulcheUa " read " Delma fraseri." 

Page 56, line 17 — For " Aprasia puIc.heJla " read " Delma fraseri." 

Page 64, par. 4 — Strike out the words " compiled from the sources 
mentioned," and after " classification " add "The species in 
brackets, recorded by Watts, I have not seen." 

Page 74, line 8 — For " Aprasia pulchella " read ^^ Delma fraseri." 

Page 159, line 6 from bottom (in some copies) — For '^Hypericum 
pjerfoliatum" read " Hypericum pjerforatum." 



Cbe Uictorlan naturalist 



Vol. XXIL— No. 1. MAY 4, 1905. No. 257. 



FIELD NATURALISTS' CLUB OF VICTORIA. 

The ordinary monthly meeting of the Club was held at the Royal 
Society's H.ill on Monday evening, loth April, 1905. 

The president, Mr. O. A. Sayce, occupied the chair, and about 
65 members and visitors were present. 

REPORTS. 

[Owing to pressure on space, several reports are held over. — 
Ed. Vict. N'at.] 

ELECTION OF MEMBERS. 

On a ballot being taken, Mr. J. T. Jutson, Smith-street, North- 
cote, was elected as an ordinary member, and Master F. Hill as 
a junior member of the Club. 

PAPERS READ. 

1. By Mr. J. H. Galliff, entitled " Descriptions of two New 
Shells of the Genus Leuconopsis," with two figures. 

The author gave a description of two very small shells, one of 
which was obtained by him at Portsea, Port Phillip Bay, the other 
from South Australia, kindly supplied by Dr. J. C. Verco, being 
the first record of the genus having been found in these two 
States. 

2. By Mr. J. H. Gatlifif, entitled " Catalogue of Victorian 
Estuarine Univalve Mollusca." 

The author gave a list of mollusca which, although found on 
the sea-shore, are not actually inhabitants of the sea, their 
habitats being among mangroves, muddy flats, or under stones 
which are within reach of the spray. 

Mr. T. S. Hall, M.A., congratulated the author on clearing up 
this small group of shells. The papers would prove useful, as 
they included a group that there was some difficulty in placing 
accurately as to their classification, as being marine or otherwise. 

3. By Mr. A. D. Hardy, entitled " Notes on Freshwater 
Algae (continued) — Family Desmidiacese." 

The author gave a description of these unicellular plants, 
describing, with the assistance of many excellent coloured 
drawings and blackboard sketches, their great variety and 
exceeding beauty. Among the exhibits a very fine series of 
microscopical mounts were shown, and included some forms 
which have led to the conclusion by European specialists that 
Desmids are degenerate plants that have descended from more 
highly developed filamentous algae. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



The Chairman congratulated the author on the paper, and was 
pleased that Mr. Hardy was working the group systematically. 
More knowledge of these plants was badly wanted, many of 
which were of great economic importance. 

4. By Mr. E. O. Thiele, entitled " A Trip to Lake Karng and 
Mt. Wellington, North Gippsland." 

The author gave an account of a recent trip, in company with 
three others, to a small mountain lake in North Gippsland. The 
lake possesses certain features which place it in a position apart 
from other Victorian lakes. Its cause is a huge barrier of tumbled 
rocks in a very deep, narrow, and precipitous mountain valley, 
which effectually dams back the stream flowing down the valley, 
and thus forms the lake. Landslip and glacial agencies have 
been respectively suggested to account for the origin of this 
remarkable dam. The merits of these explanations were dis- 
cussed, and the observations made by the author caused him to 
favour the landslip origin. Soundings of the lake gave a depth 
of 150 feet near the centre. The paper was illustrated by about 
30 lantern slides, and a number of botanical specimens from the 
top of the mountain were exhibited. 

Mr. T. S. Hall, M.A., said that Mr. Thiele had apparently 
settled the question of the origin of Lake Karng. It was not a 
glacial tarn, but a landslip-dammed valley. He had also made 
an important addition to our knowledge by extending the area 
over which we knew Upper Ordovician rocks occurred. During 
the past two or three years our knowledge of the rocks in the 
district just west of Mount Wellington had been greatly 
modified, and the comparatively recent geological map was quite 
unreliable. 

Mr. A. E. Kitson, F.G.S., complimented Mr. Thiele on the 
importance of the observations made by him, and said that on 
the evidence brought forward he was satisfied of the landslip 
origin of the dam at Lake Karng. From the description given of 
the porphyries forming the main mass of Mt. Wellington, and 
their associated sediments, he was inclined to think that the 
former belong to the Snowy River series (Lower Devonian), and, 
if so, would be unconformable to the Upper Devonian or 
Carboniferous sediments, instead of being intrusive into them, as 
was suggested by Mr. Thiele. He said that to the north-west of 
Mt. Wellington, in the basin of the Upper King River, he had 
recorded a series of similar sediments, over 2,000 feet thick, 
which undoubtedly rest unconformably on porphyries similar 
to those referred to, and quite different from those interstratified 
with the sediments. 

EXHIBITS. 

By Miss K. Cowle. — Plant, Eucryphia billardieri, and shells, 
from Stanley, Tasmania. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



By Mr. F. P. Godfrey. — White-browed Babbler, Pomaiorhinus 

superciliosus ; black crystal chipped off granite rock on 
Nangunia Station, N.S.W., 25 miles north of the Murray River, 
corresponding with the small black crystals embedded in partially 
decomposed granite rock. 

By Mr, J. H. Gatliff. — Two new species of shells described by 
him, Leticonopsis victorke and L. iaiei ; also, shells included in 
his "Catalogue of Victorian Estuarine Univalve Mollusca." 

By Mr. C. J. Gabriel. — Shell, Cardmm costatum, Linn., from 
China. 

By Mr. A. D. Hardy. — Various microscopic mounts and 
coloured drawings in illustration of paper. 

By Mr. H. Jeffery. — Shell, Cyprcea ttmhilicata, from Tasmania. 

By Mr. A. O. Thiele. — Botanical specimens from top of Mt. 
Wellington, North Gippsland. 

By Mr. W. H. A. Roger. — Three specimens of butterfly, 
lalmetivs evagoras, bred from larvae received on 6th February 
last from Panton Hill. The larvae pupated during the next few 
days, the butterflies appearing on the 23rd, 24th, and 27th 
February respectively ; Ogyris abrota, female, taken near 
Sandringham on 2nd April. 

By Mr. F. M. Reader. — Dried plants — Medicago arbiontaris, 
All., naturalized and new for Victoria, collected at Murchison 
East on 26/10/04 by Mrs. W. Mather; Blumea integrifolia, 
D. C. ; Verticordia cunninghamii, Sohan ; Paniciim trichoides, 
Sw., from Northern Territory, South Australia, collected by Mr. 
J. H. Niemann in 1904. 

After the usual conversazione the meeting terminated. 



SOME NEW VICTORIAN COCCIDiE. 

By E. Ernest Green, Government Entomologist, Ceylon. 

(Communicated by F. G. A. Barnard.) 

{Read before the Field Naturalists' Cluh of Victoria, 13th Feh., 1905.) 

The species described below have been forwarded to me by 
Mr. James Lidgett, of Myrniong, Victoria, who collected them 
in his district, about 40 miles north-west of Melbourne. 

ASPIDIOTUS (EVASPIDIOTUS) SUBRUBESCENS, Mask., var. CORTI- 

coiDES, n. var. (fig. i). 

Puparium larger, darker, and more opaque than in type. 
Colour chocolate-brown, opaque. Pellicles concealed. Diameter, 
2.50 mm. 

Adult female larger and more circular. Pygidium proportion- 
ately broader. (Typical A. subrubescens appears to have a rather 
narrow, pointed pygidium.) Pygidium with eight lobes, the outer 
one sharply denticulate (as in type). Circumgenital glands in 4 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



groups — upper laterals 17 to 27, lower laterals 6 to 10. Length, 
1.25 to 1.50 mm. 

Habitat. — On Eucalyptus globulus, Labill. Myrniong, Victoria. 
(No, 5 5 A.) Very inconspicuous, the scales being exactly of the 
tint of the bark upon which they rest. 
AoNiDiA (Greeniella) pulchra, sp. nov. (figs. 2, 3). 

Female puparium circular or broadly oval ; strongly convex. 
Normally with a whitish secretionary covering, which becomes 
ruptured during growth and frequently falls off, together with the 
larval pellicle, leaving the reddish-brown nymphal pellicle ex- 
posed. The first pellicle, when present, may carry the glassy 
processes found on the larval and male scales, but they are 
usually lost before the puparium has reached its maximum 
development. Diameter, 0.75 mm. 

Male puparium (fig. 2) larger, flatter, and more oval, consisting 
of a brownish-grey secretionary area (whitish towards margin), 
with a central fulvous pellicle bearing a number of long curling 
glassy brittle processes. Tliere are usually 4 of these processes 
on the median line — 2 on each side, above the thorax; and 22 
forming a marginal fringe. In exposed situations the processes 
are often lost by abrasion. Length, i mm. Breadth, 0.80 mm. 

Adult female enclosed within the second pellicle. Subcircular, 
the posterior extremity only slightly prominent. Pygidium with- 
out lobes, spines, or squames. Margin (fig. 3) irregularly crenu- 
late. A few small circular pores irregularly distributed over both 
surfaces. Anal orifice central, large, circular. Diameter, 0.50 
to 0.60 mm. 

Female of second stage with pygidial margin resembling that of 
Parlatoria. 

Larva with glassy processes, as on male puparium. 

Habitat. — Insects of both sexes crowded on under surface of 
leaves of Callistemon salignus, Candol. Myrniong, Victoria. 
(Coll. J. Lidgett, No. 54.) Received also, on same plant, from 
Mr. C. French (Nos. 23 and 64). 

Tiie character of the larval pellicle clearly suggests relationship 
with Aonidia [Greeniella) cornigera, from Ceylon. But the 
second pellicle presents characters found in species of Gymnaspis. 

Mytilaspis cassini^, sp. nov. (figs. 4, 5). 

Female puparium long and narrow ; sides subparallel ; often 
curved. Colour dull reddish-brown ; pellicles reddish, almost 
concealed. I>ength of well-developed examples, 2,75 to 3.50 
mm. Greatest breadth, about 0.50 mm. 

Male puparium of similar colour, but shorter and straighter. 
Length, about i mm. 

Adult female deep red-brown (dried examples). Anterior 
extremity abruptly truncate (before compression). Form other- 



THE VICTOKIAN NATUKALIS'l'. 



wise normal. Rudimentary antenna with 4 stout bristles, 2 of 
them considerably largt;r than the others. Anterior spiracles 
each with a large group of parastigmatic glands. A dorso-lateral 
series of 4 or 5 stout chitinous spines on each side, situated at 
the junction of the meso- and metathorax, and following three 
or four intersegmental divisions (see fig. 5). Occasionally one or 
more of the spines are duplicated, and those nearer the pygidium 
tend to become smaller and marginal. Median lobes of 
pygidium large and prominent ; free edge minutely denticulate, 
and sloping from each side to a blunt point ; base constricted. 
First lateral lobes duplex, prominent inner lobule largest and 
bluntly pointed, outer lobule somewhat sharply pointed. Second 
lateral lobe broad, inconspicuous, scarcely projecting beyond 
margin, its free edge minutely serrate. Circumgenital glands in 
five groups — median group 4 to 7, upper laterals 1 1 to 14, lower 
laterals 12 to 15. Anal orifice at base of pygidium, anterior to 
circumgenital glands. Length, 1.25 to 1.75 mm. 

Habitat. — On Cassinia acideata, R. Brown. Myrniong, Vic- 
toria. (No. 62.) 

Mytilaspis (Coccomytilus) hymenanther^, sp. nov. (fig. 6). 

Female puparium reddish-brown, more or less covered by 
fibres of the bark upon which it rests. Pellicles reddish, the 
second completely concealed. Moderately convex ; rather 
broadly dilated, expanding abruptly behind the first pellicle. 
Length, 2.50 to 3 mm. 

Male puparium not observed. 

Adult female oblong oval, narrowed in front, broadest across 
median abdominal region. Lateral margins of abdominal 
segments produced into rounded lobes. Pygidium broad ; 
median lobes very large and prominent (fig. 6), the sides sloping 
steeply from a median point ; first and second lateral lobes 
small, simple, pointed. Spiniform squames {fusi piliformes of 
Leonardi) strongly developed, decreasing in size as they approach 
the extremity of pygidium. No circumgenital glands. Some 
conspicuous oval i)ores on dorsal area of pygidium and margins 
of abdominal segments. Length, 1.25 to 1.75 ram. Greatest 
breadth, i mm. 

Habitat. — On stems and twigs of IlymenaiUhera banksii, 
F. v. M. Myrniong, Victoria. (No. 63.) 

Very close to M. leptosperuii, Mask. ; but easily separable by 
the absence of circumgenital glands, and the proportionately 
larger median lobes. 

Mytilaspis intermedia, var. victoria, n. var. 

Mytilaspis intermedia, Mask., "Trans. N.Z. Inst." 1890, 
page 7 ■■, Leonardi, " Gen. e. Spec. d. Myiilaspides," page 79. 

Differs from type in the following particulars; — Lateral margins 



THE VICTOKIAN NATUKALIST. 



of abdominal segments not markedly produced. Median lobes 
proportionately narrower. Other lobes obsolescent. Circum- 
genital glands few — median group i to 3, upper laterals 6 to 9, 
lower laterals 4 to 7. The spiniform squames are very small and 
inconspicuous. Length of puparium, 1.50 to 1.75 mm. Length 
of adult female, 1.25 to 1.50 mm. 

Habitat. — On bark of Acacia montana. Myrniong, Victoria. 
(No. 67.) 

Mytilaspis multipora. (?) Green. 

This species has been described and figured by Dr. Leonardi, 
in his recently published " Genera and Species of the Mytil- 
aspides," 1903.* 

The following is Dr. Leonardi's description : — 

" Foemina fusco-aurantiaca, lagenseformis, segmentis abdomin- 
alibus in lobulis productis, ex quibus segmenta tria, pygidium 
praece dentia, processu conico brevi sub apicem truncato aucta, 
cuius ad basim glandula major sericipara aperitur. Pygidium 
trullarum paribus quatuor ; mediis bene evolutis ; secundi et 
tertii paris multo minoribus ; quarti paris obsoletis. Fusi pili- 
formes inter trullas et ultra variae magnitudinis. Disculi ciripari, 
^-i2_. Long., 1,000 fi. 
23-21 

" FolHculus fcemineus albicans, vix convexiusculus, exuvia 
nymphali majore auctus. Exuviae autem fusco-aurantiacae. Velum 
ventrale parum extensura. Long., 1,400 yn. 

" Habitat. — Super Pittosporuni undidatum, Auckland (Nuova 
Zelanda)." 

I would add that the outer lateral lobe is not always obso- 
lescent. In many examples it is as prominent and fully as large 
as the second lobe. My examples average in length 0.75 mm. 
(= 750 /x.) The second pellicle is proportionately large, having 
a length of i mm. 

(It should be noted that the second and third lobes of Dr. 
Leonardi are usually treated by other authors as separate lobules 
of a duplex second lobe.) 

Dr. Leonardi calls the species M. muUijiora, Green. But as 
the description is entirely his own, no previous description having 
been published by me, his name ought rightly to figure as the 
author. 

ChIONASPIS CANDIDA, Sp. nOV. (fig. 7). 

Female puparium snowy-white, smooth and sericeous ; pellicles 
pale yellow. Flattish, moderately dilated behind. Length, 2 to 
2.50 mm. 
' Male puparium white; very feebly keeled. Length, 1.50 mm. 

Adultfemaleof normal form ; broadest across median abdominal 

* " Generi e Specie di Diaspiti saggio di Systematica delle Mytilaspides," 
Gustavo Leonardi (p. 87). 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



region. Lateral margins of abdominal segments produced into 
rounded lobes. Pygidium broadly rounded. Median lobes 
conspicuous, prominent, divergent, the extremity expanded and 
somewhat malleiform. First lateral lobes simple, prominent, 
narrow, pointed. Other lobes obsolete. Spiniform squames well 
developed ; but other spines obsolescent. Anus anterior to 
genital orifice. Circumgenital glands in five groups — median 6 
to 8, upper laterals ii to 17, lower laterals 17 to 20. Con- 
spicuous series of oval pores on sides of pygidium, and numerous 
smaller pores on sides of abdominal segments and metathorax. 
Length, i to 1.50 mm. 

Adult male not observed. 

Habitat. — On leaves of Callistemon salignus, Candolle. 
Myrniong, Victoria. (No. 61.) 

Ch. Candida is readily separable from all its allies by the form 
of the pygidial lobes. Without a knowledge of the male puparium 
this species might have been assigned to the genus Mytilaspis ; 
but the keeled scale definitely indicates its present position. 

Sph^rococcus pustulans, sp. nov. (fig. 8). 

Female insects living beneath flattish blister-like swellings on 
surface of bark. An isolated pustule measures 4 to 5 mm. in 
diameter, is roughly circular, with a small median pore. The 
walls of the cell are stout, and of a corky nature. The cavity is 
comparatively small, and lined with a whitish film. When 
crowded the pustules becomes confluent, and lose their circular 
form. 

Adult female circular or broadly oval. Segments ill defined. 
Antennae small and atrophied ; conical ; with 2 (sometimes 3) 
broad basal segments, and a much wrinkled terminal joint 
bearing several stout hairs. Legs small ; the joints much 
swollen and wrinkled ; tibio-tarsal articulation obscure, indicated 
by a median constriction ; claw proportionately large, stout, 
curved, with a denticle near the tip on inner edge. Rostrum 
moderately large. Macerated examples show an ill-defined 
median darker area on the dorsum. No glandular pores or 
spinnerets. Some inconspicuous scattered hairs on the derm, 
slightly larger on the hind margin. Anal and genital orifices 
obscure, close to posterior extremity, the former with a slightly 
thickened chitinous dorsal lip. Diameter averaging 2 mm. 

Male not observed in any stage. 

Habitat. — On bark of Eucalyptus goniocalyx, F. v. M. 
Myrniong, Victoria. (No. 52.) 

The habitat and habits of this species resemble those of Sph. 
elevans, Mask., which also inhabits blister-like cells in the bark of 
Eucalypitus. But elevans is distinguished by the absence of 
limbs, and by the presence of a complicate rosette pattern on the 
dorsum. The presence of legs is exceptional in the genus 



8 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



Sphcerococcus. The only other species in which they occur are 
injlatipes, Mask., popidi, Mask., leaii, Full., and teiq)eri, Full., 
all of which are easily separable by the character of their 
coverings, the two first secreting waxy tests, while the other two 

inhabit galls. 

EXPLANATION OF FIGURES. 

\.—Aspidiotus subrubescens, var. corticoides, extremity of pygidium of 
female. 

2. — Aonidia pidchra, male puparium. 

3. — Do. pygidium of female. 

4. — Mytilaspis cassinia;, adult female. 

5. — Do. pygidium of female. 

e.— Mytilaspis hynienanthera, extremity of pygidium of female. 
. •j.—Chionaspis Candida, extremity of pygidium of female. 

^,—Sph(Vrococais puslulaiis, adult female, ventral view. 

NOTES ON THE VOLCANIC HISTORY OF MOUNT 

SHADWELL, VICTORIA. 

By J. T. JuTSON. 

With an Appendix by F. Cliapman, A.L.S., on Some Rocks and 

Minerals from the Locality. 

(Communicated by F. M. Chapman.) 

{Read be/orethe Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria, I'Sth March, 1905.) 

The observations which I desire to submit for your consideration 

appear to me to throw some light on the volcanic history of 

Mount Shadwell, a point of volcanic eruption of the Newer 

Basalt period, near Mortlake, in the Western District of Victoria. 

The sections to be described are splendid examples of their 

kind, and it is hoped that this paper may direct some attention 

to them. 

Literatitre. — This consists practically of bare records. The 
following are the only references 1 have been able to find : — 
Selwyn, 1866.* Mount Shadwell is included in his list of craters 

and points of eruption ; but it is a record only. 
Catalogue of the Rocks of Victoria in the Technological 
Museum, 1894,! which mentions the Mount as a locality 
for the occurrence of tuffs, scoriae, lapilli, a bomb, and 
Oligoclase. 
Prof Gregory, 1903. 1; A reference to the quarrries at the 

Mount as showmg good sections of volcanic scoria. 
Prof. Gregory, 1904. i5 The aboriginal tradition of the eruption of 
Mount Shadwell is referred to ; and a statement made that 
the Mount looks much older than the craters of Mount 
Noorat, respecting which there are no traditions. 

* Exhibition Essays. 

t This is based on the Catalogue issued by Ulrich in 1875, in which, 
however, no references to Mount vShadwell are made. 

+ " Geography of Victoria," p. 192. 

§ "The Antiquity of Man in Victoria," Proc. Roy. Soc. Vic, vol. xvii. 
(N.S.), part I, pp. 134 and 136. 



THE VICTORIAN NAI LIRA f.IRT. 



May, 1905. 








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THE VICTOR J AX NATURALIST. 



May, 1905. 





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THE VICTORIAN NATURALIS'I. 



May, 1905. 




THE VICTORIAN NATUKALIST, 



Description. — Mount Shadwell is a crater of uneven height, 
broken down on the north-west and west sides. Its form 
suggests a breached crater, considerably modified by denudation. 
Its height is recorded as 962 feet above sea-level, and it rises 
about 500 feet above the surrounding plains. 

The sections to which the observations in this paper refer 
occur in two quarries on the flanks of the Mount. One is of 
greater size than the other, so for convenience I shall refer to 
them as the larger and smaller quarries respectively. 

Taking the larger quarry first, it is situated on the north-east 
flank of the Mount, and abuts the western side of the road 
running north from Mortlake to Lake Bolac. The quarry opens 
from the north, and deepens as it extends to the south, until 
a depth of 30 feet or 40 feet is reached. The interesting sections 
are on its east and west faces. 

The eastern section displays a series of rocks of different 
thicknesses. Beginning at the southern end (where the rocks are 
the oldest) there is the following succession (see diagrammatic 
section attached) : — 

(a.) * A considerable thickness of incoherent basaltic scoria f 
and lapilli, mixed with blocks of basalt up to about 2 feet 
in diameter. The scoria and lapilli are of a dull reddish 
colour, fairly vesicular, and much decomposed. The in- 
cluded blocks are also vesicular, and vary in colour from 
a light dull red to an ashy white. This deposit possesses 
no distinctly observable lines of inclination. 
(b.) A fairly thick bed, consisting almost entirely of blocks of 
basalt similar to those in (a), with the interspaces filled 
with decomposing volcanic material. The dip is in a 
northerly direction, at an angle of about 40°. This bed is 
apparently an agglomerate, 
(c.) An agglomerate of basalt of similar character to that in (a) 
and (6), made up wholly of pieces of uniform size (about 
4 inches in diameter), with no interstitial matter. It rests 
on and possesses the same angle of inclination as (b). 

These three sets of beds belong apparently to one period of 
time. For convenience they are hereafter collectively referred to 
as the " red beds." In these beds Olivine, associated with its 
ferriferous variety, Fayalite, occurs, the latter predominating. 
(See Appendix, specimen 2.) The Fayalite has become con- 
siderably decomposed. Pieces of Oliagoclase Andesine (specimen 
4), often an inch in length, are also found. 

* The letters refer to the beds marked by the same letters on the diagram- 
matic section. 

t The terms used in this paper for the fragmentary volcanic material are 
those adopted by Prof. Gregory in his " Geography of Victoria "), pp. 183 
et seq. 



10 THE VICTOHIAN NATURALIST. 



(d.) Basaltic scoria and lapilli lying unconformably on (c). 
These rocks are of the same character as those exposed 
in the western face of the quarry, and will consequently 
be embraced in their description. 

The western section along its whole length and height presents 
but one series of rocks, which, as mentioned above, are of a 
sin)ilar character to (d). They consist of black basaltic scoria 
and lapilli, with scattered blocks of vesicular and solid basalt. 
The scoria and lapilli are less vesicular than in the red beds, are 
angular in shape, and vary in size from a pea to 3 or 4 inches, 
the majority being about a ^^-inch. The included basalt 
boulders are often 2 feet or more in diameter. These materials 
are quite unconsolidated and undecomposed, and they appear to 
have a slight dip in the same direction as those of the red beds, 
whose dip is defined, but at a lower angle. In both the scoria 
and basalt boulders are found somewhat globular or polygonal 
pieces (running to 2 or 3 inches in length) of granular and 
practically unaltered Olivine, which sometimes contain blebs of 
Diopside in varying quantity. (See specimen i. Appendix.) 
Neither Fayalite * nor prominent pieces of Oligoclase Andesine 
were observed. The beds just described, together with (d), may 
conveniently be called the " black beds." The red and the black 
beds abut against one another at the north end of the quarry. 

The smaller quarry is on the east side of Lake Bolac road, 
and a little south of east of the Mount. Except for the 
occurrence of a grey, fine-grained, homogeneous tuft", and the 
smaller size of the ejected material, the rocks exposed are 
similar to the black beds. No red beds are observable. A 
specimen collected here is interesting on account of the mixture 
of black and undecomposed, with red and decomposed fragments, 
thus supporting the conclusion stated in this paper. 

Co-iidusion. — The red beds are highly decomposed, while the 
black beds are practically unaltered ; the included minerals are 
either dift'erenl or occur in different ways ; and the black beds 
rest unconformably upon the red. Decomposition must have 
taken place in the latter prior to the ejection of the former. 
There is also evidence of this in the specimen above referred 
to from the smaller quarry. There have therefore been at least 
two distinct volcanic disturbances at approximately the same 
point, separated by a considerable interval of time. The 
red beds were first ejected, and then denuded and decomposed 
for some depth. Such decomposition must have occupied much 
time. Then a second eruption took place, and the fragmentary 
material of that eruption has been in part removed, so as to 
expose the red beds at the surface of the ground. Possibly some 

* Specimen 3 in Appendix consihls largely of P'ayalile, less decomposed than 
the typical more ferriferous Fayalite from the red beds. As this was not 
obtained in dtu, it is possible, from its fresh appearance, that it came from the 
black beds. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 11 



movement of the latter took place at the second disturbance, 
which might explain the rather high angle of inclination of some 
of these beds. 

The Geological Survey of Victoria, in its recently published 
Quarter Sheet * (the country surveyed in which approaches closely 
to but does not include Mount Shadwell), divides the volcanic 
rocks of the district into an older and a newer series. Whether 
they coincide with the two sets of beds described above can only 
be ascertained by further examination ; but the independent 
determination by the Survey of two distinct periods of volcanic 
activity in other parts of the same area is interesting, and some- 
what confirmatory of the views expressed herein. 

In conclusion, I desire to offer my warm thanks to Mr. F. 
Chapman, A.L.S., for his determination of and notes on the 
specimens referred to in the Appendix, and also for his interest 
and advice in connection with this paper. Mr. T. S. Hall, M.A., 
has also been good enough to direct me to some of the scanty 
references to Mount Shadwell. 

Appendix. 

Notes on Some Rocks and Minerals from Mount Shadwell. 
By Frederick Chapman, A.L.S. 

S2}eci»ie7i i (from the " black beds"). — This is a portion of an 
Olivine bomb. It has the usual granular character and apple- 
green colour of fresh specimens. Here and there amongst the 
granules are blebs of a darker mineral, which is proved by 
microscopical examination to be Diopside. The cleavage is 
very distinct. Its extinction angle with the crystallographic axis 
c is rather less than that of typical Diopside. The pleochroism 
is generally feeble, but sometimes shows a range from pale 
yellow through yellow-brown to pale green. The optical sign is 
positive. One of these crystals of Diopside includes numerous 
parallel plates of a serpentinous mineral, which is a secondary 
metasomatic change referable to Schiller structure. In the same 
slide there occurs a granule of Bronzite showing strong cleavage 
and marked refraction. The Olivine forming the mass of this 
rock shows an incipient change by the separation of some of the 
iron in the form of magnetite. The striking purity of these 
Olivine nodules resembles that of the nodules found in the 
Tertiary basalts of the Eifel, Germany. The conditions pertaining 
to the occurrence of these nodules in Victoria would seem to 
point to a segregation origin for these agglomerated minerals. 

Specwie'ii 2 (from the " red beds "). — A massive Olivine 
rock, having a specific gravity of 3- 54- The specimen is mainly 
composed of the ferriferous variety Fayalite, and it shows the 
characteristic strong brachydiagonal cleavage of that mineral. 
There has been a considerable amount of iron separated, in the 

* 8 N.E. (New Series). 



12 THE VIC'JOKIAN NATUUALIST. 

form of Hematite, which under the microscope is seen to occupy 
all the coarse cleavage cracks, as well as to fill up the numerous 
thin, incipient cracks in the crystals. Although the pleochroism 
of Fayalite, like that of Olivine, is feeble, one crystal in the 
present slide is distinctly pleochroic, and most of the granules 
show this phenomenon to some extent. 

Specimen 3. — This sample has a specific gravity of 3.26, and 
is largely composed of Olivine of the variety Fayalite, although it 
is not so ferriferous as the preceding specimen. The rock has a 
dark appearance and a rough fracture, whilst the granules of 
which it is composed have an iridescent and metallic lustre. 
Under the microscope the rock is seen to consist of Olivine, with 
rather definite cleavages and a conspicuous development of 
Schiller structure, normal or obliquely to the cracks, and almost 
diallagic in character, but in somewhat irregular patches. Other 
constituents of this rock are some crystals (often well developed) 
of Omphacite, and a reddish or orange-coloured mica, sometimes 
enwrapping the former. 

Specimen 4 (from the "red beds"). — A fragment of a finely 
scoriaceous rock of a red-brown colour, containing a portion of 
a large porphyritic crystal of Felspar. The Felspar is while, 
with a vitreous or almost pearly lustre. By its low extinction 
angle of 7°, measured from a cleavage surface parallel with 
the brachypinakoid, it is seen to be Oligoclase Andesine. 
The crystal, although otherwise clear, contains a few included 
crystals of other minerals, one of which appears to be 
Hypersthene. 

DESCRIPTION OF TWO NEW SPECIES OF SHELLS OF 
THE GENUS LEUCONOPSIS. 

By J. H. Gatliff. 

[Rand hvfvrv the Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria, UH/i April, 1905.) 
Thk genus was founded by Capt. Hutton for the reception of a 
small mollusc from Auckland, New Zealand — L. ohsoleta, Hutton. 
Since then Mr. Charles Hedley has described a species from 
New South Wales. The present paper describes a species from 
our coast, and a fourth species, from South Australia. 

LeUCONOPSIS VICTORIyE, n. sp. (fig. 1). 

Shell ovate, imperforate, opaque white. Whorls four, very 
faintly spirally grooved. When viewed from the front the apical 
whorl is not situated in the centre, but is placed to the left. 
Inner lip with a well-developed central tooth, and another much 
smaller anterior one, only visible when the mouth is looked into 
sideways. Aperture about half the length of the shell. 

Dimensions. — Length, 1.65 mm. ; breadth, i mm. 

Locality 0/' Ty^^e.— Portsea, Port Phillip. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 13 



Observations. — Other specimens obtained by Mr. F. E. Grant 
under stones at Stony Point, Western Port, which have a thin grey 
epidermis, and are rather smaller than the type. 





Fig. I. Fig. 2. 

Leuconopsis tatei, n. sp. (fig. 2). 

Shell ovate, imperforate, opaque white. Whorls four, faintly 
spirally grooved. The apex, viewed from the front, is on the 
right of the centre. There is a central well-developed tooth on 
the inner lip, followed anteriorly by another, much smaller, only 
visible sideways. Aperture about half the length of the shell. 

Dimensions. — Length, 1.84 mm. ; breadth, 1.05 mm. 

Locality. — Fowler's Bay, South Australia. (Prof. Tate.) 

Observations. — The two foregoing species are very similar, but 
the South Australian shell is more inflated in the whorls, and the 
position of the peculiar apex is on the right, and in the Victorian 
species it is on the left. The New South Wales species, Leu- 
conopsis mermis, Hedley, is a larger shell, and the central tooth 
is situated further back. I have to thank Mr. C. Hedley for kindly 
informing me that the name Leuconia minima, Tate, No. 451 in 
Adcock's " Hand-List of Aquatic MoUusca of South Australia," 
appertained to an undescribed form, which might be the Victorian 
species. Dr. J. C. Verco kindly sent me four specimens of it, 
and from a microscopic examination of them I am led to 
conclude that they are distinct, and have named it as above. 
The drawings are by Mr. R. A. Bastow, to whom I am much 
obliged for his skill in delineation and the use of his microscope. 



CATALOGUE OF VICTORIAN ESTUARINE UNIVALVE 
MOLLUSCA. 

By J. H. Gatliff. 

{Bead before the Field Naturalists^ Club of Victoria, lOth April, 1905.) 

In the " Catalogue of Marine Shells of Victoria," by Messrs. 
Pritchard and Gatliff, in recent volumes of the " Proceedings of 
the Royal Society of Victoria," species of mollusca that are not 



14 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

actually inhabitants of the sea, although found on the sea coast, 
were purposely omitted. 

Those contained in the following list are usually found among 
mangroves, on muddy flats, or under stones at the sea-side which 
are sprayed by the action of wind and wave. 

Compared with tropical areas our fauna of this class is not 
numerous. 

The references given are confined to the original description, 
and one where the species is figured is given. Synonyms that are 
generally known are also referred to. 

The list includes nine genera, comprising twelve species. 

Class GASTROPODA. 
Order PECTINIBRANCHIATA. 

Family Truncatellidae. 
Genus Truncatella, Risso, 1826. 
Truncatella scalarina, Cox. 

1867. Truncatella scalarina, Cox. Australian Land 

Shells, p. 93, pi. 15, f. 10. 
1876. Truncatella tasmanica, Ten.-Woods. Proc. Royal 

Soc. Tasmania, p. 143. 
1876. Turbonilla tasmanica, Ten.-Woods. Id., p. 145. 
Hab. — Hobson's Bay, Port Phillip ; Western Port. 
Obs. — May be distinguished from the other species by its more 
solid test and stronger sculpture. 

Truncatella marginata, Kuster. 

Truncatella marginata, Kuster. Conch. Cab., p. 
12, f. 24, 25. 
1867. Truncatella marginata (Kuster). Cox, Australian 
Land Shells, p. 92, pi. 15, f. 8a, b. 
Hab.— Hobson's Bay, Port Phillip. 

Obs. — Very similar to the foregoing species, but almost smooth 
and semi-translucent. 

Genus Coxiella, E. A. Smith, 1898. 
CoxiELLA coNFUSA, E. A. Smith. 

1867. Blanfordia striatula. Cox (non Menke). Aust. 

Land Shells, p. 95, pi. 15, f. 13, 13b. 
1893. Pomatiopsis striatula, Adcock (non Menke). 

Hand-List Aquatic Mollusca S. Australia, p. 7. 
1898. Coxiella confusa, E. A. Smith. Proc. Mala- 
cological Soc. Lond., vol. iii., p. 76. 
Hab. — Hobson's Bay; Lake Corangamite (Coll. Sykes). 
Obs. — Mr. Smith in the paper above referred to states that 
Menke's species, C. striatula, is a Western Australian shell 
distinct from the above species, with which it has been wrongly 
identified. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 15 

Family Rissoellidae. 
Genus Tatea, Tenison-WooHs, 1879. 
Tatea rufilabris, a. Adams. 

1862. Diala rufilabris, A. Adams. Annals and Maga- 
zine Nat. Hist., p. 298. 
1876. Bythiniahuonensis, T.-Woods. P.R.S. Tasmania, 

P- 77- 
1879. Tatea huonensis (T.-Woods). Id., p. 72. 
1883. Tatea huonensis (T.-Woods). Tyron, Structural 
and Systematic Conch., vol. ii., p. 259, pi. 72, f. 30. 
Hab. — Port Phillip : Western Port. 

Obs. — In the generic description the operculum is stated to 
be calcareous. This is not correct ; it is horny. I extracted the 
operculum, and Mr. Bastow and I tested it with a solution of 
muriatic acid, observing it under the microscope. There was no 
reaction. A fragment of calcareous shell was then put in the same 
solution, and strong reaction took place immediately. 

Family Assiminiidae. 
Genus Assiminea, Fleming, 1828. 
Assiminea brazieri, Ten. -Woods. 

1876. Rissoina (Setia) brazieri, Ten. -Woods. P.R.S. 
Tasmania, p. 146. 
Rissoa brazieri, Ten. -Woods. Tryon, Man. Concli., 
vol. ix., p. 335, pi. 71, f. 97. 
Hab.— Port Phillip ; Western Port. 
Obs. — Usually has one broad brown encircling band. 

Assiminea tasmanica. Ten. -Woods. 

1876. Assiminea tasmanica. Ten. -Woods. P.R.S. Tas- 

mania, p. 79. 

1877. Rissoa (Setia) siennae, Ten. -Woods. Id., p. 153. 
Hal).— On mangroves at Hastings. Western Port. 

Obs. — Has no colour band, and is flatter in the whorls than 
A. brazieri. 

Order PULMONIFKRA. 
Family Amphibolidae. 
Genus Salinator, Hedley, 1900. 
Salinator fragilis, Lamarck. 

1822. Ampullaria fragiiis, Lamarck. An. S. Vert., vol. 

vi., pt. ii., p. 179. 
1832. Ampullacera fragilis, Quoy and Gaimard. Voy. 

Astrolabe, vol. ii., p. 201, pi. 15, f. 13, 14. 
1900. Salinator fragilis, Hedley. Proc. Lin. Soc. N.S.W., 
p. 511. 
Hab. — Port Phillip ; Western Port. 

Obs. — As its name denotes, this is a fragile shell, with generally a 
broad dark brown band encircling the upper portion of the whorl. 



16 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

Salinator quoyana, Potiez and Michaud. 

1838. Amphibola quoyana, Potiez and Michaud. Galerie 
des Mollusques, p. 288, pi. i, 28, f. 17, 18. 
Hab. — On mangroves at Hastings, Western Port. 
Obs. — This is a smoother and stronger shell than S. fragilis, 
and, in addition to the encircling band on that species, has 
numerous waved, irregular, transverse lines. One specimen 
obtained measuring — height 25 mm., breadth 19 mm. 

Sub-order GEYHYDROPHILA. 
Family Auriculidae. 
Genus Alexia, Leach, 1847. 
Alexia meridionalis, Brazier. 

1877. Alexia meridionalis. Brazier. Proc. Lin. Soc. 

N.S.W., p. 26. 
1883. Alexia harrissoni, Beddome. Proc. Royal Soc. 

Tasmania, p. 169, No. 15. 
1 90 1. Alexia meridionalis, Brazier. Tate and May, 
Proc. Lin. Soc. N.S.W., p. 419, pi. 23, f. 7. 
Hab.— Port Phillip. 

Genus Marinula, King, 1832. 
Marinula patula, Lowe. 

1835. Marinula patula, Lowe. Zool. Journal, vol. v., p. 

289. 
1 84 1. Auricula pellucida. Cooper. Microscopic Journal, 

p. 16. 
1854. Marinula xanthostoma, H. and A. Adams. P. 

Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 35. 
1856. Cremnobates solida, Swainson. P. Roy. Soc. 

Tas., p. 44, pi. 7, f. 2. 
1901. Marinula patula, Lowe. Hedley, P.L.S. N.S.W., 

p. 704, pi. 34, f. 18. 
Hab.— Port Phillip ; Western Port. 

Genus Leuconopsis, Hutton, 1884. 
Leuconopsis victoriae, Gatliff. 

1905. Leuconopsis victoriae, Gatliff. Ante, p. 12. 
Hab. — Portsea, Port Phillip ; Stony Point, Western Port (F. 
E. Grant). 

Genus Ophicardelus, Beck, 1837. 
Ophicardelus australis, Quoy and Gaimard. 

1832. Auricula australis, Quoy and Gaimard. Voy. 

Astrolabe, vol. ii., p. 169, pi. 13, f. 34, 38. 
1856. Cremnobates cornea, Swainson. Proc. Royal 
Soc. Van Diemen's Land, vol. iii., p. 43, pi. 7, f. i. 
Hab. — Back Beach, Williamstown, Port Phillip ; Hastings, 
Western Port. 



Cbe Uktorian naturalist 



Vol. XXIL— No. 2. JUNE 8, 1905. No. 258. 



FIELD NATURALISTS' CLUB OF VICTORIA. 
The ordinary monthly meeting of the Club was held at the Royal 
Society's Hall on Monday evening, 8th May, 1905. 

The president, Mr. O. A. Sayce, occupied the chair, and about 
50 members and visitors were present. 

REPORTS. 

A report of the excursion to the Zoological Gardens on Saturday, 
22nd April, was given by Mr. F. Wisevvould, in the unavoidable 
absence of the leader, Mr. D. Le Souef, C.M.Z.S. The afternoon 
was spent in the inspection of the many animals and birds, whilst 
the points of interest of several recent additions were explained 
by the leader. Altogether a very pleasant two hours were spent 
in the Gardens, and the party left well pleased with the outing. 

A report of the junior excursion to the Botanical Gardens on 
Saturday, 6th May, was given by the leader, Mr. F. Pitcher, 
who reported that about 70 members, including a few seniors, 
were present. Commencing with the Economic Museum, the 
juniors were shown over the principal and more interesting parts 
of the Gardens. The excursion, which was of a very pleasant 
character, was interesting from the many questions put to the 
leader, who mentioned that perfect order was maintained through- 
out, and he anticipated that the outing would lead to good results. 

The following reports were held over from last issue :— 

A report of the excursion to Heidelberg on Saturday, 25th 
March, was given by the leader, Mr. A. D. Hardy, who stated 
that nothing of special interest was met with during the afternoon, 
other than some fine rotifers and green hydras. 

A report of the excursion to Royal Park on Saturday, 8th 
April, was given by the leader, Mr. T. S. Hall, M.A., who said 
there was a fair attendance of members. Attention was first 
directed to the railway cutting near Flemington Bridge, and its geo- 
logical features explained. A visit was then paid to the valley of 
the adjacent Moonee Ponds Creek, and evidence that the one- 
time valley floor had been elevated some twenty feet pointed 
out. Other minor points which arose were also discussed. 

A report of the excursion for juniors to Clifton Hill Quarry 
on Saturday, ist April, was given by the leader, Mr. F. 
Chapman, A.L.S., who said that there had been a good attend- 
ance of juniors and others. They showed a decided interest in 
the different features of the quarry and its contents, and were 
successful in securing a number of mineral specimens, such as 
radial bunches of Aragonite, or the rounded pilule-like groups of 
Fcrrocalcite. Mesolite, Vivianite, and Magnesite were also 



18 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST, 

found, and the current-bedded sand of the old river bed, on 
which the basalt, over one hundred feet in thickness, rests, was 
seen exposed in one portion of the quarry floor. 

The hon. Ubrarian reported the receipt of the following 
donations to the library : — Journal of Agriculture of Victoria, 
vol. iii., part 2, March, 1905, from the Secretary for Agriculture; 
Geelong Naturalist, new series, vol. i., part 4, December, 1904, 
from the Geelong Field Naturalists' Club ; " Monograph of the 
Silurian and Devonian Fossils of New South Wales," from the 
Department of Mines, Sydney ; " Report of Fisheries Depart- 
ment, New South Wales," 1903, from the Department; Agricul- 
tural Gazette of New South Wales, vol. xvi., part 2, February, 
1905, from the Department of Agriculture, Sydney; "Forest 
Flora of New South Wales," vol. li., part 5, by J. H. Maiden, 
F.L.S., Government Botanist, from the author. 

ELECTION OF MEMBERS. 

On a ballot being taken, Prof. E. W. Skeats, D.Sc, Melbourne 
University; Miss E. S. Booth, Oakover, Coburg ; Miss D. E. H. 
Booth, 25 Rathdown-street, Carlton ; Mr. H. T. Coles, 337-339 
Elizabeth-street, Melbourne; Mr. F. P. Godfrey, 70 Avoca- 
street. South Yarra ; Mr. C. P. Kinane, 37 Hope-street, South 
Yarra ; Mr. J. Isl. Stephens, Croyden, Heidelberg-road, Fairfield ; 
Miss Randell, Primrose-street, Essendon ; Miss J. W^hite, B.Sc, 
Observatory Quarters, South Yarra, were elected as ordinary 
members ; Messrs. Edgar J. Christian, Alma-road, Caulfield ; 
James M. Thomson, Hawthorn-grove, Hawthorn; M. Batelier, 
44 Howard-street, North Melbourne, as associates ; and Masters 
Norman Barnard, A. W. Le Souef, and James Schreuder as 
junior members of the Club. 

GENERAL BUSINESS. 

After the nominations of office-bearers for 1905-6 had been 
made, Messrs. D. Best and G. Weindorfer were appointed to audit 
the accounts for the past year. 

PAPERS READ. 

I. By Mr. J. A. Hill, entitled "Fights between two Species 
of Ants." 

The author gave a description of the severe encounters which 
he had observed as occurring at Kewell (Winimera District) 
between a large and a very small species of ant, the latter by 
weight of numbers always being victorious. Whether the raids, 
and subsequent conflicts, are made for the possession of the nest, 
or for the object of securing the feeding-ground, could not be 
determined. 

In the discussion that followed the reading of the paper Mr. 
J. A. Kershaw, F.E.S., remarked that it was probable that the 
raids are undertaken, not only for the possession of the nests, 
but for the purpose of securing the pupae, with the object of 
rearing them for slaves. Slave-making ants were common to 



THK VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 19 

many countries, and it was quite possible that they will be found 
in Victoria. He also mentioned that the subject afforded a good 
field for observation, particularly to the country members. 

2. By Mr. G. Weindorfer, entitled " A Botanical Trip to the 
Grampians." 

The author gave an account of a botanical trip which he with 
two others had made to the Goat Rock and Mt. Cassell, in the 
Grampians, during the Christmas holidays. Though too late for 
many of the flowers, fine specimens of Goiiospermum mitchellii, 
Boronia pilosa, B. polygalifoUa, and Candollea sobolijera were 
obtained, as well as a very fine series of seed specimens. 

In the discussion that followed the reading of the paper, the 
author remarked that he was disappointed in the size of the 
trees to be found on the Grampians. The eucalypts, when 
compared with those of the forests of south-eastern Victoria, are 
very small ; in most cases the height would not exceed sixty 
feet, with a stem diameter of about three feet. 

In answer to Mr. G. A. Keartland as to whether birds were 
plentiful, the author stated that only a few were noticed on the 
lower slopes of the Grampians, but, as far as he could remember, 
not a single bird was seen on the higher parts of the ranges. 

3. By Dr. C. S. Sutton, entitled " A Botanical Trip to Mount 
Erica, Baw Baw." 

The author gave an interesting account of a short trip, which, 
with a couple of companions, he had made to Mount Erica, one 
of the peaks of the Baw Baw Range, during the New Year 
holidays. The train was taken to Moe, from whence the party 
was driven along the Walhalla road as far as Upper Moondara, 
the rest of the journey being accomplished on foot. A number 
of the flowers were past their best, but on the summit fine 
specimens of Helichrysum rosmarlni folium, Oxylobium alpestre, 
Sisyrinchium pulchellutn, Wittsteinia vacciniacea, Rlcliea gioniiii, 
GentAana saxosa, and a few other plants, reminders of visits to the 
Buffalo Ranges and the Alps, were obtained. 

Mr. F. Pitcher remarked that some years ago he visited the 
district, passing through Marysville and Wood's Point to Walhalla, 
and found the country, from a botanist's point of view, generally 
very poor, and thought that September or October would yield 
the best results to the collector. 

Mr. A. D. Hardy inquired whether the author had made a 
collection of grasses during the trip, and at what elevation was 
the Kangaroo Grass, Aiithistiria ciliata, found. He questioned 
whether the party had really been on the Mount Erica of the 
maps, and mentioned that the late Baron von Mueller had stated 
that the mount was incorrectly named, as no true Erica had been 
found in Victoria; however, one of the plants recorded, Wittsteinia 
vacciniacea, F. v. M., belongs to the Ericaceae, our other repre- 
sentative of that order being GatoUtera hispida,. 



20 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

Mr. G. Weindorfer, in reply for Dr. Sutton, who was unavoid- 
ably absent, remarked that grasses as well as flowers were col- 
lected during both trips, and the list would be published with the 
paper. With regard to the Kan-garoo Grass, he had found it 
generally at low elevations, both on the Grampians and Mount 
Erica. He also suggested that the locality would prove a 
suitable one for a "camp-out" by the Club at a future date, 
especially as the completion of the Walhalla railway would enable 
the mount to be visited with much less trouble. 

In this he was supported by Mr. J. A. Kershaw, F.E.S., who 
mentioned that the district should be a good one from a 
zoological point of view, as he had obtained some insects from the 
locality which until then had been found only in New South Wales. 

NATURAL HISTORY NOTES. 

Abnormal Parrot. — Mr. A. Coles drew attention to his 
exhibit of a Rosehill Parrakeet, Platycercus eximius, with 
abnormal colouring, shot near Sale, the head, neck, chest, and 
under tail coverts being of the ordinary Rosella red ; breast, 
belly, and thighs canary-yellow ; nape, back, and rump canary- 
yellow ; tail yellow, shading off to a bluish-white. Wings. — 
Primaries bluish-white, secondaries and shoulders yellow. 

Alluding to the exhibit, Mr. G. A. Keartland remarked that 
it was singular that whilst green feathers changed to yellow, the 
red ones retained their colour. He stated that he had seen the 
entire plumage of Warbling Grass-Parrakeets yellow. In the 
case of birds whose natural colours are brown or black the 
change was to white. He gave an instance of a Pectoral Quail, 
which, after ten years' captivity, changed to pure white, and the 
plumage on black fowls will undergo the same change. In these 
cases the eyes retained their original colour, but in the case of 
the true albino they are always red. 

Mr. F. Pitcher remarked that for some time past a male Wren, 
Maluriis superba, with a white head, and a white Blackbird have 
been constant visitors on the lawns of the Botanical Gardens. 

EXHIBITS. 

By Mr. A. Coles. — Rosehill Parrakeet in yellow plumage. 

By Mr. A. G. Campbell. — Four charts of typical Victorian soils, 
designed for use in schools ; one large chart to illustrate main 
principles of weathering of rock and disposition, with upheaval 
of sediment above sea-level. 

By Mr. C. French, jun. — Scale-insects, Mytilaspis frenchii, 
Green, new to science, collected at Sorrento by Mr. C. French, 
jun. ; Saltmarsh Mosquitoes, Culex laheculosus, Coquillet, new to 
science, collected at Coode Island by Mr. J. A. Leach, B.Sc, and 
Mr. C. French, jun. 

By Mr. J. A. Hill. — Pied Mouse, Mus musculus, from Kewell, 
Victoria ; specimens of ants in illustration of paper. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 21 

By Mr. G. A. Keartland. — White-fronted Storm-Petrel, caught 
alive in a store at West Melbourne. 

By Mr. A. Mattingley. — Aboriginal sharpening-stone from 
Bunyip, Gippsland. 

By Mr. F. P. Spry. — Life-history of moth, Pinara fervens, 
Walk., collected near Melbourne. 

After the usual conversazione the meetins: terminated. 



EXCURSION TO ROYAL PARK. 
About a dozen members attended the excursion to Royal Park 
on Saturday, 8th April, for the purpose of examining the railway 
cutting near Flemington Bridge. The upper series of beds, 
consisting of red clays, sands, and gravels, was seen to have been 
laid down by water action, and to represent merely the harder 
residues or " concentrates " of a large mass of original rock. The 
finer material had been removed by the agitated water, and could 
only have been deposited in some other locality where there was 
comparative calm. A i^w fossils picked out of these red-beds 
were evidently cones and cowries, and showed that the beds 
were of marine origin. Under the red-beds is a thick mass of 
clay, with a very uneven surface, and of variable colour and 
structure. This clay was carefully examined, beginning at the 
north end of the cutting. As we went south rust-coloured rings, 
at times in concentric groups, and ranging from feet to inches 
in diameter, were met with. Many of these were barely 
distinguishable from the grey and white finely-mottled clay ; others 
were very plain. Then examples were seen in which the rings 
were seen to be the cut edges of a series of concentric shells. 
Then, by further successive steps, there was found a mass of hard 
bluestone or basalt in the middle of one lump, while the 
boundaries of the lump gradually faded off into the clay. Thus 
it was seen that bluestone, under the influence of weather, changes 
into a soft clay with a greasy feel like fuller's-earth. 

After a glance at the small outcrop of Silurian bed-rock visible 
in the cutting, the valley of the Moonee Ponds Creek was briefly 
examined. The valley floor is flat, being filled in with river-silt, 
or rather there are two flats at diff'erent levels. The lower one is 
about the present level of the creek, the higher being about 
twenty feet above it. The lower is so near sea-level that water 
cannot run off" it very fast, and, consequently, it is scarcely being 
cut away by the stream, while the upper one is being attacked. 
Both levels or terraces are the product of river action, and even 
the upper one was laid down by the stream when moving more 
slowly than at present. In this locality this can only mean that 
at that time the top of the terrace was more nearly at sea -level than 
it is now, or, to put it in popular language, the land has since 
risen. The amount of the rise is shown by the diff'erence of level 
of the two river-flats — namely, about twenty feet. About Laverton 



22 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



and Altona the country for several square miles is covered by 
recent sea-shells. It was many years ago pointed out that this 
indicated a recent elevation of about twenty feet, and it is 
interesting to notice that the two estimates, arrived at on different 
grounds, so closely agree. 

Besides these points, which were discussed on the ground, other 
minor points were dealt with as they arose. — T. S. Hall. 

A TRIP TO LAKE KARNG AND MT. WELLINGTON, 
NORTH GIPPSLAND. 
By E. O. Thiele. 
{Read before the Field Naturalists' Cluh of Victoria, 10th April, 190o.) 
The Mt. Wellington district is one of the least known and settled 
parts of North Gippsland. Neither the miner's pick nor the 
settler's axe has yet made much impression in this rugged and 
mountainous district. Broadly, the area under consideration 
consists of an elevated plateau rising steeply on the north side of 
the great plains of the Gippsland valley, to a height of from 4,000 
to over 5,000 feet. The table-land stretches north to the Dividing 
Range, where in Mt. Howitt it rises to 5,715 feet. River action 
has so deeply dissected this highland that deep gorges are 
overlooked by frowning precipices and bluffs rising from 2,000 
to 3,000 feet above the shadowy depths of the valleys. 

Geologically the area forms a belt of reddish to purplish 
sandstones, shales, and conglomerates, with associated igneous 
rocks, the latter mostly of a porphyritic nature. This formation 
stretches in a north-westerly direction across the main divide to 
Mansfield, where it is now generally regarded as Carboniferous, 
though it was originally described as Devonian. As, however, 
the relation of the southern portion to the Mansfield area has not 
been fully worked out, it is preferable at present to simply refer 
to the Gippsland portion as Upper Palaeozoic. 

Owing to the difference in rock structure from the better known 
alpine parts of Victoria, its scenery is quite distinct. Abrupt 
scarps and precipitous cliffs terraced with rocky ledges form 
characteristic features, which lend a rugged grandeur to the 
mountains, and contrast them strongly with the more gently 
flowing outlines of the Silurian ranges. 

On the map much of the area is still marked by a blank ; only 
several of the more important peaks are shown. No roads exist, 
and only a few tracks have been blazed. Two well-known 
Victorian geologists, Mr. R. A. F. Murray and Dr. A. W. Howitt, 
have contributed practically all that is at present known of the 
geology of this most interesting series of rocks. On visiting this 
region one is struck by the exceptional difficulties and arduous 
work these two pioneer geologists had to face in obtaining the 
information embodied in their respective reports. 

The Progress Report of the Geological Survey of Victoria, No. 



THK VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 23 

V. (1878), pp. 44 to 70, contains the report of Mr. R. A. F. 
Murray on part of the Mt. Wellington district. His observations 
extended from Maffra in the south-east, north along the Avon 
River to the east of Mt. Wellington to Mt. Kent, and from the 
south-west at Moondara, northwards to the west of Walhalla, as 
far north as Mt. Skene. The following mountain peaks are 
included in the region examined: — Ben Cruachan, 2,765 feet; 
Mt. Useful, 4,750 feet; Connor's Plain, 5,500 feet; Mt. Skene, 
The Crinoline, 4,500 feet; Mt. Tamboritha, 5,381 feet; Mt. 
Wellington, 5,363 feet; Mt. Kent, 5,128 feet. A sketch 
geological map to accompany the report was issued in 1884, and 
is a good guide to any traveller in these parts. 

Later investigation of some of the more inaccessible parts will 
render some slight alterations in the geological features necessary ; 
but, considering that it is probably more than thirty years since 
Mr. Murray traversed the area, it is marvellous how carefully he 
has delineated the topographical and geographical features of such 
a rough country. 

Dr. A. W. Howitt made numerous visits to parts of this area, 
and in company with Mr. Murray examined Snowy Bluff, over- 
looking the Wonnangatta River, where a fine series of sedimentary 
and associated igneous rocks is shown. 

It was through Dr. Howitt that the existence of a small, 
interesting mountain lake, lying in a deep valley on the north- 
western slope of Mt. Wellington, was made known to the general 
public. The lake was discovered by a stockman named Snowden 
in 1886, and was afterwards visited several times by Howitt. In 
December, 1890, Messrs. Lucas, Dendy, and Howitt visited the 
lake, and gave an interesting account of their trip before this 
Club in February, 1891 (Vici. Nat., viii., p. 17). Numerous 
incidents recorded in their accouut give some idea of the nature 
of travelling in that rocky and mountainous district. 

The desire to further investigate the lake and the surrounding 
country was the main object of the present trip. The party 
consisted of Mr. A. O. Thiele, of Williamstown, Mr. A. E. Thiele, 
of Doncaster, and myself Mr. W. Reid, of Glenmaggie, was 
engaged to supply both riding and pack horses, and to go himself 
to act as guide and look after the horses. Train was taken to Hey- 
field, and after driving seven miles to Glenmaggie the horses were 
obtained, and a start was made on Wednesday, 4th January, 1905. 
The route has been well described by Howitt's party, so that the 
experiences and observations of the first part of the journey, 
though interesting, must be passed over here. After two days' 
travelling, first along the Macallister, and next along the Welling- 
ton River, the junction of the main stream with a branch coming 
in on the left bank was reached. This tributary stream is unfor- 
tunately locally known as the right branch, but is in reality a left 
branch, as Mr. T. S. Hall, M.A., kindly pointed out to one of the 



24 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

party afterwards. It is therefore proposed to call this tributary 
Dolodrook River, as it flows through the parish of that name. 
Along the Wellington River, below the Dolodrook junction, for a 
distance of about two miles, it was noticed that the reddish and 
purplish strata gave place to highly inclined crumpled and faulted 
slates and sandstones, suggesting at once an older formation. 

Soon after camping Graptolite impressions were found in some 
black slate fragments in the bed of the river. These interesting 
fossils were soon traced to their position in situ in the highly 
inclined black slates along the right bank of the river close to the 
camp. 

Specimens were very abundant and in good state of preserva- 
tion. This interesting occurrence at once fixed the age of the 
strata, and subsequent observations in the neighbourhood 
showed that a great inlier of Upper Ordovician rocks of many 
square miles in extent occurred along the valley of the Welling- 
ton River, right in the heart of a large Upper Palaeozoic area. 

It is intended at a later date to give further particulars regard- 
ing this occurrence. In the meantime the specimens have been 
handed over to Mr. T. S. Hall, M.A., for working out. 

A survey party was camped at the junction of Dolodrook River 
with the Wellington ; they were engaged in surveying the land 
along the river, and at an early date 1,280-acre blocks will be 
available for grazing. We profited by the bush hospitality of the 
surveyors, for they offered us the use of many camp conveniences 
which did not enter into our list. The camp oven, extra billies, 
and bark table were specially acceptable. The evening's fishing 
did not provide very exciting sport, but several of the men at the 
camp were more successful, and generously handed over their 
haul to us. 

Friday, 6th January. — This day was spent making a trip on 
foot across the ranges to the south-east to an exceptionally 
interesting belt of serpentine rocks which crosses a part of Dolo- 
drook River in a south-easterly direction. The area on the left 
bank of the river at this position is locally known as " Little 
Plain," and is at present being prospected by Mr. J. Macfarlane 
for a Chromite deposit. Several shallow holes have been opened 
up and irregular blocks of Chromite up to several hundredweight 
in size have been obtained in the decomposed Serpentine matrix. 
A sample of Chromite from Mount Wellington district which was 
analyzed by the late Mr. J. Cosmo Newbery many years ago 
probably came from this spot. Mr. R. A. F. Murray, in his 
reports, stated that Serpentine was said to exist in the neighbour- 
hood of Mount Wellington, but he had not seen any occurrence 
in situ. 

This formation is one of great geological interest, and is of 
Palaeozoic age — perhaps Ordovician, or older. The rocks are 
highly foliated in places, and show signs of great pressure, 



TtiE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 25 



movement, and torsion. The prevailing strike of the plane of 
foliation is from north-west to south-east, and is with that of the 
Ordovician rocks. Close to the north-west end of the Serpentine 
belt, at the head of Black Soil Gully, were found obscure 
Graptolites, associated with small Brachiopods ; the latter were 
kindly identified by Mr. F. Chapman, A. L.S., National Museum, 
as Siplionotreta cf. discoidalis, Chap. A particularly interesting 
conglomerate occurs in the Serpentine, but the discussion of its 
peculiarities must be postponed for the present. 

At Monument Gap, at the head of Black Soil Gully, a magni- 
ficent view was obtained. To the east lay Wellington, with its 
precipitous sides of porphyry ; to the north Tamboritha, even 
higher, but less rugged. The long, deep valley of the main 
Wellington River wound down among the shadowy depths from 
the north-east. Between this valley and Mount Wellington the 
horizon was bounded by the edge of a great plateau over 5,000 
feet in height. Long, steep parallel spurs, with dark valleys 
intervening, led up to the top of the table-land. Reid pointed 
out the spur by which Riggall's track climbs, from the junction of 
Barrier Creek with the Wellington River to the top of the 
mountain. In a distance of about eight miles an ascent of over 
3,000 feet is made. Such a scene would rejoice the eye of an 
artist as well as that of a student of pliysical geography. On the 
Monument Gap several aboriginal tomahawks were found. These 
had been made from waterworn stones, and were flaked only on 
one side. 

Saturday, 7th January. — On Saturday morning a start was 
made for the top of the mountain. After a short ride up the 
valley of the Wellington, where some good sections of anticlinal 
folds in the Ordovician rocks were observed, the junction of 
Barrier Creek with the Wellington was reached. The main 
stream, which turns to the north-east, was left, and a long, steep 
spur was ascended to the east, with Barrier Creek on the right. 
The climb was very arduous for the horses, and in places so steep 
that it was often advisable to hang on to the horse's neck or 
mane to avoid slipping off behind. About half-way up the spur 
the first view of the lake was obtained by turning off from the 
ridge of the spur thirty or forty yards to the right. 

The view was a charming one. Standing on the edge of a 
precipitous face of the spur the little lake was seen in a deep 
depression fully a thousand feet below. A lower transverse 
wooded spur of loose rocks lay between us and the lake, and hid 
from view the western and widest end of the lake. Part of this 
spur forms the barrier which has formed the lake. On both sides 
the mountain slopes rose steeply from the water's edge. On the 
right, the north-western part of Wellington, 2,000 feet above the 
lake, towered to the sky, with two imposing bluff's of jointed 
porphyry. The timbered slope belov showed long scars where 



26 Tflfi VICTORIAN NAtURALlsT, 

huge blocks of rock had cleared a path in the headlong descent 
from the cliffs above. A lower but precipitous face of rocks 
overlooked the east end of the lake, where the deep wooded gully 
of Nigothoruk Creek entered from behind a steep spur on the 
left. A bouldery delta marked the entrance of the creek, and 
showed that the filling up of the lake has already advanced to a 
considerable extent at the top end. At the north-west end of the 
lake another tributary creek enters, and it is proposed to call this 
Snowden's Creek, in honour of the discoverer of the lake. 

Unfortunately, the extreme difficulty of taking horses down to 
the lake, and the fact that there was no feed for the horses there, 
prevented a camp being chosen on the lake. It was therefore 
necessary to climb another i,ooo feet to the top of the mountain, 
where good feed was expected. This part of the journey was 
particularly steep and rocky, first over angular blocks of 
apparently altered sedimentary rocks, and finally over loose rocks 
of many varieties of porphyry. The upper part of Snowden's 
Creek was crossed twice, and at the last crossing a snake, locally 
known as the Snow Snake, was killed. It was about 3 feet long, 
bluish-black on the back, light underneath, and with a well- 
defined ring round the neck. Close to the top of the mountain a 
damp peaty and mossy slope, with springs, was crossed. This 
was gay with numerous sub-alpine flowers, and was a refreshing 
sight compared with the bare rocky places passed over lower 
down. At the top of the mountain a comfortable camping spot 
was chosen, close to a log hut erected by Mr. Riggall, and used 
when mustering cattle on the mountain. It was soon found that 
we were not the only inhabitants on this extensive table-land. 
Two cattle drovers from the plains were camped here, having 
come up the Avon Valley with cattle to graze them on the snow 
plains. Usually there is good summer feed on these elevated 
tracts, but this season is the driest remembered in the district. 
With the additional cattle to be brought up a few days after we 
left, it was estimated that there would be over a thousand head of 
cattle depasturing there. This will perhaps give some idea of 
the extent of country on the top of the mountain. 

Mt. Wellington forms the southern bluff of a range which 
extends as a somewhat broken plateau for 7 miles to the north- 
east, where it culminates in the Trig. Station. From here a lower 
saddle turns easterly to Castle Hill. Mt. Wellington itself forms 
a fiat-topped mass of quartz porphyry of considerable extent, 
with shallow, gently sloping valleys radiating to the edge of the 
plateau. A deep gap formed by the approaching head waters of 
Nigothoruk Creek on the west, and a tributary of the Avon on the 
east, divides the main mountain mass on the south from the 
northerly extension of the range. This latter portion consists of 
two parallel ridges running in a north-easterly direction : the 
westerly one consists of porphyry ; and the easterly, of indurated 



THE VICTORIAN NA TU KALI ST. 



June, 1905. 






c§^ 



CO >, >, 






'dlr 



'^ uoj((n//,^^l^ 





THE VIC'i'OKlAN NATtJKALlSt. 27 

red shales and sandstones of the Avon series, dipping south- 
easterly at 40° to 30°. A lower transverse ridge joins the two 
parallel ridges at the north-east end, and forms a divide between 
the Moroka and the waters flowing into the Wellington. 

Great quantities of snow during the winter drift into the great 
depression lying between the Trigonometrical Station and Mt. 
Wellington, and from the Sale plains it can be seen to lie on the 
outer slopes for nearly six months, only disappearing late in 
spring. 

Further evidence of the weight of snow is shown in parts of 
the sheltered valley, where the Snow Gums have been so bent 
down and broken that it was found very difficult to get through 
the tangle of fallen and broken scrub. Numerous springs of 
beautiful water soak out in mossy slopes on the mountain top, 
and here a great variety of flowers were blooming. Some of the 
more important species are given in an appendix, being kindly 
identified by Mr. Weindorfer. 

Sunday, 8th January. — Early on Sunday morning, accompanied 
by the two stockmen, Grogan and Horstman, we made a start on 
foot for the lake. Riggall's track down the spur was retraced, 
and after crossing the ui)per part of Snowden's Creek, the side of 
the spur on the lower side of that valley was followed. Though 
the travelling here was much hindered by fallen trees and scrub, 
a very fair track could be made with not much difficulty. At 
present, to take horses down to the lake would be an undertaking 
that anyone valuing his horses would absolutely refuse to try. 

The burrows of the Wombat and the dancing-heaps of Lyre- 
birds were noted in this unfrequented valley. After some con- 
siderable amount of scrambling over logs and through scrub, 
glimpses of the clear waters of the lake were obtained through 
occasional breaks in the forest foliage, and at last from a more 
open part of the descending rocky spur the waters of Lake 
Tali-Karng were seen lying peacefully between the steep mountain 
slopes. Just before descending to the shingly beach at the west 
end, Reid pointed out a dead Stringybark tree, which many years 
ago had been barked by the aboriginals, probably for a canoe. 
The tree had a well defined curve, and showed clearly the marks 
of a blunt tool used for detaching the bark. The stripping 
extended to a height of about 15 feet, and the tree had the 
appearance of having been dead for many years. 

The barrier end of the lake was reached, where Howitt and 
party camped 14 years before. Rough measurements of the lake 
were made, and the area calculated at approximately 23!/^ acres, 
which closely corresponds with Howitt's estimation. The shores 
of the lake on either side are marked by steep slopes of loose 
rock, bare of vegetation to a height of about 20 feet above the 
water, but strewn with fallen trees, long dead, having their heads 
deeply submerged in the water. The trees of the mountain 



^8 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

slopes descend on either side to this high-water mark, except in 
places where they have been swept away by the fall of rocks from 
above. Shoals of little trout, Galaxias niffothortik, Lucas, 
sported along the edge of the lake, and with an extremely small 
hook one of the party amused liimself by pulling out numbers of 
these unwary customers. Larger fish, over six inches in length, 
were seen in the deeper waters, but none were secured. Five 
ducks were swimming on the lake, but the absence of a reedy 
margin probably accounts for the rarity of water birds. A swim 
in the lake was much enjoyed, and the bathers were agreeably 
surprised by the mild temperature of the water. The lower side 
of the barrier was closely examined, and was aptly described by 
Howitt's party, " Tlie Valley of Destruction." The tumultuous 
tumble of huge angular rocks which descends at a steep angle for 
about a mile down the valley makes the task of exploration in this 
direction particularly difficult. Its characteristics have already 
been well described in a previous paper. The noteworthy 
features are that there is no evidence of the waters of the lake 
ever having flowed over the top, and further, the barrier extends 
as a ridge down the valley, and is lowest along the margins of the 
mountain slopes on either side. This structure is not due to the 
carving or transporting action of running water, but is an original 
feature in the rocky spur. Streams of water issue from the bottom 
of the barrier, over 500 feet below the level of the lake. 

While two of the party were investigating the mysteries of this 
remarkable accumulation of rock debris, the others had con- 
structed a raft with dry wattle trunks, firmly laced together with 
rope. On to this novel craft two of the party embarked, after 
first disrobing most of their garments. They were towed by their 
companions round the shore of the lake towards the east end and 
then by means of a rough paddle, the raft was laboriously 
headed for the centre of the lake, and soundings were proceeded 
with. Advantage was taken of the easterly breeze blowing dOwn 
the lake to aid the somewhat tedious journey to the barrier. The 
greatest depth found was along the middle of the lake, amounting 
to 150 feet. Several strong white fishing lines were used for 
sounding, with specially heavy lead sinkers on the end. About 
30 yards from the barrier end the depth' was only 17 feet, indi- 
cating a shelving bottom at that end. The entrance of Snowden's 
Creek at the north-west end of the lake probably partly 
accounts for the shallower depth of the lake at that end. The 
general features of the lake, and the soundings taken, point to the 
lake occupying a deep V-shaped mountain valley, which has been 
dammed by a huge barrier of rocks. The origin of the barrier, 
and consequently that of the lake itself, formed the subject of an 
interesting discussion by Messrs. Dendy, Lucas, and Howitt. 
The respective opinions held are given in the paper by those 
gentlemen in the Victorian Naturalist, vol. viii., p. 34, 1891, and 



TllK VICTOUIAN NATURALIST. 29 



also in a paper by Dr. A. W. Howitt in the Mining Department 
Report, Victoria, September, 1891, p. 28. Dr. Dendy fevoured 
the landslip theory. Dr. Howitt regarded the origin as due either 
to landslip or ice action. The latter cause was f^ivoured by him. 
Mr. Lucas could not accept either the landslip or the moraine 
theory, but is not clear in his description as to how he explains the 
formation of the lake. The main objections to the landslip theory 
appear to have been the following : — The source of the slip ; the 
higher central portion of the barrier; and the unfavourable 
geological structure of the surrounding rocks. 

Dr. Dendy 's explanation that a high cliff, similar to that of 
Wellington, once existed on the opposite side of the valley, and 
to the north-west of Wellington, appears to fit the case. On 
ascending from the lake the party climbed the rocky spur leading 
up from the barrier to the north. It lies in the direction of the 
rocky ridge of the barrier below, and its surface is strewn with 
huge rocks of similar nature to the prevailing ones of the barrier. 
In places, particularly at the top, the characteristic hummocky 
form of a land-slipped surface is well shown. The ridge-like form 
of the barrier rocks appears to be readily accounted for by the 
fact that the old valley at the lower end of the lake takes a sharp 
bend almost at right angles to the east and west direction at the 
lake, and thus turns to the south, which is in the direction of the 
rocky spur. It appears evident that a gigantic run of rocks from 
a falling cliff has shot down the centre of this southerly trend of 
the valley, forming a steep ridge longitudinally along this part. 
A portion of the easterly fringe of the rock debris has barred the 
old valley at the bend, where it was originally very narrow. 
Though very rocky, both the barrier and the mountain spur from 
whence the rock-fall appears to come are now overgrown with 
vegetation of considerable size, so that any scar which may have 
existed is now completely masked. A slide such as this appears 
to have been would materially differ from the ordinary type, such 
as the one of the Dandenong Ranges, 1891, where a large mass 
of the surface soil and loose rocks, thoroughly saturated with 
water, slipped off a steep face of solid igneous rock. The Lake 
Karng slide appears to have been more of the nature of a rocky 
cliff" fall, of the type well known in the Rocky Mountains of 
Colorado. These slides have been explained as being probably 
due to earthquakes. 

The mountains of Victoria are at present particularly free from 
such disturbances, but the large dimensions of this tumultuous 
accumulation of rocks suggests some sudden and gigantic shock 
to dislodge such a mass of material. The igneous rocks of the 
Wellington mass are particularly well jointed, the vertical set 
being especially well developed, hence precipitous bluffs of 
tottering rock form a feature of the mountain face. 

After a particularly hard day's exertion, examining the lake 



30 titE VICtORtAN NATtJRALISt, 

and its surroundings, the prospect of a 2,000-feet climb back to 
camp over rough rocks and fallen trees, laden with photographic 
and geological impedimenta, was rot encouraging, but neverthe- 
less it had to be faced, and two hours' resolute climbing brought 
us back to the camp. 

The next few days were spent examining and collecting on the 
top of the mountain, where many interesting features for the 
botanist, geologist, geographer, and lover of scenery are to be 
found in abundance. The exhilarating mountain air gives a 
stimulus to general activity, and what would be a labour on the 
plains is thoroughly enjoyed on the mountain top. We were 
quite surprised when we descended to the low country to hear of 
the intense heat wave that had passed over the State. On 
Monday the sun temperature did not reach higher than 82° F., 
and on looking up the shade readings for Melbourne on that day 
the highest temperature recorded was 104^° F. 

On Wednesday, nth January, we returned to the old camp 
alongside of the survey party on the Wellington River. Some 
exceptionally good fishing was obtained, and some surprisingly 
large blackfish were landed. Along the river the Gippsland 
Water Lizard, l^hysignathiishowitii, is particularly common, and is 
seen basking on the logs or splashing into the water and 
shooting to the opposite bank when disturbed. It is locally 
reported to be a great eater of blackfish. 

After another day in this vicinity, a start was again made for 
the return to civilization, and two days' travelling over our old 
route brought us back to Glenmaggie on Saturday evening, but 
too late to catch the Melbourne train at Heyfield. It was 
therefore necessary to spend the Sunday at Glenmaggie, where 
an easy ramble along the Macallister River was indulged in. 

By 1.30 p.m., Monday, i6th January, we were back in 
Melbourne. 

List of Botanical Specimens from the Top of Mount 
Wellington, kindly identified by Mr. G. Weindorfer. 

CandoUea serrulata, Labill. 
Stackhousia linarifolia, Cunn, 
Gentiana saxosa, Forster 
Goodenia hederacea, Smith 
Euphrasia brownii, F. v. M. 
Oxylobium alpestre, F. v. M. 
Westringia senifolia, F. v. M. 
Arthropodium paniculatum, R. 

Br. 
Styphelia montana, F. v. M. 
Prostanthera cuneata, Benth. 
Kunzea muelleri, Benth. 
Grevillea miqueliana, F. v. M. 



Craspedia richea (?), Cassini 
Helichrysum bacchaioides, F. 

V. M. 
Epacris mucronulata, R. Br. 
Epacris heteronema, Labill. 
Aster celmisia, F. v. M. 
A. myrsinoides, Labill. 
Veronica derwentia, Littlejohn 
V. perfoliata, R. Br. 
Pimelia ligustrina, Labill. 
P. alpina, F. v. M. 
Comesperma retusum, Labill. 
Baeckea gunuiana, Schauer 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 31 

THE FRESH-WATER ALG^ OF VICTORIA. 

Part II. 

By a. D. Hardy. 

(Read he/ore the Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria, lOth April, 1905.) 

Family — DESMiDiACEiE. 
Since reading the introductory paper on the fresh-water Algas 
of Victoria before this Ckib in August last (Vict. Nat., vol. xxi., p. 
8i), I have received two new works from abroad. These are " A 
Revision of the Classification of the Green Algae," by Messrs. 
Blackman and Tansley, M.'sA., 1903, and " A Treatise on the 
British Fresh-water Algce," by Professor G. S. West, M.A., 
A.R.C.S., F.L.S., &c. The former treats the Chloropliyceaj as a 
heterogeneous class which is now broken up, the term " Chloro- 
phycese " being therefore abandoned. The scheme of classification 
embraces four divisions, viz. : — Class I. — Isokontse ; Class II. — 
Stephanokontas ; Class III. — Akontse ; and Class IV. — Hetero- 
kont^ie. The Akontse is synonymous with the Conjugatse of other 
authors, and comprises two series — viz., Desmidiales (or 
Desmidioidese) and Zygnemales (or Zygnemoidese). Further 
subdivision into families, sub-families, and 31 genera follows. In 
the second work mentioned, West divides his Algae (marine and 
fresh-water) into six classes, retaining the term Chlorophyceae 
for the third class, as comprising Algce containing " only the 
green colouring-matter known as chlorophyll ; very largely fresh- 
water plants. The stored product of assimilation is in almost 
all cases starch." 

As Professor West has most kindly undertaken, at my request, 
to identify those Victorian forms which appear to me to vary so 
far from the type as to be doubtful, and also to name and 
describe new species, it is desirable that his nomenclature and 
classification be adhered to in this and subsequent papers bearing 
on the subject. 

In addition to the foregoing, " A Monograph of the British 
Desmidiaceae" is being issued by the Ray Society to its members. 
Of this the first volume has reached me, further parts being still 
in the press. 

Hitherto Cooke's " British Desmids " has been the standard 
English authority, and many of the Desmids included in 
the short list which I submit this evening have been identified 
by means of that work, though reference has also been made 
to those records of Victorian Desmids mentioned in an 
historical sketch included herewith, also to the works of Maskell 
and Spencer in New Zealand, and to Bailey's " Contributions to 
the Queensland Flora," which includes in the several Botany 
Bulletins descriptions of Desmids prepared by Professors Moebius, 
Askenasy, Nordstedt, Schmidle, and Borge. 

Before proceeding further, it may be advantageous to give 



32 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

an up-to-date description of the plants of this family, which 
is as follows: — Desmids are unicellular fresh-water' plants of 
microscopic size. They are, in most genera, constricted in 
the middle to form two more or less conspicuous and equal 
semi-cells, and multiply by simple vegetative division, and 
also by means of zygospores, the former asexual and the 
latter a sexual reproduction of rather low grade. They are, 
speaking generally, of a uniform grass-green colour, owing to the 
presence of chlorophyll, contained in bodies known as chloro- 
plasts, which may be one or more in each semi-cell, clinging to 
the walls (parietal) or centrally situated (axillary). In the chloro- 
plasts are imbedded small colourless organs called pyrenoids, 
which are similar in most respects to those seen in the common 
" Silk-weed," Spirogyra. 

The great diversity of form, the symmetry, and the beautiful 
surface markings and other ornamentation of Desmids make 
them pleasing objects for even casual microscopists, while these 
characters, taken with others, such as the movement of the plant 
as a whole and the movement of the contained protoplasm, give 
to the Desmids an inestimable value in the mind of the botanical 
student. 

The constriction referred to is distinct in most genera, 
but less prominent in some, and quite absent in a few. The 
genus Micrasterias shows it at its maximum, the isthmus 
joining the inflated portions of the semi-cells being only 
nominal. The least constriction is seen in the sub-cylindrical 
genera, such as Penium, Docidium, &c. It is absent from 
genera such as the crescent-shaped Closterium, the cylindrical 
Gonatozygon, and others, while in certain species of Staurastrum 
a peculiar terminal inflation of each semi-cell and abruptly 
reduced inner part give the appearance of a constriction like a 
circumcised trench of rectangular section, the whole plant thus 
resembling approximately a prickly bulbed dumb-bell, as may be 
seen in one of the microscopic exhibits. In the ]jlants which 
have no constriction there is a colourless region in the centre of 
the cell which divides the colouring matter into two parts, and in 
this locality the nucleus is situated. 

In tracing the descent of Desmids from ancestral filamentous 
algse of the Conjugatae, West and West draw attention to the 
genus Penium as showing the first sign of constriction. Some 
species of that genus have none at all. A further indication of 
the connection between the free unicellular Desmids and their 
filamentous ancestors may be seen this evening in a number of 
exhibits, which partly illustrate West and West's scheme of 
phylogeny. The genera of which specimens are shown are 
Spondylosium, showing at least four long cylindrical cells, which 
have the appearance, at first sight, of a portion of a multicellular 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 33 

filamentous alga with axile chloroplasts, and Hyalotheca and 
Desmidium in long bands, containing scores of small compact 
cells something like species of Cosmarium when detached ; and, 
again, see the normally independent Cosmarium, which has 
grown by vegetative cell division until one plant has given rise to 
four which remain attached by their apices to form a moniliform 
band. These bands are all more or less fragile, in Spondylosium 
particularly so, and break up into single cells, though, as a rule, 
the longer the cells the more readily is dissociation affected by 
mechanical and other means. 

A series of microscopic exhibits show various stages in the 
asexual multiplication. For this purpose I have chosen a plant 
of the genus Micrasterias, and another of the genus Cosmarium. 
These show first the matured plant and various stages in the 
separation of the semi-cells, to allow of the interposition of new 
matter, which at first is almost colourless. Gradually this new 
matter is seen to pinch in the middle, and the halves between 
this pinched-in median line and the old semi-cells to assume a 
shape somewhat approaching the latter in appearance, and 
finally to acquire that shape exactly. The two new semi-cells 
thus formed between the old ones having, in growing, thrust the 
latter apart to the extent of a Desmid's length, we have now 
two plants, the apices of their newly-formed semi-cells touching, 
and the older semi-cells outermost. Another exhibit shows two 
such newly-developed plants just after separation. The chief 
difference between the semi-cells of a new plant is that the 
ornamentation of the cell wall is not fully matured at time of 
separation, e.g., the exhibited Closterium malinvernianum, De 
Not, has one half of the cell wall distinctly striated, while the 
other is smooth. The striations on the old semi-cell wall dis- 
tinguish this species from Closteriiun ehrenhergii, Menegh., also 
exhibited, and from the same lagoon at Heidelberg. It is an 
instance of the importance of the cell wall ornamentation, 
indispensable in many cases when diagnosing. 

The multiplication of Desmids by means of zygospores has 
been known to science for many years, but the details of the 
process are still under discussion. I am exhibiting a plant, Tet- 
viemorifs brcbissonii, Menegh., in several conditions, viz. : — (a) 
the simple in.dividual ; (6) a newly formed smooth-walled spherical 
zygospore, together with the empty cell-cases, which have parted 
at tlie suture which marked the middle of the plant in the 
constricted area, and which, in their empty state, permit the cell 
wall ornamentation to be clearly seen ; (c) a group of eight new 
plants, which have been freed from the product of a single 
zygospore. This Desmid is from a swamp near Brighton. 

The movements of Desmids are of three kinds, though all three 
may not be seen in all genera. First there is the movement 



34 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

or locomotion of the whole plant ; secondly we may see in large 
species of Closterium, Pleurotsenium, &c., the circulation or 
rotation of the protoplasm ; this, however, is often obscured by 
the parietal chloroplasts. Thirdly there may be seen, in species 
of at least the two genera just mentioned, apical vacuoles, 
containing colourless cell fluid, and in the fluid exceedingly 
small particles of matter in violent agitation. These particles 
are known as " dancing granules," and are described by Professor 
West to be rhomboidal crystals of gypsum. They usually cluster 
near the centre of the spherical vacuole, but I have noted in 
experiments with Closterium ehrenbergii and Pleurotcenium 
ehrenbergii that in whatever way the plant may be held there is a 
tendency on the part of the granules to sink earthwards, thus 
indicating geotropism, although this was less noticeable when 
stimuli were administered. 

In a Pleurotsenium of above-named species, which I am 
exhibiting, may be seen other than terminal vacuoles. These 
will be seen to contain dense masses of the granules, so like a 
compact swarm of bees in movement that the term " swarming 
granules " is often applied. I take this to be an unhealthy sign, 
having frequently noticed it as preceding decomposition of the 
cell contents. It is not uncommon, but in the present case 
has been produced under abnormal conditions — viz., change 
of environment. The Desmids were taken from a large lagoon, 
and have been kept some weeks in a small supply of water which 
daily lessened by evaporation. 

The locomotion of Desmids has been much discussed lately. 
West and West describe the results of their own and Stahl's 
observations, which, in the case of a plant such as Closterium, 
were as follows : — The plant, from a prone position, slowly raised 
itself on one end, the free end passing through i8o° of arc, until 
the plant again lay prone, but in a position its own length nearer 
the objective point of its journey, and with ends reversed. The 
process was repeated, and so the plant moved in steps equal to 
its own length. " This," the authors remark, " is an exhibition of 
periodical polarity, brought about by an alternation of positive and 
negative heliotropism or geotropism, or a combination of both." My 
own experiments showed this reversal of ends, in Desmid-length 
steps towards the light, to occupy about half an hour at least, and 
the time was much lengthened if any sort of obstruction interfered. 
In the case of many longer periods, several abortive attempts to 
turn over were made, the Desmid sinking back after each to the 
old position, but I have observed, on more than one occasion, 
that Closterium malinvernianum seemed to prefer progress 
by attachment of one and the other end alternately, but 
by keeping on its flat side, and moving by swinging round in 
horizontal plane, while an obstruction to this method caused it to 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 35 



rise. Whether in horizontal swing or in rising and sinking to 
and from the vertical, the motion was always spasmodic and 
jerky, and is, I think, due to a tremendous tensile strain on 
temporary organs of attachment, which, probably because of a 
little flocculent matter, which more often than not adhered to 
the apices, I have not been able to make out. 

This is explained if the most recent acceptable description of 
the character of the cell wall is correct. The wall consists of an 
inner coat of cellulose, in which innumerable pores give egress to 
protrusions of the cell protoplasm ; these form a mucilaginous 
outer coat to the Desmid, and it is supposed that by means of 
the protruded protoplasmic threads the plant can attach itself to 
foreign objects. In a glass tube, which at the moment of 
writing I have under observation, there are scores of the crescent- 
shaped Closterium referred to above. These have within forty- 
eight hours travelled from one side of the one-inch tube to 
the other, and are now motionless near to the glass side, 
all attached by one apex, in an almost erect position, and 
with their edges turned to the light, which attracts them through 
a slit in a cylinder covering the tube. Several Pleurotaeniums 
cling meanwhile to the side of the glass tube, as though for them 
the light was a more powerful attraction, most of the Closteriums 
having stopped a little short, attached to debris on the floor of the 
tube. 

(To be continued.) 



FIGHTS BETWEEN TWO SPECIES OF ANTS. 
By J. A. Hill. 

{Read before Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria, 8th May, 1905.) 
During my long residence at Kewell, in the Wimmera District, I 
have frequently had the opportunity of witnessing some of the 
fierce battles which take place between two species of ants, and 
it has been suggested to me that a few notes on the subject would 
be of interest, and probably induce some of our country members 
to supplement them. 

One of the commonest species of ants in this district is that 
known locally as the Soldier Ant, Formica purpurea, a species 
about ^8-inch long, which constructs large subterranean nests, 
often measuring on the surface from 12 to 15 feet in diameter. 
These nests contain thousands of inhabitants, and woe betide the 
animal that may unconsciously take its stand upon or near their 
abode. I have frequently seen small snakes, slow worms 
(Ti/phlops), and large insects fall a prey to their voracious habits. 
That these great colonies should be entirely annihilated by a 
small black species, only about one-third their size, seems almost 
incredible, but such is the case. 



36 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

The fierce battles which frequently take place between these 
two species often last many months, but in the end the small 
species are always victorious. The fights generally start several 
yards from the nest, and it is very interesting to watch the larger 
ants marching out in the early morning to the battle-field. They 
go in bands of from 12 to 20, and their movements seem to 
indicate fear, as they very cautiously approach the enemy. The 
first little ant met with is immediately nipped in two by the strong 
mandibles of the larger species, but in a moment a second little 
one has fastened on to one of its legs, While he is vainly 
endeavouring to free himself of his little foe, others attack him on 
all sides, and seize hold of the nearest leg, until by force of 
numbers he is completely conquered. Others may approach to 
render assistance to their comrade, only to share his fate in the 
same manner. It is almost amusing to see the larger ants^ 
dodging from side to side, and lifting one leg and then another, 
trying to evade their energetic little tormentors. The fight 
continues in this way, hour after hour, until hundreds of dead and 
dying ants of both species are to be seen strewn over the battle- 
field. The smaller species are killed in hundreds, one bite from 
the powerful jaws of their opponents being generally sufficient to 
finish them off. They seem, however, to take it as a matter of 
course, and as reinforcements from the numerous nests close by 
are continually replacing those killed or disabled, they are 
probably not missed. 

Early in the following morning the larger species gather in their 
dead, carrying them off to their nest. The smaller species does 
the same, though later on, as the day gets warmer. The cold 
and exposure at night seems to kill many of the ants which have 
been too disabled to reach their nests. 

It is strange to see one section of the colony in deadly conflict 
with their foes, and the others working away as usual, as though 
nothing was the matter. 

After completely annihilating their enemies, the smaller species 
take possession and make use of their nest. 

I have not been able to find out what is really the cause of 
these battles, but I am of opinion that it is not only for the 
possession of the nest. I think it more probable that their chief 
object is to secure sole possession of their feeding-grounds. 
Perhaps some other observers may be able to throw some light 
on the subject. 



Another Giant Tree. — The Leader of 27th May last illus- 
trates another of our giant eucalypts, said to be the largest in 
Victoria. This is situated at Mount Horsfall, on the southern 
boundary of the Yarra watershed. Its circumference is given as 
78 feet at six feet from the ground ; its height is not stated. 



Supplement to the " Victorian Naturalist," Jtdy, 1905. 



THE 



Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria, 



12lh JUNE, 1905 

(With particulars of Branch of Study). 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 

t ATKINSON, E. D., C.E.. F.R.G.S., Tasmania. 

BROUN, Captain T., Howick, N.Z. 

COX, Dk. J. C, F.L.S., C.M.Z.S., Sydney, N.S.W. 

FINSCH, Dr. Or 10, Germany. 

HECTOR, Sir J as., K.C.M.G., M.D., F.R.S., Wellington, N.Z. 

tHOWITT, A. W., Dr. Sc, F.G.S., Metung, Victoria. 

tLEGGE, Lieut. -Col. W. V., R.A., F.Z.S., M.B.O.U., Sec, Hobart. 

*t LUCAS, A. H. S., M.A., B.Sc, Grammar School, Sydney. 

RAMSAY, Dr. E. P., F.R.S.E., &c., Sydney, N.S.W. 



LIFE MEMBERS. 

BAGE, Mrs. Mary C, "Cranford," Fulton-street, East St, Kilda. 
PATFV, I!. R., Esq., Premier Buildings. Collins-street, Melbourne. 



Supplement to the " Victorian Naturalist." 



References. 
Signifies " Original Members," elected June, 1880. 



t 
M. 

Ent. 

Orn. 

Geo!. 

Bot. 

Conch. 



Members who have held office. 

Members who have contributed Papers at the meetings. 

Address— Melbourne ; S.M., South Melbourne; E.M. 
Melbourne. 

Entomology; Col., Coleoptera ; Lep., Lepidoptera. 

Ornithology; Ool., Oology. 

Geology. 

Botany. 

Conchology. 



East 



Supplcnioit to the " Victorian Naturalist i" 



ORDINARY MEMBERS. 



Andrews, H., 206-208 P'linders-1., M. 

t Ba_q;e, Miss F., B.Sc, " Cranford," 
Fulton-street, St. Kilda. General 
Biology. 

Baker, F., Hoddle-street, Richmond. 

t Baker, II. H., 78 Swanston-street, 
Melbourne. 

oBnle, W. M., F.R.M.S., Walpole- 
street, Kew. Hydroids. 

tBarker,E.E.,F.R.M.S.,"Wyuna," 
Park-street, South Yarra. 

Barnard, F., " Bracondale, " Kew. 

o*t Barnard, F. G. A., 49 High- 
street, Kew. Ent., Ferns. 

* Barrett, C. L., " Craigielea," New 
and Were streets, Brighton. Orn. 
and Keptilia. 

t Bastow, R. A., 183 Brunswick- 
street, Fitzroy. 

y * t Best, D., 291 Little Collins- 
street, M. Ent. (Col. ) 

t BilJinghurst, F. L., National Bank, 
Bacchus Marsh. Ent. (Col.) 

Bird, D., " Clareton," 43 Spring- 
street, Melb. 

Blackburn, J. W., "Leura," Toorak- 
road. 

Booth, J., " Orwilda Ruma," 25 
Ralhdown-street, Carlton. 

Booth, Mrs. J., "Orwilda Ruma," 
25 Rathdown-street, Carlton. 

Booth, Miss D. E. H., "Orwilda 
Ruma, " 25 Rathdown-street, 
Carlton. 

Booth, Miss E. S., " Oakover," 
Bell-street, S. Preston 

Brown, A. A., 124 Liardet-street, 
Port Melbourne. 

Browne, H. A., Croydon-road, 
Surrey Hills. 

Brunning, J., Somerville. 

*t Campbell, A. J., Elm-grove, 
Armadale. Orn., Ool. 

t Campbell, A., Ellni-grove, Arma- 
dale. Ori)., Ool. 

Cayley, F. J., Oultrim. 

tChapman, F., A.L.S., National 
Museum, M. Geol. , Palason. 

(7 + Christy, F. C, M.I.C.E., "St. 
Cyr," William-street, S. Yarra. 

Clark, A., "Glenara," Bulla. Orn. 

Cochrane, Miss S. W. L., Queen's 
Coffee Palace, Victoria-st., M. 
Bot. 



* Coghill, G., 72 Swanston-st., M. 

Bot. 

Cole, Dr. F. 11., M.B., Rathdown- 
street, Carlton. 

Cole, P. C, Napier-street, Fitzroy. 

t Coles, A., 339 EHzabeth-street, M. 
Orn., Ooi. 

Coles, C, Victoria Arcade, Castle- 
reagh-street, Sydney. Orn., Ool. 

Coles, H. J., 339 Elizabeth-street, M. 
Orn., Ool. 

Coles, VV. F., 33 Little Smith-street, 
N. Richmond. 

Cooper, S., 113 Coppin-st., Richmd. 

Corbett, J. F. , State School, Moonee 
Ponds. 

t Cowle, Miss K., 138 Clarendon- 
street, E.M. Bot. 

Cowle, Miss L., 138 Clarendon- 
street, E.M. 

Cowle, Miss C, 25 Gipps-st., E.M. 

Craig, R. , State School, S. Yarra. 

Crellm, E. D., 529 Collins-street, M. 

D'Alton, St. Eloy, C.E., Dimboola. 

Danks, A. T., Bourke-street, M. 

Davey, H. VV., Bright. 

Day, A. J., Lands Department, M. 

* Dixon, J. E., 50 Swan-street, 
Richmond. Ent. (Lep.) 

d'Oliveyra, J. F. , c/o J. C. Kauf- 
mann, LL.D. 

Edmondson, Mr. and Mrs. C. H., 
Victoria-road, Hawthorn 

oEllery, Major R. L. J., C.M.G., 
F.R.S., F.R.A.S., S. Yarra. 

Eugene,- B., 134 Elizabeth-street, M. 

* + Fielder, Rev. W., F.R.M.S. 

" Croft," Orrongroad, Arma- 
dale. Mic. Biol. 
£7 * t French, C, F.L. S., F.E.S. , 
Railway-road, Malvern. Ent. 

* t French, C, jun., Department of 

Agriculture, Ent. Branch, M. 
Ool., Ent. 

* t Frost, C, F.L. S., Mont Victor-rd., 

E. Kew. Reptiles, Spiders. 
Fullard, A., c/o Foy and Gibson's, 

CoUingwood. 
*t Fulton, S. W., 369 Collins-street, 

M. Stalk-eyed Crustacea. 
*t Gabriel, J., 293 Victoria-street, 

Abbotsford. Orn., Ool., Polyzoa. 
Gabriel, C. J., 293 Victoria-street, 

Abbotsford. Mar. Conch. 



IV 



Supplement to the " Victorian Naturalist." 



Gates, W. F., M.A., Benalla, 
*tGaUifif, J. H., Commercial Bank, 

Lygon-st., Carlton. Mar. Conch, 
t Catliff, H. E., Commercial Bunk, 

Lygon-street, Carlton. 
Godfrey, F. P., 70 Avoca street. 

South Yarra. 
tGodfrey, F. R., "Graylings," Alma- 
road, St. Kilda. 
-t Goudie, J. C, Birchip. Orn., Ent. 
tGoudie, D., Birchip. Ent. (Lep.) 
Grace, C, Skene's Creek, Apollo 

Bay. 
Greig, Miss C, 43 Brunswick-street, 

Fitzroy. 
*tHaase, J. F., 17 Swanston-street, 

M. Entomostraca. 
Haig, H. G., 20 Nicholson-street, 

Fitzroy. Orn. 
*tHall, R., F.L.S., C.M.Z.S., 

Elgar-road, Box Hill. Orn. 
*tHall, T. S., M.A., University, 

Carlton. Gen. Biol , Geol. 

(Graptolites). 
Hammett, E. R. , Glenalvie, S. 

Gippsland. 
*t Hardy, A. U., Lands Uept., M. 

Bot. (Fresh-water Algae). 
tHart, T. S., M.A., School of Mines, 

Ballarat. Geol., Bot. 
Hartnell, H., Burke-rd., Camberwell. 
Hatfield, E. H., Pakenham. 
Hayden, Mr. and Mrs. E. I-., 36 

Park-street, \V. Brunswick. 
Hayden, F. H., State School, Yarra 

Park, E. I\Ielbourne. 
Haynes, J. F., State School, Home- 
bush, \V. Avoca. 
* Hill, G. R., "Glenrowan," Dande- 

nong-road, Windsor. 
+ Hill, J. A., Kewell, via Murloa. 

Ent., Orn. 
Hooper, Dunbar, J. \V., surgeon, 70 

Collins-street, Melbourne. 
Howat, Wm., 458 William-street, M. 
Hughes, Dr. W. Kent-, 22 Collins- 
street, Melbourne. 
Hughston, Miss, "Fintona," Burke- 

road, Camberwell. 
Jeffery, H. W., Nicholson-street, 

Abbotsford. 
Johnston, E. E., Murchison, Vict. Orn. 
tjutson, J T., "Oakworth," Smith- 
street, Northcote. Geol. 
Kaufmann, Mrs. J. C. 
Kauffman, J. C, LL. D., 21 Koo- 

yongkoot-road, Hawthorn. 
*tKeart'and, G. A. , ( ramer-street, 

Preston. Orn., Ool. 



*t Kershaw, J. A., F.E.S., National 

Museum, M. Zoology. 
Kiely, Miss, 98 River-street, South 

Yarra. Bot. 
Kinane, C. P., 37 Hope-streel, S. 

Yarra. Om. 
tKitson, A. E., F.G.S., Department 

Mines, M. Geol. 
Kitson, J. .S., Branjee, Euroa. 
Knight, ]., Alexandra. 
Larking, R. J., 348 Flinders-st., M. 
t Leach, J. A., B.Sc, University. 

Melb. Biology. 
Lees, E. H., M.LC.E., F.R.A.S., 

Fairhaven, Mallacoota. 
*tLe Souef, D., C.M.Z.S., Royal 

Park. Paikville. Orn., Ool. 
Luly, W. H., Preston 
+ Lyell, G. , jun., Gisborne. Ent. 

(Lep.) 
MacDonald, D., Ar^us Office, M. 

* t Macgillivray, Dr. W., Broken 

Hill. Orn., Ool. 
Mackay, A. C, J. P., Apollo Bay. 
Madden, F., M.L.A., Studley Park, 

Kew. 
+ Maplestone, C. i\L, Eltham. Polyzoa 

(recent and fossil). 

* Mattingley, A., Alfred-street, North 

M. Orn., Echinoids. 
+ M 'Alpine, D., Armadale-street, 

Armadale. Bot. 
*M'Caw, W. J., 7 Liddiard-street, 

Glenferrie. Zoology. 
M'Haffie, Miss A. F. W.,' 759 Punt 

Hill, S. Yarra. Orn.. Ool. 
M'Lennan, J. P., State School, 

Emerald, Botany. 
M'Mahon, W. H., Warrnambool. 
M'Nab, L. K., " Braeside," Waioia- 

road, Caulfield. 
Montgomery, Miss ^L, Slate School, 

Echuca. 
Morgan, W. J., 11 Robb-street, N. 

Essendon. 
Morrison, Dr. A., Brown-street, 

Perth, W.A. Bot. 
Mowling, G., "Athol," Auburn-rd., 

Hawthorn. Birds under domesti- 
cation. 
Murdoch, J. R., Mortlake, Vict. 
Newell, J., jun., 117 Fitzroy-street, 

Fitzroy 
t Nicholls, E. B. , 164 Victoria-street, 

N.M. Orn. 
Norris, F., Drummond-st., Carlton. 
(?t North, A. J.,C.M.Z.S., Austrnlian 

Museum, Sydney, N.S.W. Orn. 
O'Neil, W. J., Department Lands, M. 



Cbc Uktorian HatMralisi 



Vol. XXIL— No. 3. JULY 6, 1905. No. 259. 



FIELD NATURALISTS' CLUB OF VICTORIA. 

The twenty-fifth annual meeting of the Club was held in the 
Royal Society's Flail on Monday evening, 12th June, 1905. 

Mr. F. Wisewould, one of the vice-presidents, occupied the 
chair, in the unavoidable absence of the president, through ill- 
health, and about 65 members and visitors were present. 

REPORTS. 

A report of the junior excursion to the Entomological Branch, 
Department of Agriculture, held on Saturday, 3rd June, was 
furnished by the leader, Mr. C. French, jun., who reported that, 
doubtless owing to the inclement weather, only some 35 members 
attended. The afternoon was spent in viewing the collections of 
economic birds, insects, &c. Great interest was taken in the 
life-histories of many of the insects, which were explained by the 
leader. During the last few months, many life-histories of the 
commoner Victorian insects have been added to the collection, 
which is now considered by American and European 
entomologists who have viewed it to be the best of its kind in 
Australia. 

A report of the visit to the National Museum on Saturday, 
loth June, was given by the leader, Mr. J. A. Kershaw, F.E.S., 
Curator of the Museum, who reported a good attendance of 
members. Before examining the collections opportunity was 
taken to point out the progress of the new buildings and the 
proposed arrangement of portions of the collections in the new 
halls. The leader then gave a brief outline of the classification 
adopted in the Museum, and a detailed examination was made of 
the various cases of animals and birds in their natural sequence. 
However, the afternoon proved too short to allow of proper time 
being devoted to the reptiles and fishes, and the inspection of 
the invertebrate collections had to be abandoned altogether. 

A report of the meeting for juniors held at the Biological 
School University on Saturday afternoon, loth June, was given 
by Mr. F. G. A. Barnard, who stated that the lecture by Professor 
W. Baldwin Spencer, C.M.G., entitled "Arms and Legs," was 
attentively listened to by nearly 60 junior members. The 
lecturer, by means of diagrams and specimens, pointed out in a 
clear and simple manner the correspondence of structure in the 
limbs of different groups of animals and birds, and made his 



38 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

remarks so interesting that general regret was expressed at the 
briefness of the lecture. Ample opportunity was given after the 
lecture to the juniors of examining the specimens and asking 
further questions about difficulties which appeared to present 
themselves. 

The hon. librarian reported the receipt of the following 
donations to the library: — "Geological Survey of Victoria," 
bulletins 15 and 16, from the Department of Mines, Melbourne; 
The Emu, vol. iv., part 4, April, 1905, from the Australian 
Ornithologists Union ; Agricultural Gazette of New South 
Wales, April, May, and June, 1905, from the Secretary for 
Mines and Agriculture, Sydney ; " Forest Flora of New South 
Wales," vol. ii., part 6, by J. H. Maiden, F.L.S., Government 
Botanist, from the author ; " Proceedings of Linnean Society of 
New South Wales, vol. xxix., part 4, from the Society ; " Reprints 
of Articles in the Agricultiiral Gazette of New Soutli Wales and 
Proceedings Linnean Society of New South Wales," by W. W. 
Froggatt, from the author; Nature Notes, April and May, 1905, 
from the Selborne Society, London ; and Nature Study, March 
and April, 1905, from the publisher. 

ELECTIONS. 

On a ballot being taken, Master W. Reed was elected an 
associate ; Misses B. Ruppell, D. Debney, V. Kerr, F. Fulton, 
and Masters W. Spencer, D. Seaton, F. Watson, W. Winn, W. 
Farr, W. Shewlow, L. Henderson, M. O'Dowd, and R. O'Dowd 
were elected as junior members of the Club. 

ANNUAL REPORT. 

The hon. secretary, Mr. J. F. Haase, then read the twenty- 
fifth annual report for 1904-5, which was as follows : — 

"To the Members of the Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria. 
Ladies and Gentlemen, — Your committee have much pleasure 
in presenting to you the twenty-fifth annual report, detailing the 
work of the Club for the year ending 30th April, 1905. 

" The membership of the Club continues to show a gratifying 
increase. During the year 135 members have been elected, of 
whom 36 were ordinary and country, 10 associates, and 89 
junior members, now making a grand total of 325 members. 
During the same period we have lost two by death and five by 
resignations. The total membership of the Club now comprises 
9 honorary, 2 life, 168 ordinary, 36 country, 16 associates, and 
94 juniors. 

" It is with great regret that we have to record the loss by 
death of Mr. J. G. Luehmann, F.L.S., late Government Botanist 
and Curator of the National Herbarium, to the relatives of whom 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 39 

the sympathetic condolences of the Club have been sent. Mr. 
Luehmann was one of the original members of the Club, twice 
filling the position of vice-president, and also rendered service as 
a member of the committee. He was a contributor of many 
valuable papers at our meetings, while his extensive knowledge, 
and his willingness to assist others in the study he loved so well, 
endeared him to his fellow-members. 

"Your committee also regret the death of Mr. H. VV. Whitney, 
of Williamstown, who was an enthusiastic ornithologist and a 
frequent attendant at our meetings. 

" Thirty-one papers were read at the monthly meetings, the 
list showing that 12 related to zoology, 7 to botany, 3 to geology, 
3 to general subjects, and 6 to trips and excursions. 

" The authors were Miss Freda Bage, B.Sc, Messrs. H. 
H. Baker, C. L. Barrett, F. Chapman, F.R.M.S., A.L.S., N. J. 
Caire, J. H. Gatliff, J. C. Goudie, E. E. Green, F.E.S., T. S. 
Hall, M.A. ; A. D. Hardy, C. Hedley, F.L.S., J. T. Jutson, G. 
A. Keartland, A. E. Kitson, F.G.S., J. H. Maiden, F.L.S., A. 
H. Mattingley, E. B. NichoUs, F. M. Reader, U. Le Souef, 
C.M.Z.S., O. A. Sayce, H. T. Tisdall, E. O. Thiele, R. E. 
Turner, Rev. VV. W. Watts, and G. A. Waterhouse, B.Sc, F.E.S. 

" The thanks of the Club are due to the several contributors 
who have thus placed the results of their observations and 
studies before their fellow-members. 

" The attendance at the montlily meetings has been well 
sustained, and a lively interest has been shown in all the 
proceedings. The average attendance was 75, being about the 
same as the previous year. 

" In addition to the ordinary meetings, three additional 
meetings were held for practical work, two of which, conducted 
by Mr. H. T. Tisdall, were devoted to botany, the flower and 
reproductive organs of the Broad Bean being the subject used 
for illustration. The other evening was presided over by Mr. J. 
Shephard, who took as his subject ' The Examination of 
Rotifers.' 

" These practical evenings were held in order to encourage 
research, and give the members an opportunity of doing some 
practical work under the guidance of a more experienced worker, 
but it is to be regretted that tiie attendance was not so satis- 
factory as was anticipated, and did not warrant their continuance. 
Our thanks are due to the two members who, at considerable 
inconvenience, so generously placed their services at the disposal 
of the Club. 

" An excellent programme of excursions was again provided, 
and, judging by the reports furnished to the monthly meetings, 
good and useful work has been accomplished. The attendance 
of members and friends has been good, and members are again 



40 THE VICTOKIAN NATURALIST. 

reminded of the many advantages to be derived by taking part in 
the excursions wilh their more experienced fellow-members. 

" The list of extended trips included a three-days' outing at 
Warburton, a ten-days' trip to Beech Forest, Otway Ranges, 
during the Christmas and New Year holidays, and a three-days' 
excursion to Belgrave (Dandenong Ranges) in January last. 
These excursions were well attended, whilst the considerable 
amount of material collected testifies to the energy and 
enthusiasm displayed on the part of those who took part in 
them. 

"The twenty-first volume of the Club's journal has been 
completed, and the thanks of the Club are again due to Mr. F. 
G. A. Barnard, who continues to so successfully fill the editorial 
chair. 

" Owing to the continued increase of members, and that many 
back numbers of the Victorian JVahiralist are almost out of print, 
your committee, in order to obviate any such contingency in the 
future, decided to publish a further 50 copies. This will allow 
ample for sale and exchange. 

"During the current year the value of the journal has been 
further enhanced by the insertion of a number of valuable and 
interesting illustrations. 

" In view of the fact that a growing interest in Natural History 
is now being manifested in the schools, and a desire on the part 
of both teachers and scholars to acquire further knowledge of our 
native fauna and flora, it was decided at a special meeting 
convened (or the purpose to alter clause (a) of rule 4 of the 
Club's rules. This now provides for the admission of associates 
at an annual subscription of 5s., and junior members at the 
reduced rate of is. per annum. 

" The movement has been a decided success, as will be seen 
by the large numbers enrolled since its inception. A special 
programme of monthly excursions to suitable spots within easy 
access of the city has been provided, and the reports furnished 
by the several leaders show that these outings should be pro- 
ductive of much good. The excursions have been largely attended, 
the average attendance being about 60, while in one case over 
100 put in an appearance. Excellent discipline and good conduct 
has been maintained during all the rambles. 

"The question of the permanent reservation of Wilson's Prom- 
ontory as a National Park has engaged the earnest attention of 
your committee. In September last it was brought under their 
notice that the Minister of Lands had decided to subdivide a 
considerable portion of the Promontory into i, coo-acre blocks. 
The matter was discussed at the following ordinary monthly 
meeting, when three members were appointed to act as the Club's 
representatives in any action that was deemed necessary for its 



THE VICTOBIAN NATDRALIST, 4| 



prevention. During the next few days a deputation waited upon 
the Minister, at which representatives of the Ckib, the Royal 
Society of Victoria, Ornithologists' Union, the Zoological and 
Acclimatisation Society, the Royal Geographical Society, the 
Board of Directors of the Australian Natives' Association, and 
many influential gentlemen attended. 

" The deputation was ably supported by Professor W. Baldwin 
Spencer, and we are pleased to be able to record that their 
efforts were entirely successful, and the proposed subdivision 
cancelled. 

" In order to arouse further interest in the matter a public 
meeting was held in the Athenjeum Hall. This meeting was a 
decided success. Resolutions affirming the desirability of retain- 
ing the Promontory as a permanent National Park, and having it 
vested in trustees, were unanimously carried, 

" Some time after a large deputation, comprising, in addition 
to the various societies mentioned, the Victorian Anglers' 
Association, the Trustees of the Public Library and the Exliibi- 
tion Building, again waited upon the Minister, but failed to obtain 
a definite promise to their request. 

" Details of the action taken were given in the Naturalist for 
January last, and with this report will be issued a map of the 
Promontory, showing the portion since permanently reserved. 
This, though amounting to about 75,000 acres, we regret to say, 
does not embrace the whole area, as a strip half a mile in depth 
from the coast-line has been only temporarily reserved, which 
to a certain extent nullifies the advantages of the permanent 
reservation of the interior portion. 

" With regard to the request to vest the park in trustees for 
its management, no action by the Government has yet been 
indicated. It is, however, gratifying to feel that the watchfulness 
of the Club has been of some benefit to the public at large. 

" A report having been received regarding the wanton destruc- 
tion of Lyre-birds at Bright and the surrounding districts, an effort 
was made through the daily press to arouse public feeling in the 
matter._ Unfortunately little good appears to have been achieved, 
and it is feared that the slaughter continues. 

" Further efforts were made during the year in several parts of 
the State to have the opening date for Quail-shooting altered to 
a month earlier, and the matter was brought forward at one of 
our monthly meetings, when, after considerable discussion, it was 
decided that the views of the Club, protesting against any altera- 
tion being made, be communicated to the Minister of Public 
Works and the daily press. Much public interest was aroused, 
and at the request of Mr. C. W. M'Lean, Engineer of Ports and 
Harbours, who has the administration of the Game Act, the 
Minister expressed his willingness to receive a deputation from 



42 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

those opposed to any change. The deputation, which was a 
large one, comprised representatives from your Club, Ornitholo- 
gists' Union, Zoological and Acclimatization Society, and sports- 
men, with the valued support of Mr. G. A. Keartland, who acted 
as spokesman. The result of their exertions are already known 
to you, and while it is to be regretted that our representations 
were not entirely successful, we feel assured that but for the 
efforts then made the Minister's decision would have been in 
favour of making the requested alteration. 

" The hon. librarian reports that additions to the library, by 
purchase and exchange, have been well maintained. During the 
year 60 volumes or parts have been purchased, 2 volumes have 
been donated, and 89 received by exchange, making an addition 
for the year of 151 volumes or parts. 

" The thanks of the Club are again due to Messrs. T. R. B. 
Morton and Coghill, who have placed their offices at the disposal 
of the committee, free of cost, and to Mr. J. Searle the Club is 
indebted for the use and management of his lantern when 
required. 

" We are pleased to report that financially the Club continues 
in a most flourishing state. The receipts from all scources are 
_;^i65 4s. iid., while the expenditure amounted to ;^i28 i6s. 
3d. As will be seen the credit balance has further increased from 
_;^53 IS. 8d. to ^89 IDS. 4d., being a gain for the year of ^36 
8s. 8d., with all accounts paid. The principal factor in bringing 
about this highly satisfactory result has been the large increase 
received from subscriptions for the current year. 

" In conclusion, your committee congratulate the members 
upon the sound and continuous prosperity of the Club, and 
would impress upon them that it is only by their individual help, 
whether by the contribution of papers or other appreciated work 
appertaining to such a Society as ours, that the Club can maintain 
the proud and useful position it now enjoys. 



5</t June, 1905. 



" O. A. Sayce, President. 

" J. F. Haase, Ho7i. Secretary. 



The report having been received, Mr. A. H. Mattingley, in 
moving its adoption, regretted that the Government had not 
gazetted the whole of Wilson's Promontory as a National Park. 
Mr. J. H. Gatliff seconded the resolution, which was carried 
unanimously. 



financial statement. 



The hon. treasurer, Mr. G. Coghill, read the financial state- 
ment for 1904-5, which was as follows ; — 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



43 



Receipts. 














To Balance, 30th April, 1904 










•• £s?. 


I 


8 


,, Subscriptions 






£i?,9 


3 


6 






,, Victorian Naturalist — 
















Subscriptions ... £() 


12 


2 












Sales ... ... 3 


18 


9 












Reprints ... ... 3 


9 















Advertisements ... 4 


10 





21 


9 


II 














, , Sales of Rooks, account Library 






2 


10 









,, ,, Club's Badges 






I 


4 









,, Interest 









17 


6 


4 


II 








^05 




URE 








;^2l8 


6 


7 


EXPE.\DIT 








By Victorian N'atiiralist — 
















Printing ... ... £6() 


16 


6 












Illustrating ... 6 


16 















Reprints ... ... 5 





6 


















— 


^Si 


13 









,, Rooms — Rent and Attendance ... 






• 9 


10 









,, Library — Books ... i 


4 


6 












Periodicals ... 4 


9 


6 












Binding ... 4 


8 















Insurance, &c. 


14 


9 


10 


16 


9 














,, Wild Flower Exhibition — Sundries 






I 


II 


6 






,, Badges 






2 


2 









,, Wreath, late Mr. J. G. Luehmann 






I 












,, Printing and Stationery 






9 


18 









,, Postages, &c. 






12 


5 





16 










— ^ i-o 


3 


,, Balance London Bank 






• 38 


12 


10 






,, ,, Melbourne Savings Bank 






• 50 


17 


6 

So 


10 


4 








— oy 




;^2l8 


6 


7 



G. COGHILL, ZTiJW. Treasurer. 
3 1 J-/ A/fl/, 1905. 

Audited and found correct. 

D. BEST, 



2Jtd yune, 1905. 



G. WEINDORFER, 



f Auditors. 



The following statement of assets and liabilities was also 
read : — 

Assets. 

Balance in Banks ... ... ... ... /'Sg 10 4 

Arrears of .Subscriptions (;/"40 9s.), say ... ... 25 o o 

Library and Furniture (Insurance Value) .. ... 120 o o 

Arrears for Reprints ... ... ... ... 2156 



Outstanding Account 



Liabilities. 



£2Z7 5 10 



;^o 19 o 



44 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

The financial statement having been received, the chairman 
congratulated the members upon the splendid financial position 
of the Club. On the motion of Messrs. A. H. Mattingley and 
J. H. Gatliff the statement was adopted. 

OFFICE-BEARERS FOR I905-6. 

The following ofifice-bearers, being the only nominations 
received, were declared duly elected : — President, Mr. F. G. A. 
Barnard ; vice-presidents, Messrs. G. A. Keartland and F. Wise- 
would ; hon treasurer, Mr. G. Coghill ; hon. librarian, Mr. S. W. 
Fulton ; hon. editor, Mr. F. G. A. Barnard ; hon. secretary, Mr. 
J. F. Haase ; hon. assistant secretary and assistant librarian, 
Mr. C. L. Barrett. 

Mr. F. Wisewould, in vacating the chair in favour of the newly- 
elected president, congratulated Mr. Barnard upon the high office 
in which the members had placed him, and referred to the many 
years of valuable and enthusiastic services he had rendered to the 
Club, and to the high esteem in which he was held by his fellow- 
members. 

The president briefly responded, and thanked the members for 
the honour they had conferred upon him. 

On a ballot being taken for five members of committee, Messrs. 
T. S. Hall, M.A., A. D. Hardy, J. A. Kershaw, F.E.S., D. Le 
Souef, C.M.Z.S., and A. H. Mattingley were duly elected. 

GENERAL BUSINESS. 

Mr, A. D. Hardy referred to the position of affairs with regard 
to the National Park at Wilson's Promontory, pointing out that 
its value as a sanctuary for members of our unique fauna and 
flora was discounted by the non-inclusion of the whole of the 
area in the permanent reservation, and moved — " That the 
inconsistencies of the present reservation destroy the usefulness 
of the Park, and the committee be empowered to take such 
action as may be necessary to urge the reservation of the whole 
area and its vestment in trustees." 

The motion was seconded by Mr. A. H. Mattingley, and sup- 
ported by Mr. F. Pitcher, who urged the importance of having 
the park vested in trustees, who could carefully guard public 
interests and at the same time conserve the scientific value of the 
area. 

By way of showing the interest taken by the juniors in the 
meetings arranged for them, the President read an account of 
Professor Spencer's lecture on the previous Saturday, written 
without solicitation by one of the young girls present, and said 
that he proposed to mark his year as president by offering a prize, 
under conditions to be announced, for the best series of notes on 
the junior excursions held during the year. 



rilE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



"> 



S ^ 






lis. 




=L O = 
Org. 
g. Fi re 



. -Q 



.?c^ 



i^ 



'4m 



,llT^'^' 







MAP OF NATIONAL P/ 



July, 1905. 




SON'S PROMONTORY. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 45 



PAPERS READ. 

I. By Mr. F. M. Reader, F.R.H.S., entitled " Contributions to 
the Flora of Victoria, xiv. — Description of Pnltenoia weindorjeri, 
sp. nov." Communicated by Mr. G. Weindorfer. 

The author described a PultencTea under the name of P. 
weindorferi, in honour of the finder, which had been found 
growing in swampy ground near Wandm, in the Lilydale district, 
and pointed out its affinities with and differences from other 
species of the genus. 

NATURAL HISTORY NOTES. 

Mr. G. A. Keartland said that he had recently received some 
interesting information with regard to the range of the Princess 
Alexandra Parrakeet, which he would bring before a future 
meeting of the Club. 

EXHIBITS. 

By Mr. A. Coles. — Albino Red-backed Parrakeet, Psephotus 
hcematonotns, from Bendigo ; Gouldian Grass- Finches, Poepkila 
mirabilis, male normal plumage, and male abnormal plumage, 
kept in captivity for over seven years. 

By Mr. G. Coghill. — Flowering branches of Banli$ia collina, 
from Launching Place. 

By Mr. C. J. Gabriel. — Shells — Lotaruim spengleri, Chem., L. 
spengleri, var. tvaterhousei, Adm. and Ang., and Fusus undulatus, 
Perry, from Western Port Bay ; Tellina radiata and T. strigosa, 
from Florida. 

By Mr. A. D. Hardy. — Desmid, Staurastrum leplacanthum, 
Nordstedt, from Whanregarwen. 

By Mr. V. Pitcher. — Pot fern, Asplenium flahellifolium, grown 
from a small piece collected at Sassafras Gully, Easter, 1904. 

By Mr. A. Mattingley. — Commercial Beche-de-mer, or Holo- 
thurian, from Great Barrier Reef, Queensland. 

By Mr. F. Wisewould. — Ripe Cherry-plums picked in June at 
Elsternwick. 

After the usual conversazione the meeting terminated. 



A BOTANICAL TRIP TO THE GRAMPIANS. 

By G. Weindorfer. 

* 

{Read heforc the Field Naturalists' Cliih of Victoria, 8th May, 1905.) 
In order to satisfy a long-desired wish of mine, I was prompted 
to accept the suggestion of Dr. Sutton to accompany him 
on a short trip to the Grampians during the last Christmas 
holidays as the guest of his friend, Mr. Roland Weltenhall, of 
" Pomona," near Stawell. 

We left town by the Adelaide express on Saturday afternoon, 
24th December, reaching Stawell (150 miles) about eleven o'clock 
that night, where we were met by our host, Mr. Wettenhall, and 



46 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

another Club member, Mr. H. B. Williamson, of Hawkesdale, 
and after a ride of two hours across the plains, through which 
the Little Wimmera flows, arrived at " Pomona," picturesquely 
situated at the foot of Mt. Cassell, an elevation of about 3,000 
feet, one of the outliers of the Grampians towards the north. 

We turned in soon after our arrival, as our programme for the 
first day of our stay in the district required an early start in the 
morning, and you may rest assured that with such prospects as 
we had in view we were up betimes. After breakfast we set out 
along the track for Mt. Cassell. Leaving the houue, we had first 
to pass the orchard surrounding the residence of " Pomona." 
Here vigorous fruit trees, planted with elegant neatness — a delight 
to the artist's eye — showed unmistakable evidence of the careful 
management of the plantation, which is enclosed in a semicircle 
by the well-timbered slopes of the mountains, the effect produced 
at early morning being delightful to contemplate. 

Passing the orchard, we immediately iDegan our climb up 
the steep side of the mount, and in spite of the advanced period 
of the season were able to secure a number of species in flower, 
such as Sphcerolobium daviesioides, Calycothrix suUivajii, 
Geranium rodneyanum, Hahea rostrata, Arthropodium Jiinbri- 
atum, and others. The top of the mount was reached about 
noon, when we were sorry to have to part for the rest of the day 
from our host, Mr. R. Wettenhall, who had to return to his home. 

Acting on this gentleman's advice, we decided to descend the 
mount on the other side, in order to reach Barney's Creek, which 
leads on to the " pipe track " of the Stawell water supply. 
Nothing extraordinary in plant life was there observed, with the 
exception of specimens of the proteaceous shrub Conospermitm 
viitchellii, and at Barney's Creek Leptospermum flavescens, 
festooned by the lovely Alarianthus hignoniacPAis, which we 
collected at the foot of a bold granite mass called Barney's Castle. 

Having had to cut our way through the dense under-scrub of 
this well-timbered part of the Grampians, we were indeed highly 
pleased when, about four o'clock in the afternoon, we reached the 
open part of the country which was cleared for the construction 
of the waterworks. In walking along this picturesque part of the 
Grampians we collected, among others, some specimens of Ixodia 
achiUoides, Brachj/lo/na depressiom, B. ciliatum, and Halorrhagis 
teucrioides. About seven in the evening we reached the tunnel 
of the waterworks. This is bored through the range separating 
Fyans Creek from the plains of the Little Wimmera, but in order 
to reach our point of departure we had to cross the range, and 
it was therefore fairly dark when we again reached '' Pomona." 

The following day we decided to follow the track back as far as 
the tunnel, and thence to cross Fyans Creek, and visit the Silver- 
band Falls. However, unfavourable conditions of weather 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 47 



prompted us during a short stay at Fyans Creek to give up this 
plan, and to follow the stream to " Glen Bower," the residence of 
the Misses Dalton. 

We arrived there about three p.m., and tried to explore the 
neighbourhood of this charmingly situated place in Nature's soli- 
tude. Unfortunately heavy showers soon put an end to our work, 
and so we had to return to " Glen Bower," where we stayed for 
the night. By so doing we were saved the long journey back to 
our original starting-place, as on the following day, the third and 
last day of our stay in the "garden of Victoria," we proposed to 
visit the "Goat Rock." The evening was spent over the identifica- 
tion of the specimens (mostly seed) collected during the day, 
when Mr. Williamson's splendid knowledge of the Victorian flora 
was an invaluable help to the rest of the party. 

We made an early start on Thursday, 27 th December, as we 
had a long walk before us. Getting away at four a.m., we walked 
along a spur which leads to Sanderson's sawmill, now closed 
down. There the "billy" was boiled, and a hasty breakfast taken, 
all in the space of half an hour. 

Continuing our walk along a jinker track, we collected splendid 
specimens of Aster myrsinoldes and Pimelea curviflora, and on 
reaching the south end of the " Goat Rock " our attention was at 
once attracted by bushes of Bossicea cinerea, van rosmarhiifoUa. 

At this point the vegetation alters its appearance almost 
abruptly, the Eucalyptus taking a stunted habit, just as it may be 
observed at the tree-line in our Alps. Careful searches were 
made for flowering specimens of Pultemea rosea, but all our 
efforts were in vain. Springtime had passed in this locality, and 
we were only able to obtain seed specimens of this shrub. 
However, we were compensated for our trouble by obtaining 
most beautiful flowering specimens of Conosjiermum mitchellii, 
Leptospernmm lanigerum, var. grandiflorum, which occurs all 
over the rock ; Boronia pilosa, B. polygalifolia, Correa lawren- 
ciana, CandoUea sobolifera, and seed specimens of Eucalyptus 
alpinus. 

The view from the top of the "Goat Rock," which we reached 
about eleven o'clock, was indeed sublime. Beneath us, towards 
the east and north, lay the fertile valley of the Little Wimniera, 
showing afar off the basin of Lake Lonsdale, situated in the 
transition of the mountains to the wide plains of the Mallee. To 
the right lay Mt. William, 3,827 feet, the highest point in this 
part of Victoria, in clear and bold outline, his light green forests 
making a magnificent contrast to the deep azure of the distant 
horizon. Turning back, the pleased eye ranged for miles over a 
varied scene of beauty through the Victoria valley, the elevations 
forming the same ending many miles off in a chain of distant 
mountains. 



48 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



After a few hours' stay in this charming locality, it can be 

imagined witli what regret we returned homewards. In order to 
pass the Silverband Falls we took a short cut from the south end 
of the " Goat Rock " through the so-called Dairy Creek, which 
proved rather an unpleasant walk, owing to the steepness of the 
descent. The Silverband Falls were reached about five o'clock in 
the afternoon, but the advanced time did not allow along stay there. 
Crossing the Fyans Creek at the same spot where the day before 
we turned towards " Glen Bower," we reached " Pomona," via 
the tunnel, about eight p.m., and were there entertained by the 
ladies of the house, the whole party enjoying a most delightful 
evening. 

As it was necessary to start for Stawell at two o'clock in the 
morning, we did not turn in for the few hours left for rest, but 
busied ourselves with the collected specimens. Stawell was 
reached at four a.m., and our trip to the Grampians terminated 
with the journey to Melbourne in the Adelaide express. 

In conclusion, I would like to point out that Christmas time 
was rather too far advanced in the season for collecting flowering 
specimens. The greater part of our collection consisted of seed 
specimens, which, however, bear for the botanical student as much 
importance as flowers. From the geographical point of view, I 
am under the impression that the flora of the Grampians forms 
the westerly out-runner of our south-eastern Australian forest flora, 
constituting there the transition area from the latter to the so-called 
Mallee flora in the north-west of our State and the Euronotian 
region of South Australia. My investigations on this subject, 
however, will appear in a later paper. 

I must here take the opportunity of expressing the sincerest 
gratitude of our party to Mr. Roland Wettenhall for the great 
kindness we experienced at his hands, first for inviting us to stay 
at his charming residence, " Pomona," and secondly for the 
courtesy he extended towards us during our stay, which will long 
be remembered in connection with our trip to the Grampians. 

The following is a list of the plants collected. Those without 
any indication being found in bloom ; those marked * were found 
in both bloom and fruit, while those marked t were found in 
fruit only : — 



*Clematis aristata 
Ranunculus lappaceus 
Hibbertia densiflora 

stricta 

fasciculata 
Cassytha glabella 

* pubescens 

* nielantha 
Viola hederacea 
Marianthus bignoniaceus 

*Billardiera scandens 



tBillardiera cyniosa 
Comesperma ericinum 
calymega 
*Coirea temula 

* speciosa 

* lawrenciana 
Boronia pilosa 

polygalifolia 
+Linum maiginale 
*Geianium pilosum 
Pelargonium australe 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



49 



Pelargonium rodneyanuni 

Oxalis corniculata 
*Lasiopetalum dasyphylluni 

Poranlheia inicrophylla 

Ampera spartioides 

Phyllanthus ihymoidts 
tCasuarina distyla 
t quadrivalvis 

*Dodon2ea viscosa 

Stackhousia linarifolia 
f viuiinaia 

Sagina procumbens 

Rumex brownii 
*GomphoIobium huegelii 

Sphaerolobium daviesioides 
tDaviesia corymbosa (var. mimoso- 

ides) 
t brevifolia 

fPultenrea scabra 



dentata 
mollis 
juniperina 
humilis 



f rosea 

f benthami 

Dillwynia floribunda 
ericifolia 
*Platylobium obtusangulum 
fBossieea postrata 
t cinerea 

fHovea heterophylla 
tGoodia lotifolia 
tindigofera australis 

Glycine glandestina 
t Acacia moUissima 
f retinoides 

t myrlifolia 

t oxycedrus 

t verticillata 

t mitclielli 

Rubus parvifolius 
tAceena sanguisorbse 
tBauera sessiliflora 

Tilla:a verticillata 

Epilobium glabellum 

Lythrum salicaria 

Halorrhagis tetragyna 
teucrioides 

Myriophyllum varifolium 
*Calycothrix tetragona 

* suUivani 
Lhotzkya genetilloides 

*Leptospermum flavescens 

* scoparium 

* myrsinoides 

leavigatum ( var. granditlorum) 
*Thryptomene mitchclliana 

* ciliala 



Callistemon coccineus 
tMeialeuca squarrosa 

* decussata 

* squamrea 
^Eucalyptus alpina 

* capitellata 

* meiliodora 
Pomaderris apetala 

*Cryptandra tomentosa 

daltoni 

Astrotricha ledifolia 

Hydrocotyle laxiflora 

hirta 
Trachymene heterophylla 
l)illardieri 
*Loranthus pendulus 
Conospermum mitchelli 
Persoonia juniperina 
rigid a 
tGrevillea alpina 
* aquifolium 

t oleoides 

Hakea rostrata 
t pugioniformis 

+ sericea 

t ulicina 

tBanksia integrifolia 
tPimelea axiflora 
linifoiia 
humilis 
t tlava 

octophylla 
curviflora 
*Coprosma billardieri 
hirtella 
Opercularia varia 
Asperula oligantha 
Galium umbrosum 
Sambucus gaudichaudiana 
Lagenophora billardieri 
Brachycome diversifolia 
scapiformis 
pinnatifida 
Minuria leptophylla 
Aster ramulosus 

myrsinoides 
aslerotrichus 
Gnaphalium japonicum 
Podolepis acuminata 
'Leptorrhynchos tenuifolius 
" squamalus 

^Helichrysum baxteri 
scorpioides 
lucidum 
apiculatum 
*■ semipapposum 

obcordatum 
ferrucineum 



50 



THE VICTOKIAN NATURALIST. 



Helichrysum leucopsidium 

Ixodia achilloides 
*Craspedia richea 

Siegesbeckia orientalis 

Centipeda cunninghanii 
*Senecio dryadeus 

* velleioides 
Microceris forsteri 

*Erechtite.s aiguta 

* prenamhoides 
Lobelia gibbosa 

pedunculata 
Isntoma fluviatdis 
Wahlenbergia gracilis 
*Candollea serrulata 

* sobolifera 
*Brunonia austialis 

Goodenia geniculata 

ovata 
Limnanthemum exaltatum 
*Erythrrea spicata 
*Plantago varia 

Convolvulus erubescens 
*Solanum nigrum 

Gratiola peruviana 
*Veronica derwentia 
gracilis 
calycina 
Euphrasia brownii 
Utricularia dichotoma 
tCynoglossum lalifoliuni 

Mentha australis 
t Prostanthera lasiantha 
f rotundifolia 

t denticulata 

tStyphelia adscendens 
+ sonderi 

t humifusa 

glacilis 
virgata 
ericoides 
t pinifolia 

thymifolia 
Brachylonia daiihnoides 
ciliatuni 
depressuni 
Sprengelia incarnata 
Epacris impressa 
tCallitris verrucosa 

Dipodium punctatum 
*Thelymitra longifolia 
fPatersonia longiscapa 
Dianella revoluta 

' longifolia 
Thysonotus tuberosus 
tBurchardia umbellata 
Tricoryne elatior 



Stypandra glauca 

casspitosa 
Arthropodium paniculatum 

fimbriatum 

minus 
Xerothes thunbergi 

longifolia 
tXantorrhoea australis 
Tryglochin procera 
Potamogeton obtusifolium 
Xyris operculata 
Luzula campestris 
Juncus pallidus 

planifolius 

prismatocarpus 

pauciflorus 
Centrolepis fascicularis 
Lepyrodia tasmanica 
Restio complanatus 
Calostrophus lateriflorus 

fastigiatus 
Leptocarpus tenax 
Cyperus lucidus 
Scirpus inundatus 

nodosus 

fluitans 
Schcenus apogon 

axillaris 
Lepidosperma elatius 

carphoides 
Gahnia tetraquetrum 
Caustis restiacea 
Carex pseudocyperus 
Stipa muelleri 

semibarbata 

micrantha 
Anthistiria ciliata 
Ehrharta stipoides 
Echinopogon ovatus 
Agrostis solandri 

quadriseta 
Dantonia penicilata 
Poa casspitosa 
Agropyron scabrum 
Selaginella uliginosa 
Gleichenia circinata 

flabellata 
Osmunda barbara 
Dicksonia billardieri 
Davallia dubia 
Adianthum KtliiojUicum 
Cheilanthes tenuifolia 
Pteris aquilina 
Lomaria discolor 

capensis 
Asplenium flabellifolium 
Aspidium aculeatum 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 51 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO iTHE FLORA OF VICTORIA. 

No. XIV. 

By F. M. Reader, F.R.H.S. 

(Communicated by G. Weindorfer.) 

{Read he/ore titc Field Naturalists^ Club of Victoria, 12th June, 1905.) 

PULTEN^A WEINDORFKRI, Sp. IIOV. 

A slender, erect shrub, attaining the height of 5 feet ; glabrous, 
with the exception of a few hairs on the inner side of the calyx 
lobes, ciliee on the margin, and a ring of minute hairs at the base 
of the pedicels ; with terete branches, which, when young, are 
generally covered with crowded leaves and appressed stipules. 

Leaves shoit-stalked, more or less tapering towards the base, 
linear or broad-linear, erect or somewhat spreading and recurved 
at the end ; blunt or with a small callous termination, upwards to 
j4-inch long ; concave, with the margin more or less incurved, 
forming a channel or a groove ; or they are almost flat, with the 
margin slightly incurved ; underneath with the midrib more or 
less prominent. Stipules of the young shoots and at first those 
of the floral leaves partly united ; upwards to 2 lines long or 
more ; the lobes narrow, subulate, acuminate ; those of the floral 
leaves broader. Flowers in leafy heads or short umbel-like leafy 
racemes, growing out into very short leafy shoots ; the 
floral leaves, with their large, brown bract-like stipules, concealing 
the rachis and pedicels ; the latter about i ^ lines long. Bracteoles 
inserted on the calyx tube near the base, linear or broader at the 
base, somewhat subulate and keeled, shorter than the calyx, 
about 2 lines long. Occasionally, when the flower is in bud, tipped 
with one or two ciliaj or long hairs, and with one or two along 
the back. Calyx about 3 lines long, without the pedicel ; the 
lobes sub-equal, narrow-lanceolate, somewhat falcate, longer 
than the tube, the two upper united at the base, sliglitly broader ; 
the middle of the lower lobes longer than the others. Petals 
entirely yellow, sub-equal. Standard about half as long again as 
the calyx, slightly emarginate ; keel emarginate. Ovary glabrous, 
tapering into the flat style. Pod (unripe) obliquely-ovate. 

Collected at Wandin, in a swamp, near the road from Lilydale 
to Warburton, 25 miles from Melbourne, in September, 1903, by 
Mr. G. Weindorfer. 

This species belongs to the section Coelophyllum, and in the 
shape of the stipules on the branches, approaches F. stiindaris 
and glabra, but the arrangement of the flowers is different. It 
should be placed in the neiglibourhood oi P. laxi/lora, largijiorens, 
and villosu, from all of which, and of other species of the same 
sub-section, it may easily be discerned by the large stipules, and 
especially those of the floral leaves. In P. densijolia, ellijjtica. 



52 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

subspicata, and villifera the stipules of the floral leaves are also 
large, but the bracteoles are inserted close under the calyx, &c. 

In the specimens examined minute abortive flowers have 
occasionally been observed among the fertile ones. 

Named in honour of the finder, Mr. G. Weindorfer, who, 
during the last few years, has done much to extend our knowledge 
of the habitats of Victorian plants. 



Some Long-collected Plants. — In the Victorian Naturalist, 
for December, 1900 (vol. xvii., p. 148), will be found an article 
by the late Prof. Morris, Litt. D., giving the history of a work on 
Australian plants, the first part of which had just been issued by 
the Trustees of the British Museum. The object of the work 
was to describe the plants collected by Mr. Banks, better known 
in later years as Sir Joseph Banks, president of the Royal Society, 
during his visit to New Holland in 1770. Now it is interesting to 
learn that Mr. J. H. Maiden, F.L.S., Government Botanist of 
New South Wales, has recendy received a valuable addition to 
the National Herbarian of that State from the Trustees of the 
British Museum, in the shape of a large series of the actual 
specimens collected by Banks and his assistant. Dr. Solander, at 
Botany Bay, more than one hundred and thirty-five years ago. 
The collection was made during the stay there of Captain Cook's 
exploring ship, the Endeavour. They appear to have been well 
preserved, and Mr. Maiden is able to recognize all the unlabelied 
species. The botanizing was done between 28th April and 6th 
May, 1770. Banks, as the notes in his journal indicate, took 
the greatest pains to dry the specimens before packing them up, 
but on 26th June, when the Endeavour was beached at what is 
now Cooktown, after striking the Barrier reef, he discovered that 
many of his treasures had got a soaking in the salt water which 
entered the ship. Examination of the relics shows, says Mr. 
Maiden, that most of them were broken off, not cut. Some of 
the grasses bear marks of fire, showing that the blacks used to 
burn blady grass, or at all events that they used to have bush 
fires. Some show insect ravages, and on one is a cocoon. A 
flannel flower has acquired a deep brown colour through the 
eff"ects of time. Mr. Maiden rejoices in the fact that Banks's 
name will for all time be associated with the native honeysuckle, 
named Banksia, after him. An attempt which has been made to 
substitute " Isostylis " for Banksia, Mr. Maiden scouts as doomed 
to total failure. Of the 600 specimens which have come to hand, 
a few represent the extensive collection made by Banks at 
Endeavour River, Queensland, while Cook's ship was undergoing 
repair. 

Early Flower.s. — The first blossoms of the Silver Wattle, 
Acacia dealbata, were picked at Kew on ist July. Notes of other 
early flowerings are desired. 



Sit [> pic nun/ to the ^'V ictoriiui Naturalist^ 



Parkin, A. C, Campbell-rd., Balwyn. 
Parson, H., Kintore-st., Camberwell. 
Parson, Miss A. C , Kintore-street, 

Camlierwell. 
Paul, y. T., (Jrantvillc. IJot. 
Pescott, E. E., Edward-street, -Sliep- 

partDn. 
t)* Pitcher, F., Polanical (Jardens, M. 

Bot. 
Preston, C. G., 44 Albert-street, Kew. 
t I'ritcliard, C). 1!.. 22 Mantell-street, 

Moonee I'oiids. Conch., Geol. 
(JLiiney, H., Mortlake. 
Randall, Miss M., "Litchfield," 

Primrose-street, Essendon. 
Robinson, C. A., 257 Auburn-ro;id, 

Auburn. 
Roger, W. H. A., National Bank, 

Collins-street. Ent. (Lep. ) 
RoUo, Miss, 65 Tivoli-rd., S. Yarra. 
Ross, J. A., 116 Albion-st., E. 

Brunswick. 
Russell, Arthur, Bourke-street east. 
tRyan, Dr. C, Collins-street E., M. 

Orn., Ool. 
(7*f.Sayce, O. A., Harcourt-st., Haw- 

tjiorn. Crustacea. 
Scott, W., Fletcher-street, Essendon. 

* .Searle, J., 274 Collins-street, M. 

* + .Shephard, [., 135 City-road. S.M. 

Pond life." 
tShepherd, G. E., Sumeiville. Ornith. 
Simpson, A. W., Cornalla, via Den- 

iliquin, N.S.W. 

* Simson, Mrs. J. ^ "Trawalla," 
Simson, Miss / Toorak. 
Skeats, Professor E. W., D.Sc, 

University, Carlton. 
t Sloane, T. G., " Moorilla," 

Young, N.S.W. Ent. (Col.) 
Smith, A. J., Port Albert. 
Somers, l^r. Edgeworth, Mornington. 
Somerville, W., 16 Bellevue-street, 

]\ichmond. 
Spark, J. M., Isabella-st., Malvern. 

* + Spencer, Professor W. Baldwin, 

C.M.G., M.A., F.R.S., Univer- 
sity, Carlton. 

tSpry, F., Napier-st., S.M. Ent. 
(Lap.), Geol. 

Stephens, J. M., "Croydon," Heidel- 
berg-road, Fairfield. 

Stevens, E. T. 

Stickland, J., 153 Auburn-road, 
Auburn. Pond life. 

* t Stickland, \V., 20 Latrobe-st., M. 

Pond life. 
Summers, IP, Working Men's Col- 
lege, M. Geol. 



t Sutton, Dr. C. S., Rathdown-st., 
Carlton. Bot. 

Swan, J. B., "Alma," Selborne- 
street, Coburg 

*+Swect, G., P\G.S., Wilson-sl., 
Brunswick. Geol. 

Tarrant, J. S., Railway Road, 
Malvern. 

Thiele, A. F. , Doncaster. 

Thiele, E. O. , "Kanowna," 4 Di.\on- 
street, Malvern. Geo!. and 
Mineral. 

Thiele, O. A., "Kanowna," 4 Dixon- 
street, Malvern. 

Thomson, Dr. J. R. M , Mt. Alex- 
ander-roail, E.ssendon. 

Thonger, C. W., 103 Drummond- 
street, Carlton. 

Thorn, W., Findon-st., Hawthorn. 

*tTisd.a!l, H. T., Washington-st., 
Toorak. Cryptogam. Bot. 

*tTopp, C. A., M.A., LL.B., 
South Yarra. Bot. 

Townsend, .S. P., " Garrycloyne," 
Mornington. 

Trebilcock, R. E., " Leopold," Gee- 
long. Ent. (Lep.) 

Tuckett, J. H., Neeiim-road, Murrum- 
beena. 

Turner, Miss, " Torridge," Domain- 
road, South Yarra. 

Walker, J. B., Mackillop-st., M. 

•|- Wallis, C. C, Toorak-rd., Toorak, 
Bot. 

Ware, S. M., 3 Lyall-st., Hawthorn 

Waterhouse, G. A., B.Sc, F.E.S., 
Royal Mint, Sydney, N.S.W. 
Ent. (Lep.) 

+ Weindorfer, G., Austro-Hungarian 
Consulate. Flinders-lane. Bot. 

Westley, Rev. A. H., The Vicar- 
age, Loch. Ent. (Col., Bupres- 
tidpe, and Cerambycidre). 

Westmoreland, Miss A., Stawell-st., 
Kew. 

White, Miss J., B.Sc, Observatory 
Quarters, South Yarra. Bot. 

\^'ilcox, J., 4 Loch-st., Hawthorn. 

Williamson, H. B., Hawkesdale. Bot. 

Wilson, J., 153 Buckleyst. P'oots- 
cray. 

^*tWisewould, F.. Imperial Cham- 
bers, 408 Collins-street, M. 

Wisewould, Miss G. , 27 Cromwell- 
road, Hawksburn. 

WoUen, A., Killara. Orn., Ent. 

Wood, J. A., 417 Smith-st., Pltzroy. 

Woods, G., Marshall-street, Moonee 
Ponds. 



vi Supplement to the " Victorian Naturalist." 



Batelier, M. 
Christian, E. J. 
French, C. 
Gillespie, R. M. 
Larking, E. K. 
Mansfield, A. 



ASSOCIATES. 

Newell, J. 
Nicholls, Miss J. 
Oke, C. 

Parson, Miss A. C. 
Reed, W. 
Schaefer, F. 



Taverner, P. 
Thomson, J. M. 
Wilson, F. E. 
Wilson, J. 
Wilcox, D. H. 



JUNIOR MEMBERS. 



Miss J. Bage 
,, A. Bage 
,, M. Barnard 
,, J. French 
,, L. French 
,, D. Haase 
,, N. Hughes 
,, E. Jennings 
,, B. Keartland 
,, S. Leach 
,, E. Preston 
,, W. Shephard 
., R. Sayce 
,, E. Sayce 
,, H. Wilson 

Master N. Barnard 

,, W. \). Chapman 

,, P. Cameron 

,, T. M. Hall 

„ A. S. Hall 

,, S. Hansen 

,, L. Hansen 

,, J. Ham 

,, F. Hill 

,, M. Jackson 

,, S. C Johnston 

,, W. Keartland 

,, H. E. Kershaw 

,, (jordon Wilson 

,, A. O. Timms 

,, L. N. Kershaw 

,, F. J. Kilgour 

,, E. Moore 

,, G. M'Kay 

,. F. Nicholas 

,, G. Preston 

,, R. Sterry 

,, G. Sloggatt 

,, AL Stephen 

,, A. W. Le Soui'f 

,, [. Schreuder 

.. \V. T. Wilkinson 



From S. School, Brighion-st., Richmd. 
Masters F. Williams, C. Graham, 

A. Langford, Y. Hooks, J. 

Winter, S. Lewis, S. Cassidy, 

J. Campbell, L. Burrows, C. 

Robinson, H. Smith, L. M'Nabb. 

From S. School, Williamstown — 
Masters G. Cullen, S. Bradley, R. 
Bradley. 

From S. School, No. iSg^— 
Masters F. Neilson, B. Cantor, W. 

Meare, W. Bailye, V. Bull, V. 

Sevoir, E. Barby, H. Duncan. 

From S. School, No. 112 — 
Masters J. Colpoys, H. Phillips, 

L. Sullivan, L. Briggs, R. 

M'Dermott, J. Smith. 
From S. School, Surrey Hills — 
Masters L Tassell, J. Billing, R. 

Billing, W. Hooke, N. Brown, 

R. Stephenson, R. Sparkman, 

W. Robins, W. Burrell, M. 

M'Phee, E. Fitts. 

From S. School, Gleiiferrie — 
Master N. Elmiger. 

From S. School, Hawthorn — 
Master A. Holmes. 

From S. School, Cambertuell — 
Masters J. S. Mann, C. J. Mann. 

From S. School, Mooiiee Ponds — 
Masters J. Sweatman, V. Faulke, H. 
Basford, Misses E. Birkenhead, 
J. Ison, E. Edwards, M. Evans. 
From Govt. Continuation School — 
Misses B. Ruppell, D. Debney, V. 
Kerr, E. Fulton, and Masters 
W. Spencer, D. Seaton, F. 
Watson, W. Winn, W. Farr, 
W. Shewlow, ].. Henderson, 
M. O'Dowd, k. O'Dowd. 



Supplement to the " Victorian Naturalist." vii 



J^ist of Journals to which the Club Subscribes. 

Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 

Entomologists' Monthly Magazine. 

Geological Magazine. 

Journal of the Royal Microscopical .Society. 

Zoologist. 



List of Publications which the Club Receives 
in Exchange. 

Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria. 

Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales. 

Publications of the Royal Society of South Australia. 

Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania. 

Proceedings of the Royal .Society of Queensland. 

Transactions of the New Zealand Institute. 

Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales. 

Publications of the New South Wales Naturalists' Club. 

Publications of the Australian Museum, Sydney. 

Publications of the Victorian Department of Mines and Water Supply. 
,, ,, ,, Agriculture. 

Hawkesbury Agricultural College Magazine 

Publications of the Queensland Agricultural Department. 
,, New South Wales Mines Department. 

,, New .South Wales Department of Agriculture. 

Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society of 

Australasia (Victoria). 
The Emu : the Journal of the Australasian Ornithologists' Union. 
The Wombat : the Journal of the Geelong Field Naturalists' Club. 
Nature Notes : the Journal of the Selborne Society, London. 
Nature .Study. 

Reports of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science. 
.Scientific Australian. 

Journal of the Anthropological Society, Sydney. 
Publications of the Smithsonian Institute, Washington, U.S.A. 
Publications of the Field Columbian Museum, U.S.A. 
Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 
Bulletin of the Buffalo Society of Natural Science. 
Publications of the Missouri Botanical Gardens. 
Report of the American Museum of Natural History. 
Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy. 
Minnesota Botanical Studies. 

Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History. 
Transactions of the Nova Scotia Institute. 



viii Supplement to the " Victorian Naturalist. 



THE 



Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria. 



OFFICE-BEARERS. 1905-1906. 

President : 
Mr. F. G. a. Barnard. 

Vice-Presidents : 
Mr. G. Keartland ; Mk. F. Wisewould. 

Hon. Treasurer : 
Mr. G. Coghii.l, Queen's Walk, 72 Swanston-street (Tel. 702). 

Hon. Librarian: 
Mr. .S. W, Fulton, 369 Collins-street. 

Hon, Secretary : 
Mr. J. F. Maase, 17 Swanston-stieet. 

Hon. Assist. Secretary and Librarian: 
Mk. C. L. Barrett. 

Hon. Editor of the "Victorian Naturalist:" 
Mr. F. G. a. Bar.narI), 49 Hii^'h-street, Kew (Tel. 443, Hawthorn). 

Hon. Lanternist: 
Mr. J. .Searle. 

Committee : 

Mr. T. S. Hall, M.A., Mr. A. D. Hardy, Mr. J. A. Kershaw, F.E..S., 
Mr. D. Le Souef, C.M.Z.S., Mr. A. Mattingley. 



Cbc Uictorian Hamralisi 

Vol. XXII. —No. 4. AUGUST 10, 1905. No. 260 

FIELD NATURALISTS' CLUB OF VICTORIA. 

The ordinary monthly meeting of the Club was held at the 
Royal Society's Hall on Monday evening, loth July, 1905. 

The president, Mr. F. G. A. Barnard, occupied the chair, and 
about 70 members and visitors were present. 

THE LATE MR. H. T. TISDALL. 

The president said that, before proceeding to the business on 
the notice paper, he had a sad announcement to make, in that 
the Club had lost that morning by death one of its best known 
members, Mr. H. T. Tisdall. He said that the loss was a very severe 
one, and he felt quite unable to adequately express his feelings 
regarding their late member, whose unselfish work on behalf of 
the Club was known to all. He asked those who could possibly 
do so to meet him the following afternoon at Heidelberg 
Cemetery, and pay their last respects to their fellow-worker, and 
moved that the condolence and sympathy of the Club be 
conveyed to his widow and family. 

Mr. F. VVisewould, in supporting the resolution, spoke of Mr. 
Tisdall's great services to the Club, especially in the help he was 
always ready to render young workers, and his willingness at all 
times to do anything he could for the furtherance of the study of 
natural science. 

REPORT. 

A report of the visit to the Entomological Branch of the 
Department of Agriculture on Saturday, 8th July, was received 
from Mr. C. French, F.L.S., Government Entomologist, who 
reported that about 20 members were present, and spent the 
afternoon in examining the numerous specimens of life-histories 
of insects, the valuable works in the library, and the many other 
interesting contents of the rooms. 

The hon. librarian reported the receipt of the following 
additions to the library : — " Memoirs Geological Survey of Vic- 
toria," No. 3, and "Annual Report (1904) of Secretary for Mines 
and Water Supply, Victoria," from the Department of Mines, 
Melbourne ; The Emu, vol. v., part i (July, 1905), from the 
Australasian Ornithologists' Union ; Nature Notes (May and 
June, 1905), from the Selborne Society, London ; and " Bulletin 
New York Botanical Garden," vol. iv., No. 12, from the Director. 

ELECTION OF MEMBER. 

On a ballot being taken, the Rev. William Eraser, Athol-street, 
Moonee Ponds, was duly elected a member of the Club. 



54 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



PAPERS READ. 

1. By Mr. T. S. Hall, M.A., entitled, "The Distribution of the 
Fresh-water Eel in Australia, with Remarks on its Means of 
Dispersal." 

The author said that in view of the comparatively recent 
conclusions that the fresh-water eel breeds in the sea, it was 
somewhat remarkable that our only Australian species was 
confined to the east and south-east coasts of Australia. It had 
been recorded from Cape York, the northernmost extremity of 
Queensland, through New South Wales and Victoria, and into 
South Australia as far as Lake Bonney. Up to the present no 
authenticated specimen had been received from the Murray 
basin, though that river entered the sea only some two hundred 
miles further north than Lake Bonney. This absence from the 
Murray basin was very remarkable when we recollect that in 
Victoria the head waters of the streams flowing to the Murray 
and direct to the sea were often separated by only a few yards. 
The presence of eels in isolated swamps and lakes was by many 
persons considered to be a proof of their breeding in such places, 
but it was now generally conceded that it was possible for eels in 
their early life to reach such localities by means of the merest 
trickle of water, or even across wet grass land. He also 
mentioned having witnessed many years ago at Buckley's Falls, on 
the Barwon River, near Geelong, what is known as an " eel-fare," 
i.e., the ascent of thousands of young eels from the salt water to 
the fresh, and asked for records of other cases of the kind. 
Finally, he pointed out the differences in the structure of the 
mouth in the eel and the lamprey, the latter being found in the 
Murray River, as well as other streams. 

Mr. A. E. Kitson remarked that when in New Zealand in 
January last with Mr. E. O. Thiele they had witnessed an 
" eel-fare " in the River Mataura, South Island, when thousands 
of young eels were steadily climbing a rocky barrier some .10 or 
12 feet in height in the face of a strong current. 

Mr. F. VVisewould remarked that fresh-water eels were very 
numerous in Tasmania. 

Mr. G. A. Keartland stated that at Heidelberg he had noticed 
an eel some distance from water. 

Mr. J. Shephard said, with reference to the large eels that 
are occasionally found in the Van Yean water-pipes, that they 
must have entered the pipes when small, as all the water entering 
the pipes passes through strainers, which would prevent an eel of 
any size passing through. 

2. By Mr. T. S. Hall, M.A., entitled " A Lizard Mimicking a 
Poisonous Snake." 

The author exhibited a lizard which he had received from 
Queensland a little time ago, and which at first glance seemed to 
agree completely with the description of the young stage of the 



THE VICTOKIAN NATURALISE. 55 

Brown Snake, Diemenia textilis, named by Prof. M'Coy Furina 
bicucullata in his " Prodromus of the Zoology of Victoria," but on 
further examination it was found to possess the characteristic 
scales of lizards, and had been identified as one of the legless 
lizards, Aprasia jndchella. The resemblance was very remark- 
able, and the reason for mimicking a poisonous snake was 
obvious. 

3. By Mr. G. A. Keartland, entitled "The Range of the 
Alexandra Parrakeet, Spathopterus alexandroi." 

The author said that for many years this bird had been 
regarded as strictly confined to the mtra-tropical portion of 
Central Australia, but smce 1885 had been recorded from various 
places extending from near Derby, North-Western Australia, to 
Oodnadatta, in extra-tropical South Australia, and he thought it 
possible that its range may yet be extended into New South 
Wales. 

NATURAL HISTORY NOTES. 

Foxes. — Mr. A. E. Kitson, F.G.S., said that the Geological 
Survey party, in charge of Mr. VV. Baragwanath, jun., recently 
working in the ranges to the north of Mt. Baw Baw, had noticed 
English foxes in the locality, which, besides destroying the 
Lyre-birds in great numbers, had developed a liking for grass- 
hoppers. The animals seemed to show a slight variation from 
the ordinary fox, being smaller and greyer in colouring. 

Source of Yarra River. — Mr. A. E. Kitson, F.G.S., said that 
the survey party referred to had also found that our present maps of 
the source of the Yarra and Thompson Rivers were incorrect, 
as it had been found that the stream which had hitherto been 
regarded as the furthest source of the Yarra was really the head 
of the Thompson. The mistake had occurred through tlie latter 
river flowing firt>t west, then north, and east, before taking its 
southerly course. It was probable that at one time the portion 
flowing westerly had belonged to the Yarra, but it had been 
captured by the stream flowing to the north, and was thus lost to 
the Yarra watershed. The country where this occurred was 
covered with very dense vegetation, and without the aid of 
instruments it was quite impossible to ascertain the positions of the 
ridges and the trends ot the valleys. He also said that it had 
been found that the three peaks of Baw Baw — i.e., Baw Baw 
proper, Mt. Mueller, and Mt. Erica — all rose from an elevated 
table-land about 4,800 feet above sea level. Unfortunately 
another peak, situated at the south-eastern edge of the plateau, 
was known locally as Mt. Erica, but it was really some five miles 
distant from the Mt. Erica of the maps. 

exhibits 

By Mr. W. Baragwanath, jun., per Mr. A. E. Kitson, F.G.S. — 
Photographs taken on Mount i3aw Baw, at over 5,000 feet, by 
Mr. A. E. Rodda. 



56 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

By Mr. P. C. Cole. — Carved Wommera, with chisel end, from 
North-West Australia. 

By Mr. V. Chapman. — One hundred and three species of 
Foraminifera and fourteen of Ostracoda, including two new 
species and many hitlierto unknown in the New Zealand area, 
obtained from dredgings made by Messrs. Hedley and Suter in 
no fathoms, off Great Barrier Island, North Island, New 
Zealand. 

By Mr. C. French, jun. — Wood of Murray Pine, Gallitris 
ver7'ucosa, R. Br., destroyed by Buprestid Beetle, Diadoxus 
iscalaris, from Kerang, Victoria. 

By Mr. C. J. Gabriel. — Shells — Myodora ovata, Reeve, from 
Victoria ; 31. striata, Quoy, from New Zealand ; M. brevis, 
Stutch., from Tasmania ; M. pandorci'/ormis, Stutch., from New 
South Wales ; Tellidora burnetii, Brod. and Sow., from Mazatlan ; 
and Pandora incequivalvis, Linn., from England. 

By Mr. T. S. Hall, M.A. — Legless lizard, Aprasia pulchella, 
mimicking young form of Brown Snake, Diemenia texlilis, D. and 
B. (known as Furina bicucullata, M'Coy), from Queensland, in 
illustration of paper ; specimens of cones of Murray Pine, 
Callitris, sp., from Barrabool Hills, three miles west of Geelong. 

By Mr. G. A. Keartland. — Princess Alexandra Parrakeets, 
Spathopterus alexandroi. North, from Central Australia, in illustra- 
tion of paper. 

By Mr. J. A. Kershaw, F.E.S. — Feather of extinct Moa, from 
New Zealand. 

By Mr. A. E. Kitson, F.G.S. — Silurian fossils, Palaeanatina, 
sp., and Palaeoneilo, sp., determined by Mr. F. Chapman, 
A.L.S., from Yarra improvement works, near South Yarra 
railway bridge. 

By Mr. F. Pitcher. — Blooms of Acacia baileyana, F. v. M., 
and Protea neriifolia, from Botanical Gardens, Melbourne. 

By Mr. C. Oke. — Young Copper-head Snake, Hoploceplialus 
su2Jerbus, Gunth., taken at Elsternwick on ist July. 

By Mr. J. Stickland. — Fresh-water Alga, tSphairella (Hcemato- 
coccus) pluvialis. 

By Mr. A. Tymms. — Coleoptera, including Schizorhina 
phillijjsi. 

By Mr. G. Weindorfer. — Dried specimens of Puliencea 
weindor/eri. Reader, sp. nov., from near Wandin, Victoria. 

After the usual conversazione the meeting terminated. 



THE LATE MR. H. T. TISDALL. 

It is with deep regret we record the death of our fellow- 
member, Mr. Henry Thomas Tisdall, one of the best known 
botanical teachers in the State. Mr. Tisdall's connection 
with the Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria dates from 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 57 

the second year of its existence, 1 88 1-2, at which time he 
was head teacher of the State school at Walhalla, North 
Gippsland. Paying early attention to botany, at the third 
conversazione of the Club, in April, 1883, he exhibited a series 
of water-colour drawings of the wild flowers of his district, the 
results of several years' work, and in September of the same year 
contributed his first paper, entitled " A Botanical Excursion in 
North Gippsland," which apparently was not published, being 
before the establishment of the Victorian JVataralist. Having 
to a great extent exhausted the phanerogams of the district, he 
was induced by Baron von Mueller to turn his attention to the 
cryptogams, with the result that he became an excellent authority 
on fungi, &c., and at the meeting of the Club, in February, 1885, 
contributed a paper entitled " The Fungi of Mt. Baw Baw," m 
which he described some twelve species of the genus Agaricus, of 
which he also exhibited water-colour drawings of his own ex- 
ecution. In November of the same year he contributed a further 
paper on the fungi of North Gippsland, in which he made some 
remarks regarding the fungus then known as Mylitta auslralis, 
" Native Bread," which have since become historical, and which 
he repeated and amplified in May of last year ( Victorian 
Nalttralist, xxi., p. 56). This was destined to be his last con- 
tribution to our proceedings, though present at several subsequent 
meetings. During the interval of nearly twenty-one years between 
his first and last paper, and more especially after his promotion 
to the Albert Park school in 1887, he contributed numerous 
papers to the meetings of the Club, all relating more or less to 
botany, either as bearing on a particular branch or descriptive of 
trips or excursions in search of specimens. He was ever willing 
to lead an excursion or act as demonstrator at a practical meeting 
when appealed to by the committee, besides which he took his 
share in the management of the Club, serving for two years as 
vice-president, the same period as president (1893-5), and for six 
years as member of committee. His last act for the benefit of 
the Club was to take charge of the first excursion for juniors at 
Sandringham, in October last, when by his clear and simple 
remarks about the specimens gathered he quite endeared himself 
to many of the young people present. In addition to his know- 
ledge of our phanerogamic and cryptoganic plants Mr. Tisdall 
was, at tlie time of his death, perhaps our best authority on 
marine Algae, and in this department alone will be greatly missed. 
Besides his work for the Field Naturalists' Club he was ever 
ready to assist organizations of a kindred nature, and delivered 
several lectures before the Geelong Field Naturalists' Club. He 
contributed an article on the flora of Walhalla to the Mining 
Department's report on that goldfield (1902), as also some 
useful papers to the meetings of the Australasian Association for 
the Advancement of Science, which included a list of the marine 



58 THE VICTOKIAN NATURALIST. 

Alg?e of Victoria. After his retirement from the Education De- 
partment in 1894, he was appointed lecturer on botany at the 
Training Institute for School Teachers and the Veterinary 
College, when he published a student's help called " Botany 
Notes." This consisted of his own drawings, reproduced by a 
copying process, supplemented with copious explanatory notes. 
His work, of whatever nature — whether as lay reader in the 
Anglican Church, as lionorary secretary of the Head Teachers' 
Association, or as science teacher— always commanded his best 
efforts, with the result that he made numbers of friends, who will 
long remember him as one who seemed to live only to serve his 
fellow man. During late years he had to restrain himself some- 
what, and when it was found necessary for him, early in the year, 
to take a complete rest it was hoped that in a few months he 
would be restored to his accustomed vigour ; but it was not to be, 
and he passed peacefully away on the loth July, at the age of 69, 
leaving a widow and grown-up family of sons and daughters, 
several of whom have gained University degrees, while one, Miss 
Constance Tisdall, B.A., having her father's tastes, is the autlior 
of " Australian Nature Stories for Children," noticed in these 
pages about a year ago. 



A BOTANICAL TRIP TO MOUNT ERICA, BAW BAW. 

By C. S. Sutton, M.B. 
{Read before the Field Naturalists' Cluh of Victoria, Sth May, 1905.) 
On New Year's Eve (Saturday, 31st December, 1904) three of 
us, Messrs. H. B. Williamson, G. Weindorfer, and myself, went 
to Moe (80 miles) by the afternoon Gippsland train, and before 
leaving the station arranged with Mr. Andy Templeton to be 
driven thj following morning to Upper Moondarra, a distance of 
19 miles, whence we were to scale Mount Erica, the nearest peak 
of the Baw Baw Range. 

Accordingly, early on Sunday morning we set off in a three- 
horse waggon along the Walhalla road, crossing in all five times 
the track of the Moe-Walhalla line, now in course of construction, 
and also, in turn, the main drain of the Moe Swamp, the Latrobe 
— a fine stream, where the notes of the Bell-bird were dinned into 
our ears — the Tangil, and the Tyers. 

Nothing of much botanical interest was seen so far, but Cassinia 
aculeata, HeAichrysum ferruc/ineum, Bursaria spinosa, Prostan- 
thera lasiantha, Goodenia ovata, Dipodium jnmctatuin, Melaleuca 
squarrosa and ericifolia, Leptottpermum scoparium, Baiiera rubi- 
oides, Persoonia jnniperina, G omp>holobii(,m huegelii,and Dampiera 
stricta were still in bloom, and Hakea sericea in full flower. At 
the Tyers, a fine, quick, clear stream, bordered by a dense scrub, 
while the horses were being watered at the Cecil Inn, we break- 
fasted, and afterwards gatliered Leptosperinum grandifloruni, 



THE VICTORIAN NATUHALIST. 59 



Kunzea peditncularis, Lasiopetalnm dasyphyllitm (in seed), and 
Lomatla longijolia. 

Crossing the bridge over the Tyers we entered the Moondarra 
district, and soon were passing through a patch oi Acacia mitchelii. 
The road was now rising all the time until we passed the post- 
office, when we turned off the Walhalla road and found the way 
much rougher. We walked here for a while to relieve the horses 
when crossing a creek with steep banks, and collected Ifeli- 
chrijsum cuneifolmrn on the way. After about five hours' driving 
we were deposited at Upper Moondarra, and, shouldering our 
packs, we trudged on to Hotel Creek, where we lunched. With the 
kind assistance of a local resident we got on to the blazed track 
along the spur leadmg to the foot of the mountain, and now felt 
we were fairly on the way to our goal. The track along the spur 
has frequent ups and downs, and is in parts not very well defined, 
but the blazed trees kept us from going astray, and we had no 
difficulty in finding the water in a branch of the Tyers a litde to 
the left of the track as we approached the mountain. As we 
went we got Drymophihi cyanocarpa, then just at the end of its 
blossoming, and at the water Lyonsia straminea. 

The smoke of neighbouring bush fires was so thick that we did 
not see the mountain until we were right on it, and here the track 
was unmistakable. The going was easy, and hardly any rocks 
were encountered until we had arrived at our camping ground, 
about 4,500 feet above sea level. As we ascended we collected 
Scaevola hookeri, Australina jnisilla, and Raphanus raphanislrum, 
but had very little occasion to halt, excepting to recover our wind. 
By the time we had reached the boulders it was nearly dusk, and 
we had had quite enougli exercise for the day, for our packs were 
heavy and the day was hot. Accordingly, it was with much 
relief that we dropped our burdens under the shelter of a huge 
boulder as big as a house, which had conveniently fallen on to 
another smaller brother, and so formed an excellent shelter. 
Immediately around here Prostanthera nivea, Scaevola hookeri, 
and Senecio dryadeus were in profusion. Finding no water among 
the boulders, we had to retrace our steps to a small spring we 
had passed in order to fill our billies, which we soon had boiling 
on the stone floor of our shelter. After refreshing ourselves we 
soon turned into our solitary blanket, in anticipation of an early 
start next morning, and seeing that we had to finish the ascent of 
the mountain, do our collecting on the summit, and make our way 
back over the 12 miles to where we had left our driver in time to 
be driven to Moe to catch the evening train, this early retirement 
was certainly called for. The stone floor was hard, the night 
ftiirly cold, and our covering slight, so that we had no difficulty 
in rising early. In fact, we anticipated the dawn, took a hurried 
breakfast, and set off to finish the ascent. Our efforts were soon 
rewarded. First of all we came on Helichryfium rosmarinifolium 



60 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

and Oxylobium alpestre, then Sisyrinchium pulchellum, and 
after this Wiitstdnia vacciniacea gladdened our eyes, all four 
being in their prime. On the summit the clouds were driving, so 
that our outlook was limited ; but the small open spaces, where 
water meandered among the sphagnum beds, enclosed by 
stretches of dry ground littered with boulders and covered 
with a scrubby Eucalyptus, E. coriacea, reminded us of the higli 
plains of the Bogong and Buffalo, and more particularly of 
the latter, which it very much resembled in miniature. In the 
open spaces we collected Drosera arctnri ; Richea gunnii, in 
longer spikes and much more branched than on the Buffalo ; 
Praso])hyllum alpinurn, Senecio pectinatus, just about lo 
blossom ; Gentiana saxosa (one specimen), Ilerpolirion novce- 
zealandice, Aster celmlsia, in very fine condition and very 
plentiful ; Epacris heteronema, StypJtelia elUptica (fruit), also .S'. 
oxycedrus, and Pimelea alpina, better than in the North-East. 
Among the boulders we got FuUencea muelleri, Prostanthera 
cuneata, Orites lancifulia, Drimys aromatica, C allistemon pity- 
oides (fruit), Lomaria alpina, and Aspidium aculeatum ; and, 
right in the boulders themselves, Coprosma nitida, and very fine 
specimens of the Wittsteinia. 

Very well satisfied with our haul, we returned to our camp by 
about 8 o'clock and transferred our specimens to the portfolios. 
The thick mist had by this changed to a fine rain, in which we 
set off down the mountain, and with brushing through the scrub 
we were soon pretty wet. Unfortunately, too, while on the spur, 
we took a wrong turn on to a j inker track, and had gone about a 
mile and a half out of our way before we saw the necessity to 
retrace our steps to the right road. This we luckily succeeded 
in doing, with only the loss of some time, and we eventually 
reached our impatient driver about 1.30 p.m., taking a snack at 
Hotel Creek on the way. The rain by this was heavier and 
steadier, and our journey back to Moe, broken only by a meal at 
the Cecil Inn (a well-known roadside house on the Tyers), was 
far from pleasant. Although an hour and a half late in com- 
mencing our drive, and in spite of the bad and slippery roads, 
which necessitated very careful driving, we yet succeeded in 
catching our train, and returned to town after a long and tiring 
day, very wet, but well satisfied with our experiences. 

When the Moe-Walhalla railway is completed there will be a 
station at Upper Moondarra, very near to where we commenced 
our walk, and we hope then to renew our acquaintance with 
Mount Erica, and tn extend it to its neighbours. Mounts Mueller 
and Baw Baw (about six miles from Erica), which will be more 
accessible than at present in a short holiday. 

[Since writing the above I have learned thai the mount vi>ited by us, and 
locally known as " Erica," is not the Mt. Erica of the maps, but, tliough on 
the same table-land, is about six miles to the south-east of that peak.] 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



61 



The following is a list of tlie 
being obtained in fruit : — 

Clematis aristata 

Ranunculus lappaceus 

Hibbertia stricia 

Drimys animatica 

Iledycaria cunninghami 

Caitlamine stylosa 

Kaphanus raphanistruni (introd.) 

Viola hedeiacea 

betonicifolia 
tBiliardiera scandens 

Drosera arcturi 
tComesperma ericinuni 
t calyniega 

tZieria smiLhii 

Geranium pilosum 
fLasiopetalum dasypliylluni 

Oxalis coiniculata 

Poranthera microphylla 

Amperea spartioides 

Stackhousia linaiifolia 

Uxylobium alpestie 

Gompholobium huegelii 

Pultena;a muelleii 
t gunnii 

t scabra 

t junipcrina 

Dillvvynia ericifolia 
tAcacia dealbata 
t discolor 

Rubus parvifolius 

AcKna sanguisorlj;y 

Bauera rubioides 

Epilobium glabellum 

Lythrum salicaria 

llaloragis tetragyna 

Leptospermum scoparium 

lanigerum (var. grandifloiiiiu) 

Kunzea peiluncularis 
tCallistemun pityoides 

Melaleuca squarrosa 
ericifolia 

Eucalyptus coriacea 

Cryptandra hookeri 

Hydrocotyle geranifolia 

Orites lancifoiia 

Ilakea sericea 

Lomatia longifolia 

Persoonia juni})erina 
tBanksia collina 

Pimelea humilis 

Coprosma mtida 

Samljucus gaudichaudiana 

Lagenophora billardieri 

Brachycome caidiocarpa 

Aster argophyllus 
stellulatus 



plants collected, those marked f 



Aster ramulosus 

celmisia 

gland ulosus 
Gnaphalium jaiionicum 
Helichrysum rosmarinifolium 

ferrugineum 

cuneifoliuni 
Cassinia aculeata 
Craspedia richea 
Senecio velleioides 

(hyadeus 

bedfordi 

lautus 

odoratus 
Erechtites prenanlhoides 
Lobelia gibbosa 
Wahlenbergia gracilis 
Candollea serrulata 
Dampiera stricta 
Scaevola hookeri 
Goodenia ovata 
Brunonia australis 
Gentiana saxosa 
Plantago varia 
Lyonsia straminea 
Veronica gracilis 

calyniega 

nivea 
Euphrasia brovvnii 
Brunella vulgaris 
Prostanthera lasiantha 

nivea 

cuneata 
Wittsteinia vacciniacea 
Styphelia elliptica 

oxycedrus 
Epacris mucronulala 

heteronema 
Richea gunnii 
Dipodium punctaium 
Prasophyllum alpinum 

]3atens 
Sisyrinchium pulchelhnn 
Drymophila cyanocarpa 
Dianella tasmanica 

longifolia 
Herpolirion nova;-zealandire 
Xanthonhiea minus 
Triglochin procera 
J uncus pallidus 
Anthistiria ciliata 
Ehrharta juncea 
Lomaria alpina 
Dicksonia billardieri 
Aspidium aculealum 
Pteris aquilina 



62 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

THE FRESH-WATER AhGJE OF VICTORIA. 

Part II. (continued from page 35). 

By a. D. Hardy. 

{Read he/vre the Field Naturalists' Cliih of Victoria, lOth April, 1! 05.) 

Desmidiace^e (continued). 
The literature relating to Victorian Desmids is, as far as I have 
ascertained after a careful search, embraced in the following notes, 
which give the references in chronological order : — 

In 1864 there appeared in the Trans. Roy. Soc. Vict, a short 
list of " Confervacese " and " Desmidiese," collected by the late 
Mr. Henry Watts, and identified in Europe by algologists, to 
whom the material was sent by the late Baron F. von Mueller. In 
the list of Desmids some localities were given, but no authors of 
species — a regrettable omission, in view of the confusion of 
genera in the history of Alg^, and one that extends throughout all 
records of these plants in Victoria, with the exception of the few 
in Nordstedt's list. 

The next record was in 1869, when Mr. Sydney Gibbons con- 
tributed to the Roy. Soc. Vict. (vol. x., old series) a paper 
entitled "Air and Water Poisoning in Melbourne." In this he 
dealt with organic matter, living and dead, found by him in an 
examination of water in gutters, drains, pipe services, &c., of the 
metropolitan water supply and drainage system. Among a 
number of Algae were included eleven species of Desmids, and 
although little reference appeared in the letterpress, several 
micro-photographs, which were printed with the paper, show 
several genera easily recognizable, and an easily identifiable 
specimen of Micrasterias Jurcata, Ralfs. 

In 1880, in F. v. Mueller's " Frag. Phytograph. Australian" 
(supplem. ad vol. undec), there were recorded thirty fresh- 
water Algae, inclusive of several genera of Desmids, but without 
detail of species. 

In 1883 Mr. H. Watts read a paper before this Club entitled 
" A Trip to Mt. Macedon in Search of Fresh-water Algae," 
which was printed in the Sotithern Science Record; vol. iii. (1883). 
The list of Desmids contained about a dozen species, a few 
of which were additional to those of previous records, but, as 
before, the authors' names were omitted, thus leaving the species 
in confusion. 

In 1887 the Victorian Naturalist (vol. iii., p. 133) contained a 
paper by Mr. H. Watts, entitled "Some Recent Additions 
to our Knowledge of Microscopical Natural History." In- 
cluded with various matters, the author gave a list of 
Algae and Desmidieae, in which his former lists, dating 
back to his first record of twenty years earlier, were con- 
solidated, revised, ai.d supplemented, but without localities 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 63 

or names of authorities. His last list of " Desmidiese " con- 
tained about fifty species, some of which were not Desmids, 
and others of doubtful generic and specific determination. After 
gathermg from many sources, but mainly from old members of 
the Field Naturalists' Club — to whom, with the exception of Mr. 
C. French, jun., acknowledgment has already been made — the 
scattered fragments of VVatts's collection of microscopic slides, I 
found that, though he mounted a large number of specimens, they 
comprised only a few species, and that most of them, owing to 
failure of mountant (glycerine jelly !) used, were practically 
valueless. 

Later Mr. Watts prepared a manuscript which, though un- 
pulished, has been kindly handed to me for perusal by Mr. F. G. A. 
Barnard. This paper he called " Infusoria Peculiar to Aus- 
tralia ;" but the list of Desmids contains only species more or 
less cosmopolitan, and discrepancies occur which lead me to 
think that it would have been further revised before publication, 
and was probably withheld for that purpose. In the absence of 
names of authors of species, it may be well to mention that in this 
undated M.S. Mr. Watts says : — " We unhesitatingly state that we 
have never seen a species that could not be fully identified either 
by means of ' Ralfs' British Desmidiese' or Dr. H. C. Wood's 
work on 'The Fresh-water Algse of North America.'" This remark, 
to a large extent, discounts the value of the records of this en- 
thusiastic worker. Accordingly, in the following list, where Watts 
has recorded a species which I have not collected, I have given 
with a query in brackets an audior's name for the species as 
found in Raifs' or Wood's, and these may be taken as the nearest 
approach at this date possible to identification of Watts's 
specimens. 

In 1896 Dr. Otto Nordstedt published an illustrated list, with 
descriptions of New Zealand and Australian fresh-water Alg^ 
collected by Dr. Berggren. Of these, the Victorian Algje in the 
Australian section were few, and were collected near Fernshaw, in 
1875, twenty-one years prior to publication. This list included 
eight Desmids. 

On several occasions Mr. John Shephard and Messrs. W. and 
J. Stickland have noted an occasional species in reports on 
pond-life excursions. 

The Victorian Naturalist, vol. xxi., p. 81 (1904) included a 
paper by myself, in which I gave a rough general sketch of the 
fresh-water Alg?e, with a view to preparing members for sub- 
sequent notes on families, and the historical sketch given above 
is calculated to clear the way for the family Desmidiaceje — the 
most interesting, perhaps, of the unicellular Algae. The list 
which follows is to be regarded as by no means a complete list of 
collected species, for many others, withheld for further examina- 
tion, will be presented in supplementary lists. 



64 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



It will be noted that many species are from the Yan Yean 
Reservoir. This is due to my having had more opportunities 
and time to examine that water, through facilities specially afforded 
me by the Metropolitan Board of Works, during an algological 
survey, now in progress and extending over a period of twelve 
months. Other interesting localities less accessible would, if more 
time were available, give equally good results, and these I hope 
to report on soon. Tlie reservoir has yielded several new species, 
varieties, and forms, which appear in the list, accompanied by 
descriptions by Professor G. S. West. 

Of these, one, to which the author of the species has given the 
name of the collector, is that which has been twice exhibited by 
me at Club meetings as "a new species of Micrasterias." Though 
it is recorded now for the first tmie, I remember having taken it 
in a muslin net at a city supply tap many years ago, when its 
numerical increase in the lake was abnormal. I have not seen 
its zygospore, but have noted it in all gradations of increase by 
vegetative division. The best known representative of the group 
to which this Desmid, M. hardyi, G. S. West, is related is M. 
mahabuleshwarensis, Hobson, a variety of which (figure 3 on 
the plate) I have collected from the Botanical Gardens lake, 
Melbourne, and of which a new variety is ])resenl in lagoons 
of the Upper Goulburn at Whanregarwen, Acheron, Eildon, 
&c. 

The presenting of this and following lists has been rendered 
possible by the kindness of Professor West, England, and Dr. O. 
Borge, Sweden, who have sent me valuable literature. I have 
also to thank Miss Hardy and Messrs. W. Muntz, C.E., A. J. 
Day, H. C. White, J. Shephard, and Scott Sharpe for material 
forwarded for examination. 

The following is a list of the Victorian Desmidiaccce, compiled 
from the sources mentioned, arranged according to Professor 
West's classification : — 

EXPLANATIONS OF TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS USED, 

LUCALITIES : — 

Ach. = Aclieion. 

Alex. -- Alexandra. 

Clielt. — Cheltenham. 

H'berg. — Heidelberg. 

Melb. Bol. Gard. - Melbourne 
Botanical Gardens. 

Melb. W. S. (tap) = house tap of 
Melbourne Water Supply 
(more than one source). 

Sandr. = Sandringham. 

Thorn. = Thornton. 

Whan. -- Whanregarwen. 

Wlsm. = Willsmere. 



Features : — 

lag. — lagoon == small permanent 
lake or large pool, having 
part clear of weeds. 

plank. ^ plankton. 

pool = pond = small lagoon. 

Res. = large artificial reservoir, 
with vegetation. 

res. = small artificial reservoir, no 
vegetation. 

s. = swamp — marsh, more or less 
vegetated throughout. 

w. = from weeds, at or near mar- 
gin, or within 2 metres 
of surface. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 65 

Class.— CH LOROPHYCE^^. 

Order.— CONJUGATiE. 

Fam. — Desmidiaceae. 

SubFam. I.— SACCODERM^, Lutkemiiller. 

Tribe I.— Gonatozyg^, Liitkem. 

Genus i. — Gonatozygon, De Bary. 

G. kinahani (Arch.), Rabenh. Yan Yean (Res., plankton) 
G. minutum, W. West ... Whanregarwen (lagoon) 

G. monotcenium, De Bary ... Willsmere (lagoon) 

Genus 2. — Genicularia, De Bary. 

Tribe II. — SpiROT^iiNiE^, Liitkem. 

Genus 3. — Spirotcenia, Breb. 

Genus 4. — Mesotcenium, Nag. 

Genus 5. — Ancylonema, Berggren. 

Genus 6. — Cylindrocyslis, Menegh. 

C. diplospora, Lund. ... Yan Yean (Res., plankton) 

Genus 7. — JVetrium, Nag. 
N. digitus, Ehr. ... ... Acheron (swamp) 

Sub-Fam. II.— PLACODERM^, Liitkem. 

Tribe III. — Penie^, Liitkem. 
Genus 8. — Penium, Breb. 
P. digitus, Ehr. (?) ... Yarra Glen (lagoon) 

P. didymocarpum, Lund. ... Upper Goulburn River (lagoons) 
(P. closterioides, Ralfs ?) 
(P. margaritaceum [Ehr.], 

Breb. ?) 
(P. jenneri, Ralfs ?) 

P. truncatum, Breb. ... Whanregarwen (lagoon) 

P. navicula, Breb. ... Alexandra (lagoon) 

P. niigelii, Breb. ... ... Molesworth (swamps), Chelten- 

ham, Sandringham 

Tribe IV. — CLOSTERiEyE, Liitkem. 

Genus 9. — Roya, W. and G. S. West. 

Genus 10. — Closterium, Nitzsch. 

C. acerosum (Shrank), Ehr — Brighton (s.), Lake Colac 
[C. aciculare, Tuffen West ?] 



6-5 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



(C. acutum, Breb. ?) 
C. calosporum, Wittr. 
(C. costatum, Corda ?) 
C. dianse, Ehr. 

C. ehrenbergii, Menegh. 

C. gracile, Breb. ... 

C. griffithsii, Berk. 

(C. intermedium, Ralfs ?) 

C. jenneri, Ralfs ... 

C. juncidum, Ralfs 

C. kutzingii, Breb. 

C. lanceolatum, Kutz. 

C. leibleinii, Kutz. 

C. lineatum, Ehr. ... 

(C. lunula, MuUer ?) 

C. malinvernianum, De Not 

(C. regulare, Breb.) 

C. rostratum, Ehr. 



C. setaceum, Ehr. 
C. striolatum, Ehr 
C. venus, Kutz. 



Yan Yean (Res., w.) 

Ach. (s.), Richmond, Kew (river, 

backwater) 
(Common) 
Yarra Glen (lagoon) 
Heidelberg (lagoon) 

Yarra Glen (lagoon) 

Melb. W. S. (at tap) 

Yan Yean Reservoir (plankton) 

Lake Colac (w.) 

Eildon (lag.), Yan Yean (Res., w.) 

Lake Wendouree, Ballarat 

Ballarat (swamp) 

Kew to Heidelberg (lagoons) 



Yarra Glen, Eildon, Molesworth 

(lag.) 
Whan., Alex., Thorn., &c. (lag.), 

Yan Yean (Res., w ) 
Lake Wendouree, Ballarat ; Lake 

Colac 
Acheron, Eildon (lagoons) 

Tribe V. — Cosmarie^, Liitkem. 
Genus ir. — ■Docidium, Breb. 
D. baculum, Breb. ... Yarra Glen (lagoon) 

(D. clavatum, Kutz. ?) 
(D. crenulatum, Ehr. ?) 
D. minutum, Ralfs 
(D. nodulosum, Breb.) 
(D. truncatum, Breb.) 
D. undulatum, Bail. 
(D. verticillatum, Ralfs?) 

Genus 12. — Pleurotaniiwi, Niig. 
P. coronatum (Breb.), Rabenh. Geelong (Res.) 
P. ehrenbergii (Ralfs), De Bary (Common) 
P. mamillatum, sp. n. 
P. nodosum, Bail. (Lund) ... 
P. ovatum, Nordst., var. in- 

ermis, Moebius ... Cheltenham (s.), WiUsmere (pool) 

Genus 13. — Triploceras, Bail. 
T. gracile, Bail., var. ... Whan., Ach., Yarra Glen (lag.), 

Yan Yean (Res., w.) 
Genus 14. — Ichlliyocercus, W. and G. S. West. 



Thornton, Eildon (lagoon) 



Heidelberg (swamp) 



Yan Yean (Res., plankton) 
Yarra Glen (lagoon) 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



67 



Genus 15. — Teimemorus, Ralfs. 
T. brebissonii, Menegh. ... Brighton, Sandr., Cliclt. (s.) 
Genus 16. — Eitastrum, Ehr. 



E. affine, Ralfs 

(E. ansatum, Ehr. ?) 

E. ansatum, var. compactum, 

WoUe. 
E. binale, Turp. ... 
E. binale, Turp., var. 
E. circulare, Hass. 
E. cosmarioides, W. and G. 

S. West ... 
E. didelta, Turp. ... 
(E. pingue?) 
E. verrucosum (Ehr.), Ralfs, 

forma 
E. turgidum (Wallich), Turn. 



Melb. Botanical Gardens (lake) 



Acheron, Yarra Glen (lagoon) 
Yan Yean (Res., w.) 
Yarra Glen (lagoon) 

Alexandra (lagoon) 
Alexandra, Cathkin (swamps) 



(?) 



VVhanregarwen (lagoons) 
Genus 17. — Micrasterias, Ag. 
(M. araericana, Ehr. ?) 



M. angulosa, Hantzsch 

M. crenata, Breb. 

M. decemdentata, Nag. (?) ... 

M. denticulata, Breb. 

M. hardyi, sp. n. ... 

M. incisa. Bail. 

M. incisa, var. Wallachiana ... 

M. mahabuleshvvarensis. Hob- 
son 

M. mahabuleshvvarensis, var. 
reductum, var. n. 

M. oscitans, Ag. ... 

M. oscitans, Ag., var. pinnati- 
fida, Kutz. ... 

M. pinnatifida, Kutz. 

M. radiosa, Ag. ... 

(M. truncata, Corda ?) 

Genus 18. 

C. amplum, Nordst. 
(C. anceps, Lund. ?) 
C. bioculatum, Breb. 
C. biretum, Bieb. ... 
C. botrytes, Borge 
C. capitulum, Roy. and Bis., 
var. australe, var. n. ... 



Fernshaw 

Chelt., Ballarat (swamps) 
Heidelberg, &c. (lagoons) 
Chelt, Thorn., H'berg. (swamp) 
Yan Yean (Res., plankton) 
Upper Goulburn R. (lagoons) 
Upper Goulburn R. (lagoons) 

Melb. Botanical Gardens (lake) 

VVhanregarwen (lagoon) 
Whanregarwen (lagoon) 

Whanregarwen (lagoon) 
. Ach., Whan.,Eildon, Thorn, (lag.) 
. Cheltenham, Brighton (swamps) 

Cosniariicm, Corda. 

. (?) 
. (?) 

. Yan Yean (Res., plankton) 
. Melb. Botanical Gardens (lake) 
Melb. Botanical Gardens (lake) 

Yan Yean (Res., plankton) 



68 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



C. 

c. 



(C. 
(C. 

c. 

(C. 

c. 
c. 

(C. 

c. 
c. 

c. 
c. 
c. 
c. 

(C. 

c. 
c. 
c. 

(C, 

c. 
c. 
c. 
c. 

(C 

[C, 



X. 
X. 



A. 
(A 
A. 
A. 



s. 



contractum, Kirch, (wilh 

zygospore) 
contractum, var. ellip- 

soideum (?), VV. and 

G. S. West... 
connatura, Breb. ?) 
cucumis, Corda ?) 
difficile, Liitkem., var. sub- 

Iccve, Liitkem. 
elegantissimum ?) 
granatum, Breb., var. sub- 

granatum, Nord. 
hardyi, sp. n. ... 
mene^hinii, Breb. ?) 
moniliforme (Turp.), Ralfs 
neapolitanum, Bals., var. 

ausiralicum, Schmidle 
nitiduluni, De Not. 
obsolelum, Hentzsch. 
pachydermum, Lund, 
porrectum, Nordst. 
praemorsum, Breb. ?) 
pseudoconnatum, Nordst. 
pygmaeum, Arch, 
pyramidatum, Breb. 
, ralfsii, Breb ?) 
reniforine, Ralfs 
scenedesmus, Uelph. 
tetranpthalmum, Kutz. ... 
tortum. Lager, et Nordst., 

forma trigona (?) 
. turnidum ?) 
, undulatuni, Corda?] 



Yan Yean (Res., plankton) 



Yan Yean (Res., plankton) 
Heidelberg and Yarra River 

f?) 

Yan Yean (Res , vv.) 
'?) 

Heidelberg (lagoon) 

Yan Yean (Res., plankton) 

(?) 

Yan Yean (Res., plankton) 

Melb. Botanical Gardens (lake) 

Whan., Melb. Bot. Gard. (lake) 

Yan Yean (Res., vv.) 

Yarra Glen (lagoon) 

Melb. Botanical Gardens (lake) 

(?j 

Thornton (lagoon) 

Yan Yean (Res., w. ) 

Deepdene (lagoon) 

Macedon (pool) 

Brighton (swamp) 

Yan Yean (Res., plankton) 

Yan Yean (Res.), Macedon (pool) 

Yan Yean (Res., plankton) 

(?) . 

Heidelberg and Yarra River 



-Xanthidiiim, Ehr. 



Yan Yean (Res., plankton) 
Cheltenham (swamp) 



Genus 19. 

hastiferum. Turner 
bifurcatum, Borge, var. 

(ienus 20. — Arthrodesnms, Ehr. 
convergens, Ehr., forma ... Eildon (lagoon) 
. incus, Breb. (?) 

oclocornis, Ehr. ... Yarra Glen (lagoons) 

triangularis, Lagerh. (forma 

minor?) ... ... Yan Yean (Res., plankton) 

Genus 21. — Staurastrum, Meyen. 
aristiferum, Ralfs ... Thornton (swamp) 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



69 



S. aspersum, Breb. 

S. assurgens, Nordst. 

S. brevispina, Brel). 

S. corniculatuiii, Lund. 

S. corniculatum, var. spin- 

igerum, West 
S. cuspidatum, Breb. 
S. cyrtoceruin, Bieb. 
S. dejectum, Brel). 
S. dilatatum, Ehr., forma aus- 

Iralica, Schmidle 
S. dickiei, Ralfs ... 
S. gracile, Ralfs ... 
S. hexacerum (Ehr.), Wiltr. ... 
S. la^vispinum, Bis., var. sub- 

brach latum, var. n. ... 
S. leptacanthum, Nordst. 
S. leptocladum, Nordst. 
S. mucronatum, Ralfs, var. 

delicatulum, var. n. ... 
S. muticum, Breb. 
S muticum, var. victoriense, 

var. n. 
S. nudibrachiatum, Borge, 

var. victoriense, var. n. 
S. orbiculare (Ehr.), Ralfs ... 
S. paradoxum, Meyer 

S. paradoxum, var. longipes, 

Nordst. 
S. patens. Turn., var. plank- 

tonicum, var. n. 
S. punctulatum, Breb. 
S. safiittarium, Nordst. 
S. sebaldi, Reinsch., var. or- 

natum 
S. sexangulare(Buln.), Rabenh. 
S. sexangulaie, var. pro- 

ductum, Nordst. 
S. submanfeldtii, W. and G. S. 

West, forma 
S. tetracerum. West, forma ... 
S. tricorne, Breb. ... 
S. vestitum, Ralfs 



Acheron (swamp) 
Thornton (swamp) 
Melbourne Water Supply (tap) 
Yan Yean (Res., plankton) 

Yan Yean (Res, plankton) 
Yan Yean (Res., plankton) 
Yan Yean (Res., w.) 
Yan Yean (Res., w.) 

Heidelberg (lagoon) 
Melbourne Water Supply (tap) 
Yan Yean (Res., plankton) 
Yan Yean (Res., w.) 

Yan Yean (Res., plankton) 
Yan Yean (Res., plankton) 
Yan Yean (Res., w.) 

Yan Yean (Res., w.) 

Yan Yean (Res., plankton) 

Yan Yean (Res., plankton) 

Yan Yean (Res., plankton) 
Melb. W. S. (tap), Wlsm. (pool) 
Macedon (pool), Yan Yean (Res. 
plankton) 

Yan Yean (Res., plankton) 

Yan Yean (Res., plankton) 
Yan Yean (Res., w.) 
Yan Yean (Res., w.) 

Yan Yean (Res , plankton) 
Yan Yean (Res., plankton) 

Yan Yean (Res., plankton) 



Whanregarvven (lagoon) 
Yan Yean (Res., plankton) 
Whan, (lag.), Macedon (pool) 
Cathkin (s.), Macedon (pool) 

Genus 22. — Cosmocladium, Breb. 

Genus 23. — Oocardiurn, Niig. 



70 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



Genus 24. — Spluerozsma, Corda. 

S. excavatum, Ralfs ... Yan Yean (Res., w.) 

S. vertebratum, Ralfs ... H'berg. (lag.); Lake Wendouree, 

Ballarat 

Genus 25. — Onychoneyna, Wallich. 

O. nordstedtiana, Turn. ... H'berg., Wlsm., Alex, (pools) 

Genus 26. — Spondylosium, Breb. 

S. papillatum (?), W. and G. S. 

West ... Willsmere, Deepdene (pools) 

Genus 27. — Phymatodocis, Nordst. 

Genus 28. — Hyalotheca, Ehr. 

H. dissiliens (Sm.), Breb. ... Alex., Whan., Thorn, (lag.), 

Chelt. (s.), Yan Yean (Res., w.) 

Genus 29. — Streptonema, Wallich. 
Genus 30. — Desmidium, Ag. 
D. cylindricum, Grev. ... Box Hill (creek, pool) 

D. swartzii, Ag. ... ... Wlsm. Eildon (lag.) Chelt. (s.), 

Yan Yean (Res., plankton) 

Genus 31. —Gymnozyga, Ehr. 
G. moniliformis, Ehr. ... Yarra Glen (lagoon) 

Descriptions of the New Forms. 

Pleurot/enium mamillatum sp. nov. (G. S. West). 

Small, moderately elongated, 14-15 times longer than the 
diameter; semi-cells subcylindtical, slightly and very gradually 
attenuated towards the apex, with a somewhat prominent basal 
inflation and lo-ii undulations along each lateral margin, the 
undulations becoming gradually smaller towards the apex ; apices 
convex-truncate, furnished with 6-7 (4 visible) large, conical- 
mamillate, somewhat diverging warts ; cell wall sparsely punctate. 

Length, 372-442 yu ; breadth at base of semi-cell, 28-31 jx ; 
breadth in middle of semi-cell, 27-29 // ; breadth of apex, without 
warts, 17-19 /J, with warts, 21-23 Z^- 

Habitat. — Yan Yean Reservoir, Victoria; in plankton, and 
amongst weeds at the margin. 

This species is distinguished by the large size of the apical 
warts, which are somewhat mamillate in character and few in 
number. The semi-cells are approximately cylindrical in their 
lower half, but the upper half is distinctly attenuated. 

Micrasterias mahabuleshwarensis, Hobson ; var. reductum, 
var. nov. (G. S. West). 
A variety with the inferior lobules of tlie lateral lobes much 
reduced and very short. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 71 



Length, 132 ^i ; breadtli (maximum), 112 ;u; breadth of polar 
lobe, 65 ^ ; breadth of isthmus, 19 n. Fig. 4. 

Habitat. — Whanregarwen, Victoria; in lagoon of the Upper 
Goulburn River. 

The great reduction of the inferior lateral lobules gives this 
variety a somewhat peculiar aspect. 

MiCRASTERIAS HARDYI, Sp. n. (G. S. WeSt). 

Cells moderately large, a little longer than broad, very deeply 
constricted, sinus widely opened and acute angled, at the 
extremity very narrow, semi-cells 3-lobed ; polar lobe large and 
slightly extended, inferior part narrow, with sub-parallel margins, 
within each of which is a series of about 7 small teeth, apex with 
2 emarginate warts and with two small, short, emarginate 
processes disposed asymmetrically, angles produced into long 
denticulate, upwardly diverging processes ; lateral lobes pro- 
foundly bi-lobulate, lobules large, elongate, denticulate, and 
diverging ; apices of lobules and of processes of polar lobe 
quadridentate ; with a series of minute teeth within the lateral 
lobules and the processes of the polar lobe. 

Length, 200-220 /.i ; breadth, 163-202 }.i ; breadth of isthmus, 

16.5-17.5 A*- Fig- I- 

Habitat. — Yan Yean Reservoir, Victoria ; abundant in the 
plankton. 

This species belongs to the section of Micrasterias, in which 
the polar lobe is furnished with accessory processes. It is, 
however, at once distinguished from the species of this section, 
such as M. amerlcaua, M. mahabuleshwarensis, &c., by the great 
length and divergence of the lateral lobules and of the processes 
of the polar lobe. There is at the same time a great reduction 
of the two accessory asymmetrical processes of the polar lobe. 

CoSMARiUM TORTUM, Lagerh. et Nordst. in Wittr., Nord. et 

Lagerh. Alg. Exsic, No. 1,486, 1903 ; Jascicuhts 35, p. 

16, 17 {cum fig.); forma triyona (G. S. West). 

Cells from the vertical view rounded trigonal, angles very 

slightly produced (sub-mamillate) ; cell wall very delicately 

punctate. 

Length, 21-24 A' ; breadth, 15-16 ^ ; breadth of isthmus, 10 /<. 
Habitat. — Yan Yean Reservoir, Victoria ; very abundant in the 
plankton. 

CoSMARiUM CAPITULUM, Roy and Biss. in Journ. Rot., 1886, 
p. 195, t. 268, f. 9; var. australe, var. n. (G. S. ^Vest). 

Lower margin of semi-cells less convex ; capitulate angles 
slightly upwardly divergent. 

Length, 16-19 ^t J breadth, 20-23 /" J breadth of isthmus, 5.5-6 ytt; 
thickness, 8.5-9 ^. 



72 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

Habitat. — Y din Yean Reservoir, Victoria ; common in the 
plankton. 

The upwardly diverging angles of this variety give the semi-cells 
a relatively straighter apex than in the type. The ventral part of 
the body of tlie semi-cell is also much less developed. 

CosMARiUM HARDYi, sp. nov. (G. S. West). 

Cells of medium size, about i}i times longer than broad, 
moderately constricted, sinus shortly linear, ampliated within and 
widely open towards the e.xterior ; semi-cells sub-spherical, semi- 
circular, apex very slightly truncate and smooth, lateral margins 
and inferior angles broadly rounded and furnished with minute 
granules, within the lateral margins and below the apex with two 
or three irregular series of minute granules ; in the central part 
of the semi-cells with crowded scrobiculations, occupying a 
relatively large area, and disposed in oblique series. Side view 
of semi-cell sub-spherical. Vertical view broadly elliptical, with a 
very wide inflation on each side. 

Length, 85 /i ; breadth, 57 f.L ; breadth of isthmus, 21 ^ ; thick- 
ness, 50 ^. 

Habitat.— Ya.n Yean Reservoir, Victoria, in the plankton. 

Staurastrum LyEvispiNUM, Bisset ; van subbrachiatum, var. n. 
(G. S. West). 

Semi-cells with the processes narrower towards the base and 
often emarginate-furcate at the apices. 

Length without processes 17. 18.5 /x, with processes 30-35^1*; 
breadth 11-12 ^, with processes 30-32 /it; breadth of isthmus, 
6.5-7 ^. 

Habitat. — Yan Yean Reservoir, Victoria, in the plankton. 

Staurastrum mucronatum, Ralfs ; var. delicatulum, var. n. 
(G. S. West). 

Semi-cells elliptic-fusiform in outline, lateral angles sub-mamillate 
and apiculate. 

Length, 32.5-35 fx ; breadth, 34-37 /x ; breadth of isthmus, 
6-7 ^. 

Habitat. — Yan Yean Reservoir, Victoria, in the plankton. 

Staurastrum muticum, Breb. ; var. victoriense, var. n. (G. S. 
West). 

Cells longer than in the typical form ; semi-cells broadly 
elliptic ; cell wall delicately punctate. 

Length, 30 jx ; breadth, 20.5 /x ; breadth of isthmus, 7,5 /x. 

Habitat. — Yan Yean Reservoir, Victoria, in the plankton. 

Staurastrum nudibrachiatum, Borge in Arkiv for Botan. utgiv. 
of K. Sv. Vet.-Akad. Bd. i, 1903, p. 109, t. 4, f. 20.; var. 
victoriense, var. n. (G. S. West). 
Semi-cells from the vertical view lo-radiate ; processes a little 



THE VICTORIAN NA'IURALIST. 



August, 1905. 




A Hird> od nat. (p.. l,((l) del 

VICTORIAN (NEW) FORMS OF MICRASTERIAS. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. ?3 

narrower than in the type, and with the apices of the processes 
entire and rounded conical. 

Length without processes, 45-46 /t ; breadth without processes 
35-36.5 /J, with processes 79-96 fi ; breadth of isthmus, 31 /t ; 
thickness of processes, 4.8-5.8 /< ; length of processes, 25-34 //. 

Habitat. — Yan Yean Reservoir, Victoria ; in the plankton and 
amongst weeds at the margin. 

This remarkable Staurastrum is by no means uncommon m the 
material collected in February and March. The Australian 
specimens differ from the BrazUian forms in the greater number 
of processes on each semi-cell, and in their entire apices no 
specimens were observed with any trace of teeth at the apices of 
the processes. 

Staurastrum patens, Turn, in Kongl. Sv. Vet.-Akad. Handl.. 
1893, Bd. 25, No. 5, p. 108, t. 14, f. 21 ; var. planktonicum, 
var. n. (G. S. West). 

A little smaller than the type, with the angles of the semi-cells 
slightly produced and trispinate ; in vertical view, with the sides 
almost straight, angles slightly produced and trispinate. 

Length without spines 32 yu, with spines 52-56 fx ; breadth with- 
out spines 38-44 p, with spmes 58-56 ji ; breadth of isthmus, 
II. 5 /(. 

Habitat. — Yan Yean Reservoir, Victoria, in the plankton. 

This variety differs chiefly in the three large spines at each 
angle instead of the two possessed by the Indian forms. 

EXPLANATION OF l^LATE. 

Fig. I. — Micrasterias hardyi, G. S. West, sp. n., x 400. 
la. — Portion of end lobe, much enlarged. 
\b. — Quadridentate end of a lateral lobule, bhown in optical section with 

two teeth, and with one tooth in perspective ; much enlarged. 
2. — M. mahabuleslnvarensis. Hobs., Queensland, specimen of typical 

form for comparison. (Size ?) After Prof. Moebius's drawing of 

fig. 14, pi. X., Pot. Pull. XL, Contr. Qu. Fl., F. M. Bailey. 
3. — M. mahabiiU'shwaiensis, Hobs. (var. ?), a form showing partial 

development of a third pair of lateral lobules on each semi-cell. 

From Botanical Gardens Lake, Melbourne. x 400. 
4. — M. viahabtileshwarensis. Hobs., var. reducHun, G. S. West, var. n., 

X 400. 



Botany at the University. — The estimates recently pre- 
sented to the University Council, amongst other proposals of a 
scientific nature, contain provision for the erection of a Botanical 
Laboratory, and the appointment of a Professor of Botany, who, 
it is proposetl, shall also act as Government Botanist. This 
arrangement should ensure the best use being made of the collec- 
tion of Australian plants in our National Herbarium, which is 
unequalled in the world. 



74 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



A LIZARD MIMICKING A POISONOUS SNAKE. 

By T. S. Hall, M.A. 

{Read before the Field Naturalists^ Club of Victoria, \Gth July, 1905.) 

A SPECIMEN was recently sent to me for identification which 
appeared to be the young stage of the brown snake, JJiemenia tex- 
tilis, D. and B., named by M'Coy Furina bicucullata. On turning 
to M'Coy's plate in his "Prodromus of the Zoology of Victoria," the 
colouring of my specimen appeared almost identical with that of 
the coloured figure. There were the same velvety black patches on 
the head and nape, with deep orange between the two bands and 
behind the last. The back had the exact tint of pale brown in 
both cases. True, there were no transverse black marks on the 
body, and the ventral surface was not mottled as in the figure 
and was of a paler tint. But these markings I knew were 
variable, and the bands and spots were often absent. The only 
other noticeable colour difference was a light transverse line 
cutting the anterior black patch into two nearly equal parts. 
Still, I felt satisfied as to the identity of my specimen. However, 
to make quite sure, I examined the plates of the head. They 
did not agree, and, glancing at the body, I saw that I was the 
victim of one of Nature's practical jokes, for the specimen was 
clearly one of the so-called legless lizards. 

Having been deceived myself, I suppose it was only in accord- 
ance with human nature for me to wish to entrap as many of my 
friends as possible. One after another they pronounced it to 
be M'Coy's Furina. I shall mention no names ; they must 
confess themselves. I need only say that it was extremely com- 
forting to me to find one naturalist after another falling into the 
trap which Nature had so cunningly laid. Two people, how- 
ever, were not to be caught. They were Mr. J. A. Keartland and, 
needless to say, Mr. C. Frost. 1 was anxious about Mr. Frost, 
but it was not to be ; the eye of the specialist was too keen. 
There seems to be what one may term an acquired colour- 
blindness, which has to be cultivated in many branches of 
science. 

Though so different in colour from the specimen figured by 
M'Coy, my example was, according to Mr. P>ost, the widely- 
ranging and variable Afvasia jndchella. 

We can readily see the advantage to be gained by a harm- 
less lizard mimicking a poisonous snake, and it is of interest 
to find it imitating a growth stage of its own size, for as the 
brown snake grows it loses the distinctive black colouring of 
its head, and is quite unlike what it was in the young state. 

The specimen came from Queensland, though I am sorry to 
say I cannot say from what part. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 75 

A New Geological Map of Victoria. — The princi|)al feature 
of interest to the field naturalist in the recently issued " Victorian 
Settler's Guide," published by the Lands Department of Victoria, 
is the new Geological Sketch Map of the State, accompanied 
by an article on Victorian rocks and their resulting soils by Mr. 
E. J. Dunn, F.G.S., Director of the Geological Survey of 
Victoria. The map gives considerably more detail than the 
previous one in Murray's " Geology and Physical Geography of 
Victoria," published by the Mining Department in 1887. In the 
present edition twelve colours are used in place of nine, and 
consequently it has been possible to divide the areas of volcanic 
rocks into newer and older, likewise the Silurian into Silurian 
(upper) and Ordovician (lower). Many other changes in 
determination of various areas have been made, and altogether 
the map indicates a considerable advance in our knowledge of 
the geology of the State. A quantity of other useful information 
is included in the guide, together with illustrations and maps 
showing water supply, temperature, rainfall, butter factories, and 
finally the State, on the scale of 16 miles to the inch, classified 
according to its productiveness. This map is particularly 
attractive, being coloured to show at a glance, besides many 
other interesting minor details, whether the land is adapted for 
agriculture, grazing, fruit growing, or is reserved for forest and 
timber-growing purposes. 

Fighting Ants. — Towards the end of October, 1904, I 
witnessed an encounter between two species of ants, one of which 
was probably identical with that mentioned by Mr. J. A. Hill in 
his interesting paper on the subject in the June Naturalist, vol. 
xxii., p. 35. There can be no doubt from the description that the 
larger species, Formica purpurea, was the same ; it is known in 
many districts as the " Meat Ant," from its well-known predilec- 
tion for flesh of any kind. The smaller species, Crematogaster 
Imviceps, has a black, heart-shaped abdomen, which it turns up 
in a threatening manner when disturbed ; its nests are usually 
placed in or under pieces of fallen dead timber. The courage of 
both is of a high order, though Crematogaster is the more deter- 
mined fighter. In this case the larger ants were the aggressors. 
My attention was first drawn by seeing a constant stream of F. 
purpurea,, in a state of great excitement, running swiftly along a 
footpath ; many were returning to the nest laden with the dead 
bodies of Crematogaster. Following the line of march for 20 
yards I came to tlie battle-ground, and a remarkable scene it 
was. The small ants had established their nests round about 
the base of a tree from which young " suckers " had grown up, 
and this tree and bush they were holding against the attacks of 
their (to them) gigantic foes The small warriors were drawn up 
in a dense black line, from i to 3 inches in depth, extending in 
an irregular circle about 3 feet in diameter round the busli. The 



76 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

line of defence was sharply defined by the shade cast by the 
bush, and where the shadow of the tree-trunk fell a strong wing 
was thrown out. The reason of this was that they could not 
stand the heat of the sun, as was easily ascertained by placing a 
few of them in the open, when in a few minutes tliey became 
quite helpless. The F. purpurea hovered in force round this circle, 
constantly rushing in and seizing one of the small ants and instantly 
biting it in two, only, however, to be seized in turn by six or eight 
of the defenders, which held on with bulldog-like tenacity, 
whilst more of their comrades sawed the hapless prisoner into 
several pieces. When once the small ants got a good hold they 
never let go, mutilation, and death even, failing to loosen their 
grip. Many of them were bitten off at the neck by the powerful 
jaws of the large species, but still the heads remained clamped on 
to the legs and antennas of their adversaries. Where the fighting 
was fiercest there were rabid masses of both species as large as a 
pea-nut locked together in deadly combat. The carnage went 
on for four days, the F. purjntrea withdrawing their forces about 
sunset, and marching out again soon after sunrise ; but on the 
morning of the fifth day the purple warriors failed to put in an 
appearance, leaving to their small but invincible antagonists a 
well-earned victory. — J. C. Goudie. Birchip, 14th July, 1905. 

Fowls and Hawks. — Early one morning recently, my attention 
was drawn to a disturbance in the poultry run. On going out to 
ascertain the cause, I found a large hawk endeavouring to select 
his breakfast from among the chickens. In one run I have two 
hens with chicks, and I noticed that one (a white Wyandotte) 
had collected both lots of chickens, and was harbouring them 
underneath some scrub, while the other (a Minorca cross) 
remained out in the open, keeping guard. Once the hawk 
alighted upon the ground, then the hen made a rush at him, and 
they actually came in conflict for about thirty seconds, when the 
hawk was forced to retire. — J. Booth, Carlton. 

Early Butterfly. — While walking in the Domain near the 
Alexandra-avenue on 6th August I saw ray first butterfly of the 
season, a nice specimen of the ]:)retty yellow and black Terias 
smilax (Don), flying among the long grass. — N. F. W. B. 



EXCHANGE NOTICES. 

OooLOGY AND CoNCHOLOGY. — Mr. W. N. Atkins, 25 Murray- 
street, Hobart, member of the Tasmanian Field Naturalists' Club, 
is desirous of exchanges with Victorian collectors. 

CoNCHOLOGY. — Mr. Wm. H. Weeks, jun., 506 Willoughby- 
avenue, Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.A., is desirous of exchanging lists of 
duplicates. 

Lkpidoptera. — Mr. Ross C. Winslow, Santa Clara, California, 
U.S.A., wishes to exchange North American Lepido[)tera for 
Australian. Specimens named, in papers. 



Cbe Uiciorian naturalist 

Vol. XXII. —No. 5. SEPTEMBER 7, 1905. No. 261. 



FIELD NATURALISTS' CLUB OF VICTORIA. 

The ordinary monthly meeting of the Club was held at the 
Royal Society's Hall on Monday evening, 14th August, 1905. 

The president, Mr. F. G. A. Barnard, occupied the chair, and 
about 80 members and visitors were present. 

REPORT. 

The leader, Mr. T. S. Hall, M.A., reported that, owing to the 
rain, the ramble arranged for Saturday, 12th, from Heidelberg to 
Camberwell, had been abandoned. 

ELECTION OF MEMBERS. 

On a ballot being taken, Mrs. Cudmore, Murphy-street, South 
Yarra, Miss D. Fowler, Bamfield-street, Sandringham, and Miss 
J. Smith, Droop-street, Footscray, were duly elected ordinary 
members, and Miss Bertha Keartland, Masters Frank, Arthur, 
and Ernest Cudmore, and F. L. Alcock as junior members of the 
Club. 

GENERAL BUSINESS. 

Mr. A. Mattingley said that the letter from the Club which 
recently appeared in the public press, protesting against the 
destruction of wattle, appeared likely to give the public the idea 
that the Club was opposed even to a sprig of blossom being taken 
from a tree, and thought it would be well if the Club would define 
what it regarded as destruction of wattle trees. 

The president said that his view of the matter, and one which 
he thought all would agree with, was that the mere picking of 
small sprays of blossom in the public parks should be overlooked, 
but it should be considered destruction where boys climbed the 
trees and broke down the branches with the intention of making 
up large bunches of blossoms. Such a case he had witnessed 
the previous day on the bank of the river at Ivanhoe, but being 
on private property the police could take no action. 

The president also said that he had recently been pleased to 
notice several Silver Wattles in bloom in the Domain, near 
Brander's Ferry, but, on closer examination, in the case of nearly 
every tree the trunk had been slightly ring-barked or the bark on 
the branches cut longitudinally, and asked for information as to 
whether this was a case of vandalism, or had it been done with 
the idea of causing the trees to bloom in a young state ? 

Mr. F. Pitcher (Botanical Gardens) said that so far as he 
knew no permission had been given to cut the trees, and it 



78 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

seemed strange that the trees which had been cut appeared to be 
blooming earlier than the others. 

NATURAL HISTORY NOTES. 

Mr. E. E. Barker, F.R.M.S., mentioned that for about two 
weeks he liad had under observation a pair of Indian Minahs, which 
had selected as a site for their nest one of the electric arc lamps 
in St. Kilda-road, and he had been informed by the electrician 
who had charge of the lamps that he had several times removed 
the nest, but on each occasion found it rebuilt the next day. 
Finally, on the previous day he had found it again rebuilt and an 
egg deposited within. 

Mr. H. J. Coles stated that during the past few weeks seventeen 
Grass Owls, Stric Candida, Tick., had been forwarded to him from 
various localities ; fifteen of the birds had been picked up dead, 
and were in very poor condition, being much emaciated. 

Mr. G. A. Keartland said that he had noticed the same thing, 
and had heard of a number of dead owls being picked up around 
Melbourne. It seemed that the -birds had been attracted from all 
parts of the country by the recent plague of mice which had 
appeared in the north-western part of the State, and while the 
mice were abundant found ample food, and were in excellent 
condition, but as the mice disappeared the birds seemed to die of 
starvation. 

Mr. G. A. Keartland read an extract from the Field (London) 
describing a collection of living parrakeets in the aviaries of Mr. 
W. R. Fasey, at Snaresbrook, Epping Forest, which stated that 
among other well-known species which were breeding there was a 
pair of the Alexandra Parrakeet, S2Mthopterns alexandrre, of 
Central Australia. 

MICROSCOPICAL EXHIBITS. 

As a desire had been frequently expressed that an evening 
should be set apart for an exhibition of specimens under micro- 
scopes, the committee decided to omit the reading of any papers 
at this meeting, and devote extended lime to the conversazione 
and exhibition of specimens. 

Microscopes and exhibits were, among others, provided by Mr. 
J. Booth, who showed botanical and other objects ; Mr. J. 
Gabriel, Victorian Polyzoa ; Mr. A. D. Hardy, fresh-water Algse, 
various Desmids, Diatoms, &c., and Euglena, sp., probably new, 
mounted specimen from Box Hill, 1901, and living forms from 
Doncaster, 1905 ; Mr. J. Stickland, a protozoan, Paramcecium 
bursaria, an interesting chlorophyll-bearing animalcule, and 
another, probably Colpidiitm cuculhis, obtained in water which 
had collected in a tin during the winter ; also mounted fresh- 
water Algae, including Pandorina moriim, and a species of 
Zygnema showing lateral conjugation ; Mr. P. M. Ware, histo- 
logical sections. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 79 



EXHIBITS. 

By Mr. C. L. Barrett. — Young Copperhead Snake, Uoplo- 
cephalus superbus. 

By Mr. J. E. Dixon and Mr. C. French, jun. — Longicorn 
beetle, Uracant/ms sinndans, found breeding in wood of Correa 
speciosa, at Kororoit Creek, Victoria, July, 1905. 

By Mr. J. E. Dixon. — Dried specimens of the plant, Marsilea 
quadrij'olia, from same locality. 

By Mr. C. French, jun. — Gecko (lizard) with two-pronged 
tail, collected at Horsham, Victoria. 

By Master C. French. — Live Blind Snakes, Typldops nigres- 
cens, collected by Mr. H. W. Davey at Bright, Victoria, July, 

1905- 

By Mr. A. E. Kitson, F.G.S. — Dried specimens of Chinese 
tea plant, showing foliage, flower, seed-pod, and seed ; guava 
with leaves and ripe fruit; and licorice root, all grown by Mr. 
Robinson, at Dutson, near Sale, Gippsland ; very large specimens 
of land crayfish, Engamsfossor, from Moyarra, South Gippsland ; 
skeleton, with skin attached, of a flying squirrel, Petauroides 
volans, found on a barbed-wire fence at Allambee East, South 
Gippsland. The animal had been caught by the foot on a barb, 
and had slowly and miserably perished. 

By Mr. A. E. Kitson, F.G.S., and Mr. E. O. Thiele.— Three 
specimens of young eels, 6 to 8 inches long, obtained at an " eel- 
fare " at Mataura Falls, Mataura River, South Island, New 
Zealand, January, 1904. 

By Mr. A. Mattingley. — Eggs of Cockatoo-Parrakeets, Calop- 
sittacus novce-hollandue, laid that day in Melbourne. 

By Mr. E. B. Nicholls. — Short-nosed Bandicoot, Perameles 
obesula, Sliaw ; Lesser Dormouse Phalanger, Dromicia concinna, 
young in pouch ; Common Pouched Mouse, Sminlhopsis murina; 
growing specimens of Western Australian Pitcher Plant, from 
Albany, W.A. ; fruits of Zamia Palm, on which \Vallaby, Bandi- 
coot, and numerous small birds feed ; also a number of Western 
Australian bird-skins (exhibited at July meeting, the record over- 
looked in last Naturalist). 

By Mr. F. M. Reader. — The following dried plants (two new 
varieties) :— Cassinia acideata, R. Br., var. imbricaia ; Lejndium 
papillosum, F. v. M., var. intermedium. 

By Mr. H. B. Williamson. — Dried specimens of plants 
naturalized in Victoria : — Amaraiithus viridis, L., from Essendon 
(waste places) ; Chenopodium bonus henricus, L., from Hopkins 
mouth ; Senecio elegans, L., from Hopkins mouth ; Valerianella 
microcarpa, from Portland (very common) ; Cakndida arvensis, 
L. (Marigold), from near Geelong ; Chrysanthemum leucanthe- 
mum, L. (Ox-eye Daisy), from Ballan and Strzelecki ; Crepis 
tectoruvi, Sni., from Otvvay Ranges ; Zostera mariua, L., from 



80 THB VICTOUIAN NATURALIST, 

Port Fairy. Also, as new for S.W. Victoria — Brachycome 
scapigera, D. C, from Hawkesdale ; Potamogefon jyerfoliaius, 
L., from Merri River, Warrnambool ; Carex gunniana, Booth, 
from Hawkesdale. 



THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE FRESH-WATER EEL 
IN AUSTRALIA AND ITS MEANS OF DISPERSAL. 

By T. S. Hall, M.A. 
{Read before the Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria, lOlh Ju/ij, 190o.) 

The presence of eels in isolated dams and waterholes has long 
been a puzzle to people in general, and they decline to believe 
that they found their way there by scrambling and wriggling 
through the grass in wet weather. The explanation is too simple; 
and whirlwinds, or the transport of eggs by birds, are invoked to 
account for their presence, it may be, many miles from running 
water. During the past few years the fact, long suspected, that 
fresh-water eels breed only in the sea has been proved beyond 
dispute for the European eel, and there have been no reasons 
advanced for believing it otherwise in the case of our Australian 
species. The young eel is quite unlike the adult, being ribbon- 
like and rather deep, with a small head. By the end of the first 
year it has practically assumed the adult form, and is about a 
couple of inches long. It now leaves the deep water, approaches 
the coast, and begins to ascend the rivers. The young eels pass 
up in enormous shoals, and their journeys are in parts of England 
known as " eel-fares." 

I remember, as a boy, seeing an eel-fare at the rapids on the 
Barwon, known as Buckley's Falls, a few miles out of Geelong. 
We caught dozens of them with our hands as they wriggled up 
the rocks in the damp places where the current was weak. 
They were ravenously hungry, and though only a couple of 
inches long, and as thin as a leather bootlace, we caught them on 
hooks baited with worms as large as themselves. I regret that I 
cannot say the time of the year when this took place. 

Passing up the streams in these numbers they can in wet 
weather find their way all over the country, and it is doubtless in 
this manner that isolated holes are frequently reached. However, 
the larger eels will also travel over swampy ground for great 
distances. I quote another observation of my own. At Moolap, 
some five miles east of Geelong, in a paddock I knew as a boy, 
was a slight depression, which in very wet weather was covered 
for about an acre with water up to one's knees. The water 
drained away along a furrow in a ploughed field, and two miles 
further on, over almost level country, entered a small drain 
about two feet deep. This, after a mile or so, entered the Reedy 
Lakes, which are a series of large swamps along the lower 



THE VICTUUIAN NATUKALIST, 81 

Barwon. Two small waterholes on the course of this drain were 
inhabited by two species of Galaxias, the small red-finned perch 
(Microperca), and an occasional eel. During one wet winter we 
caught an eel i8 inches long in the furrow near the swamp. 
This was three miles from the lakes, and the eel was in a plough 
furrow, a quarter of a mile from the nearest waterhole, in a mere 
trickle of water six inches broad and one or tv/o deep. Naturally, 
in pouring rain, it could travel more widely and more easily. 
The furrow contained many Galaxias as well. 

Some time ago Mr. W. Hopkins, in a paper read before this Club 
{Victorian Natixralist, xx., p. 46), mentioned several dams on the 
plains west of the long reach of the Barwon between Wiiichelsea 
and Inverleigh. The overflow from these dams runs into Lake 
Murdeduke, which has no outlet, is salt, and contains no eels. 
Yet these dams all contain eels. Mr. Hopkins had ridden 
constantly over these plains in all weathers, and said he had 
never met an eel travelling over the grass on its way from the 
Barwon to this inland basin. His conclusion was that the eels 
bred in the dams. Last year I was at Gnarwarre, where I met 
Mr. Patrick Corbett, who has lived in the district for over 50 
years. He was telling tales of his experiences, and mentioned as 
a curious fact that he once found in a wet season a fair-sized eel 
out on the Murdeduke Plains, miles from the river and from any 
dam. Can there be any doubt how the long chain of swamps 
from Murdeduke to Lakes Calvert and Colac are populated by 
eels ? One positive observation is worth a hundred negative 
ones. 

Turning from the discussion as to the means of dispersal of 
eels, let us consider a few facts as to their distribution, or the 
districts in which they are found. One of the peculiarities of the 
distribution of life in Victoria is the distinctness of the flora and 
fauna north and south of the Dividing Range. For the past forty 
years it has been generally accepted as a fact, and repeatedly 
stated, that eels, which are present in all the south-flowing 
streams, are absent from the Murray and its tributaries. It is 
true that occasionally eels have been reported from some of the 
affluents of the Murray, but their reporters have evidently 
considered the fact worthy of record from its rarity of occurrence. 
It is possible that they were not eels, but lampreys, for no qualified 
person, as far as I know, has confirmed the identification. Even 
if they were eels, we should not be surprised at an occasional 
wanderer finding its way over the small space separating some of 
the head waters of the northern and southern streams. 

A correspondent who lived at Boort, on the Lower Loddon, 
who is an enthusiastic fisherman, told me that the inhabitants he 
had spoken to did not know what an eel was like. They had 
never seen one, and this held true for the Murray and billabongs 



82 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



to the north. Mr. C. W. Graham Officer, B.Sc, told me recently 
that an eel had been caught at Bourke, on the Darling. After 
much discussion as to the nature of the animal, the postmaster, 
who had lived on the coastal side of the divide in New South 
Wales, saw it, and identified it as an eel. There was a tradition, 
IVIr. Officer said, that one liad been caught years before, but this 
was generally regarded with suspicion. So eels do not enter into 
the Darling fauna. 

Quite recently a couple of letters on eels in the Murray have 
appeared in Mr. Donald Macdonald's " Nature Notes " in the 
Argus. A correspondent, writing from, I think, Kilmore, 
mentioned that eels were found in the south-flowing streams, but 
not in the north-flowing ones of his district, and suggested that the 
Murray Cod would not let them occur there. The explanation 
is highly improbable. Mr. Macdonald called for further informa- 
tion as to eels in the Murray, especially in the lower reaches. 
The following reply from a correspondent, which appeared in the 
Argus of yth July, is strongly confirmatory of their non-occurrence 
in the middle Murray : — 

" ' B.S.' (Eethanga), writing about the absence of eels in the 
Murray, says : — ' I have lived on the river at different times and 
places for the last fifty years, and know it from Albury to 
VVentworth. I have fished and netted with the blacks in the 
river and lagoons, and during all that time never heard of an eel 
being seen or caught. A few lampreys have been taken, but they 
are rare. In 1865, when snagging the river near Tocumwal, we 
caught in a hollow log a fish like an eel, which was sent to Pro- 
fessor M'Coy, and classed as a lamprey. It is probably in the 
Museum still. It was shown to the blacks on the river, but they 
all declared they had never seen one like it before. Later on 
several were taken between Tocumwal and Swan Hill, all in old 
snags, and their length varied up to 10 inches. The first one 
caught was, I think, 15 inches or 18 inches long.' " 

But are eels absent from the lower waters of the Murray ? 
They are common in all the streams of our south coast, and a 
correspondent at Mount Garabier, in South Australia, tells me 
they occur about the Mount, as far west as Lake Bonny. As 
regards the Murray, he sent me a cutting from the Adelaide 
Advertiser, of 24th May, 1905, which said that at Caloote a Mr. 
Pope caught on the 22nd what was believed to be a conger eel, 
weighing 19 lbs., and it was stated that such fish were uncommon 
in the Murray. But this is a sea fish, and of a different genus 
from the fresh-water eel. No fresh-water eel is known weighing as 
much as 19 lbs. 

In reply to a request of mine for information, Mr. A. Zietz, the 
Curator of the Adelaide Museum, says : — " Fresh-water eels do 
not occur in South Australia, except in the Mount Gambier 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 83 



district, between Mount Gambier and Beachport, in waterholes. 
I have never seen or heard of any eels being caught in the 
Murray." 

Having seen that eels and blackfish (Gadopsis) were being 
introduced into Western Australian streams, I wrote to Mr. L. 
Le Souef, Secretary of the Acclimatization Committee of Western 
Australia, in Perth. He says there are certainly no eels in the 
southern streams, and inquiries made by him for me resulted in 
no evidence of their occurrence in the northern rivers of the 
State. 

The Horn Expedition found no eels in the Finke basin, 
though other fish were common in places, even up to over a 
pound in weight. 

" The British Museum Catalogue " records eels from Cape 
York, in the north of Queensland, and right down the east coast. 
We now know they are absent from all the interior basins, and 
from the Murray basin. They are unknown in South Australia, 
except in the south-east, and are absent from Western Australia. 
I have not been able to find whether they occur in the Northern 
Territory or in the Gulf country. 

Looking at the wider distribution of the genus Anguilla, 
Giinther, in his " Introduction to the Study of Fishes," says it 
occurs throughout Europe, except in the Black Sea and Caspian 
basin. The genus is unknown in South America, in Western 
North America, and in West Africa. Now, curiously, this 
deficiency is extended to the south-west of Australia, and to the 
greater part of its south coast. 

This is an extremely puzzling series of facts. Did the genus 
breed in fresh water we might guess at a solution, but breeding in 
the sea, as it does, I can suggest no explanation. 



THE RANGE OF THE PRINCESS OF WALES PARRA- 
KEET, SPATHOPTERUS ALEXANDRA, North. 
By G. A. Keartland. 
{Read before the Field Naturalists' CJiih of Victoria, \Qth July, 1905.) 
As time elapses we are gradually gaining information regarding 
the range of these beautiful parrakeets, which proves it to be 
more extensive than was at first supposed. 

These birds were originally discovered by Mr. Waterhouse, 
over forty years ago, at Howell's Ponds, in the far north. The 
next specimens, secured about twenty-five years later, were a pair 
of nestlings taken by Mr. Magarey at Crown Point station, on the 
Finke River, north-west of Charlotte Waters. Then, during Lord 
Kintore's overland trip from Port Darwin to Adelaide, Dr. 
Stirling shot several at Newcastle Waters. On i6th June, 1894, 



84 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

they were found by the members of the Horn Scientific Exploring 
Expedition near Glen Edith, on the western extremity of the 
West Macdonnell Ranges, almost due north of Lake Amadeus. 
It was on this occasion that I obtained about fifteen specimens, 
some of which are to be found in the museums of Melbourne, 
Sydney, and Adelaide, In November, 1894, Mr. Chas. Pritchard 
found them breeding on the Hale River, near Alice Springs, when 
he secured a number of nestlings, one of which is still alive in 
the possession of Mr. Chas. French, jun. In the same month 
Mr. C. E. Covvle reported seeing them occasionally flying around 
Illamurta. In August, 1896, these parrakeets were seen and shot 
in the Great Sandy Desert of North-West Australia, on the route 
of the Calvert Exploring Expedition, about 300 miles north-east 
of Lake Way, and on several subsequent occasions as we went 
northwards towards Separation Well. In March, 1897, I shot 
two out of a flock about fifty miles north of Joanna Spring. 
Mr. L. A. Wells, our leader, next saw them within fifty miles of 
the Fitzroy River, West Kimberley, in May, 1897. About three 
years ago they were found breeding about forty miles from the 
Menzies goldfield in Western Australia, and three young ones taken 
from there have been brought to Melbourne. Last month Mr. L. 
A. Wells wrote to me saying that whilst on the Alberga River 
recently he found these birds breeding within eighty miles of 
Oodnadatta, the terminus of the trans-continenlal railway. This 
is the first time they have been noted in South Australia proper, 
and the most southerly point by several hundred miles of wliich 
we have any record. Hitherto Crown Point v/as the southern 
boundary. 

It is remarkable that they have never been known to breed 
twice in the same district. They are always found in or near 
spinifex country, and their food consists chiefly of the seeds of 
Spinifex Grass, Triodia irritans, and Portulaca. The former 
resembles small canary seed, and the latter is not unlike coarse 
gunpowder. As spinifex abounds largely in Queensland and 
New South Wales, it is possible we may yet have reports of the 
Princess of Wales Parakeets being found in those Sates. Up to 
the present their range has been limited to the western side of 
the continent. 



ERRATA. 

On page 55, line 5, page 56, line 17, and page 74, line 8 
from bottom, for " Aprasia pulchella " read " Delina fraseri, 
Gray." 

On page 64, par. 4, strike out words " compiled from the 
sources mentioned," and after " classification " add — " The 
species in brackets, recorded by Watts, I have not seen.'' 



Cbe Uictorlan naturalist 



Vol. XXIL— No. 6. OCTOBER 5, 1905. No. 262. 

FIELD NATURALISTS' CLUB OF VICTORIA. 

The ordinary monthly meeting of the Club was held at the 
Royal Society's Hall on Monday evening, nth September, 1905. 
The president, Mr. F. G. A. Barnard, occupied the chair, and 
about 75 members and visitors were present. 

REPORTS. 

A report of the excursion to Ashburton on Saturday, 26th 
August, was read by the leader, Mr. F. G. A. Barnard, who said 
that, considering the time of year, there was a good attendance of 
members. However, the results of the outing were not very 
striking. In a small pool near Gardiner's Creek Volvox glohator 
was found in great abundance, in the interesting antheridian 
stage. Among flowering plants the most noticeable was the 
orchid Pterostylis nutans, which, it was mentioned, makes a 
capital pot plant, and the irritability of its labellum adds consider- 
ably to its interest when cultivated at home. 

A report of the junior excursion to Studley Park, on Satur- 
day, 2nd September, was given by the leader, Mr. F. G. A. 
Barnard, who said that the afternoon turned out wet, and in 
consequence the attendance was much smaller than anticipated. 
However, some 30 or more faced the weather, and rambled 
towards Bight's Falls, where some historical and geological 
information was afforded. On the top of a neighbouring ridge 
some remains of Brachiopods were obtained in the outcropping 
Silurian rocks, and numerous varieties of galls were collected on 
the shrubs around. The principal plants noticed in bloom were 
Hymenanthera banksii, Acacia acinacea, and Myoporum viscosum, 
the former shrub being a pretty sight. The opportunity was 
taken by Mr. J. A. Leach, B.Sc, to point out the geology of the 
district and the resulting geography, and finally the reservoir, 
about 195 feet above sea level, was visited. 

A report of the excursion to Eltham on Saturday, 9th Septem- 
ber, was furnished by the leaders, Messrs. G. A. Keartland and 
G. Coghill. The first named dealt with the birds, which, though 
fairly numerous, were not of sufficient importance to call for any 
special remarks, with the exception of the White-naped Honey- 
eater, Melithreptus lunulalus, which was remarked as having 
brown instead of the usual black-capped heads, while the rest of 
the plumage lacked its usual brilliancy. Mr. Coghill said that the 
botany of the outing was very uninteresting, as the paddocks 
traversed were utilized for grazing, with the consequence that 



86 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

plants were very scarce. A few Silver Wattles were still in bloom 
near the Plenty and the Diamond Creek. 

ELECTION OF MEMBERS. 

On a ballot being taken, Mr. F. G. Dombrain, Canterbury, 
was elected an ordinary member, Masters Roy and John Dom- 
brain as associates, and Masters G. E. Barrett, L. Gomm, J. 
Snadden, P. Whitfield, H. Dew, Misses Florrie Gray, Lily 
Carpenter, and Reva Debney as junior members of the Club. 

GENERAL BUSINESS. 

The president introduced and welcomed to the meeting Mr. E. 
R. Ford, a member of the recent Antarctic expedition. In thank- 
ing the meeting, Mr. Ford alluded to his South Polar experiences, 
and gave some interesting particulars of the breeding habits of the 
Emperor Penguins. 

The president offered the congratulations of the Club to Mr. 
O. A. Sayce on his appointment to the position of Demonstrator 
in Bacteriology at the University, and referred to the possibility 
of a line of scientific investigation entered upon as a hobby 
leading to the advancement of the investigator, and lifting him 
out of the ordinary routine of a business life. 

The president called attention to the exhibit of Acacia blooms 
from the Botanical Gardens, and said that the Australian border 
there was well worthy of inspection at the present time, as at last 
a number of the smaller native plants appeared as if they would 
thrive in their new environment. 

PAPERS READ. 

1. By Mr. J. H. Maiden, F.L.S., entitled " On Three New 
Species of Pultensea." (Communicated by Mr. J. F. Haase.) 

The author described and named three species of the genus 
Pultense, recently found in Victoria — viz., P. vrolandi, a diffuse 
shrub up to six feet iii height, found by Mr. A. W. Vroland on a 
granite hill near Mt. Wombat, Strathbogie Ranges ; P. william- 
soni, a weak-stemmed trailing shrub, also found by Mr. Vroland, 
near creeks at Strathbogie ; and P. Inehmanni, a trailing, procum- 
bent, straggling shrub, found by Mr. H. B. Williamson in the 
Grampians, November, 1904. All three species had been for- 
warded to him by Mr. H. B. WiUiamson, of Geelong. 

2. By Messrs. A. E. Kitson, F.G.S., and W. Baragwanath, jun., 
entitled " The Source of the Yarra River, and the Geography of 
the Mt. Baw Baw District." 

The authors pointed out that on the published maps the head 
waters of the Yarra are shown to be mainly two sh'ghtly con- 
verging streams embraced within a V-shaped mountain region, 
with its apex in the flanks of Mt. Baw Baw ; whereas, in reality, 
several miles of supposed Yarra are really within the drainage 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 87 

areas of the Thomson and the Tanjil. These two streams, for 
the first few miles of their courses, have a generally westerly 
direction ; they then turn sharply, the Thomson to the north and 
the Tanjil to the south. The explanation, based on their peculiar 
courses and the character of the country in that region, appears 
to be that the Thomson has captured the north branch of the 
Yarra and the Tanjil the south branch. The main mass of Baw 
Baw consists of a massif of grano-diorite that has been intruded 
into a vast area of Ordovician and Silurian slates and sandstones, 
which have a generally northerly strike. This has caused the 
induration of these sediments for some distance back from the 
contact. The result has been to prevent the east and west 
streams from cutting through this mass as quickly as the north 
and south streams, which run along the strike of the strata, and 
probably along a great fault line. In consequence the Thomson, 
cutting its way south, and the Tanjil north, were more quickly 
able to corrode their channels than the Yarra was able to cut its 
way E.S.E. across the beds. Baw Baw was shown to be a 
plateau with a general altitude of about 4,800 feet. The 
whitened remnants of myriads of dead Snow Gums attest the 
former occurrence of a stunted forest, killed probably by 
boring insects rather than by bush fires. The Yarra Falls, 
six in number, 700 feet in aggregate height, as ascertained by 
Messrs, Walker and Campbell, have hitherto been considered 
unique, but Mr. 15aragwanath's survey has shown that all the 
streams flowing north, east, and south-east form similar falls, 
some of them 1,000 feet, near the grano-diorite contact, while 
those flowing south have a uniform though rapid descent to 
the much less elevated region, covered with Cainozoic sediments 
and volcanic deposits. 

The paper was illustrated by lantern views of district maps and 
photos, of the Upper Yarra and Falls, kindly lent by Mr. A. J. 
Campbell, and of Walhalla-Baw Baw district by Mr. Barnes, 
of Walhalla, together with those of the Walhalla-Tyers district by 
Mr. Kitson. By their aid the topography as hitherto known, and 
as modified by Mr. Baragwanath's survey, was clearly shown. 

In the discussion which followed, Mr. C. R. Ford mentioned 
that on the island of South Trinidad, in the South Atlantic, he 
had noticed a patch of hundreds of dead trees which apparently 
had been destroyed simultaneously. Many speculations were 
made as to the cause of their destruction, but all the theories 
put forward failed to throw any light upon the subject. The 
agency of a wood-boring larva was suggested as the cause, but 
the examination of a considerable number of trees did not reveal 
any signs of their former presence, 

Mr. D. Le Souef, C.M.Z.S., said that whilst in Western 
Australia he had noticed that the larvse of beetles attacked only 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



the dead wood of trees, and he should like to know whether the 
authors had observed any signs of a boring insect upon the patch 
of dead trees on Mt. Baw Baw. 

Mr. W. Baragwanath stated that undoubtedly, in his opinion, 
the patches of dead trees upon Mt. Baw Baw were destroyed 
through the agency of a wood-boring larva. Upon examination 
of a number of trees they had found that the larvae had attacked 
the roots, and then bored through the centre into the heart of 
the tree. Unmistakable evidence of their presence was shown 
by the deposits of sawdust around the trunks of the trees. A 
considerable amount of young growth was springing up, but not 
from the old roots, as would be the case if the trees had been 
scorched by bush fires. From both the green and dead trees 
live larvae were taken. 

EXHIBITS. 

By Miss Laura Cowle. — A large series of shells collected at 
Circular Head, Tasmania. 

By Miss Kate Cowle. — Dried specimens of mosses collected at 
Otway Ranges, V. : Dicranum, tasmanicum, D. setosum, Campy- 
lopus introjlexus, Ceratodon purpureus, Pohjtricimm magel- 
lanicum, Philonotis tenuicola, Dawsonia longiseta, Tricocolea 
tomentella, Ramalina ekloni, Cladonia retipora, C. pyxidata, 
Brevtelia atrata, Leptostomum inclinans, Rhizogonium spiniforme, 
Parmelia perforata, Theloschistes chrysopthalmus. 

By Mr. F. Chapman, A.L.S. — Fossil remains of the Victorian 
Wombat, Phascolomys mitchelli, and Gunn's Bandicoot, Perameles 
gunni, from dunes. Spring Creek, Torquay. 

By Mr. A. J. Campbell. — Skins of the following birds : — 
Carter's Honey-eater, Ptilotis carteri, Campbell, described in 
Victorian Naturalist, vol. xvi., p. 87 (1899); Lesser White- 
plumed Honey-eater, P. leilavalensis, North ; White-plumed 
Honey-eater, P. penicillata, Gould. 

By Miss S. W. L. Cochrane. — Wild flowers from Gippsland and 
Western Australia. 

By Mr. C. French, jun. — Orchids, Acianthus caudatus, Ptero- 
stylis cucullata, var. al2nna, from Grantville, Vict., collected by 
Mr. J. T. Paul ; three rare Victorian beetles — Dilochrosis 
(Sehizorrhina) hakewelli and Enmphyllus rossi, collected at 
Gippsland ; also Stigmodera fortuni, from the Mallee. 

By Mr. C. J. Gabriel. — Shells collected at South Melbourne 
beach, including live specimens of Trophori paivce, Crosse, 
Ghione cardioides, Lam. ; also Chlamys lactus, from Japan. 

By Mr. A. Mattingley. — Albino specimen of Black Mountain 
Opossum. 

By Mr. F. Pitcher. —On behalf of the Director, Melbourne 
Botanic Gardens, blooms of the following foliated Acacias : — 
A. acinacea, A. htnata, A. myrtifolia, A. oxycedrus, A. spectabilis, 
A. stricta. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 89 

By Mr. F. M. Reader. — Dried specimens of grasses, naturalized 
and new for Victoria — Agrostis alba and Bromus japonicus. 
After the usual conversazione the meeting terminated. 



TRAMPS THROUGH BENAMBRA, VICTORIA, TO 

MOUNT KOSCIUSKO, NEW SOUTH WALES. 

Part I. — Via Corryong. 

By a. E. Kitson, F.G.S. 

{Read heforv, the Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria, \Mh March, 1905.) 

The following notes are made from personal observations during 
two journeys to Mount Kosciusko in 1895 and 1896. The routes 
taken are shown on the accompanying sketch map. 

The starting point of each trip was Tallangatta (622 feet above 
sea level), a railway terminus 2123^ miles north-east of Melbourne, 
and reached by a branch line, 25)^ miles long, connecting with 
the North-Eastern line at Wodonga. 

The first trip was vid Corryong to the Murray River near 
Towong, thence through New South Wales, returning the same 
way. 

At 5 a.m. on 28th March, 1895, Mr. G. J. Bain and I left 
Tallangatta by coach for Corryong, 50 miles to the east. After 
running along the Tallangatta Creek Valley to Dry Forest Creek, 
we climbed up the range separating the former from Koetong 
(Cooyatong) Creek. Looking S.E. from the summit of this range 
(2,500 (?) feet high) a glorious view can be obtained on a fine day 
of Mt. Kosciusko, lying on the horizon to the S.E. ; of Mounts 
Burrowa and Keelangie, a few miles away to the E.N.E., and to 
the S., where, in the dim blue distance, stands Mt. Benambra 
(4,840 feet). A steep run brought us to breakfest at Koetong, 
18 miles from Tallangatta. The range passed over is chiefly 
composed of granitoid rocks. Tin and gold mining have been 
carried on in Koetong Creek. From Koetong we climbed up to 
Cambourne, and entered a thickly timbered plateau, then wound 
down through a picturesque cutting into the Berringama valley, 
getting a delightful view of Ben Lomond and Keelangie. The 
rocks in this area are granites and porphyries, intersected by 
dykes of tourmaline-pegmatites. From Berringama to Wabba, 17 
miles from Koetong, where we had dinner, we followed Cudgewa 
Creek for most of the way over alluvial deposits, schists, and 
granite. From Wabba to Corryong the road traverses chiefly the 
younger Cainozoic deposits of Corryong Creek, which overlie 
schists and granitoid rocks. The latter outcrop in Corryong, which 
place we reached at 4.20 p.m. 

29th March. — Here we managed to secure a pack-horse, were 
initiated into the mysteries of "packing," and left Corryong 



90 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

about II o'clock. The route taken was E.N.E. to Towong (6 
miles), near Mt. Elliott, where a good deal of gold mining was 
going on in small reefs at and near the contact of granite with 
Ordovician sediments. Here we saw some Black Jays, Strulhidea 
cinerea. Thence descending on to the Murray River flats, we 
crossed this river two miles on, just below its junction with a large 
tributary from the S.E., the Gehi. The Murray River com- 
mences at this junction ; above it the main stream is known as 
the Indi. We were then in New South Wales, and continued 
along the broad valley of the Gehi through the Khancoban run, 
where we were much amused at the antics of a large mob of fat 
bullocks that galloped over to and surrounded us. As we 
advanced, those in front opened out and let us through, while 
those behind broke away and lined up ahead. Thus we had an 
avenue of tossing heads and whisking tails for several hundred 
yards. They were very playful, and thoroughly enjoyed them- 
selves till the novelty wore off, when they galloped away. The 
camp was pitched 'neath a pretty lightwood, and we soon had tea. 
Late at night we fell asleep to the squawking of two Opossums, 
Trichosur^is vuljiecula, and the " mopoke " of the Boobook Owl, 
Ninox boobook. 

30th March. — Early this morning we were awakened by the 
lively warblings of Magpies, Gymnorhina iibicen. We struck 
camp early and pushed on. The valley rapidly narrowed, and 
the track left it and bore over a low granite spur towards Black 
Creek, The forest here was an open one, principally of Pepper- 
mints, Uucalypiits amygdalina, and Manna Gums, E. viminalis. 
At Black Creek we found a galvanized iron hut, and two stock- 
men in temporary occupation. They asked us to stay there that 
night, but we wished to camp in the Gehi hut, some 8 miles 
further on, so left them, with the assurance that a " block and 
tackle " would be needed to get the packhorse safely down the 
" Gehi Wall." The country was still timbered, like the last 
passed over, and the rocks granitic, with large bosses standing 
out in places. A good deal of snow-white manna lay under the 
gums, and we collected and ate handfuls of it. This forest was 
as silent as the last ; the only sounds heard were the plaintive 
notes of the King Lory, Aprosmicttos cyanopygius, and the 
mellow ones of that typical forest bird, the Grey Magpie, Slrepera 
cuneicaudata. In places there were fine patches of Kanj^aroo 
Grass, Anthistiria ciliata. Suddenly, in one of these places, an 
" old man " Kangaroo, Macropus giganteus, sprang up from his 
afternoon siesta, and with a few jumps was out of sight. This was 
the only kangaroo seen during this trip. Near the " Gehi Wall " 
the character of the timber suddenly improved, and we entered a 
splendid forest of straight-stemmed, valuable trees, probably over 
200 feet high. They were chiefly Blue Gums, Jiiicaly2)ius globulus, 



THK VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 91 



and Manna Gums, and the change was due to the better soil 
derived from the slates forming the "Wall." These are vertical, 
and have a northerly strike. We were now on the top of the 
" Gehi Wall," at an altitude of about 2,225 ^^^^- To the right 
was the Gehi canyon, formed by the Gehi River cutting through 
the spur on which we stood. We descended for some distance 
on a fairly stee|) grade, and came to the top of the wall proper, 
where a glorious view was obtained of the whole Kosciusko 
range. Peak over peak stood out above the general level of the 
mountain, softening into lavender under the weakening rays of the 
setting sun ; spur after spur descended from the main mass into 
the valleys of the Gehi and its tributaries, and were lost in their 
wealth of verdure ; while the streams roared as they rolled their 
offerings to the gorge. 

We gazed on it with admiration, and hastily taking two photo- 
graphs, set about getting the mare down the " Wall," which clearly 
promised to be a task of some difficulty. She, however, was quite 
equal to it, as, silting on her tail, with her front feet straight in 
front of her, she quickly followed us to the bottom, with no 
damage but the loss of some hair. 

The place is suitably named, for the difference in altitude 
between the top and the bottom in some 350 yards is 825 feet. 
We crossed Bain Creek at the foot, then a short spur and Gehi 
Creek, which shows a fine contact of slate and intruded granite, 
and finally came to the Gehi River. The stream here was then 
about 50 yards broad, witii large boulders of granite and altered 
sediments in its bed. It was very cold, and we were glad when 
we had forded it. Dusk was now upon us, and it was quite dark 
when we reached the second ford, which, however, offered no 
difficulty. But at the third one on the same stream, all within a 
mile, both banks were heavily limbered, and for some time we 
could not find the landing place. This wading about, waist deep, 
in a cold mountain stream in the dark was not altogether 
pleasurable, and on crossing we decided to camp at once rather 
than waste time trying to find the Gehi hut. 

We soon had a roaring fire, and dried ourselves. At this camp 
we used bracken for a bed, and, as on a previous occasion, found 
that numbers of "Soldier" or "Bull Dog" Ants, were on it. 
When a light appeared these ants crawled up the white sides of 
the tent, and, becoming a nuisance, had to be killed. They had 
evidently been benighted and taken shelter under the fern fronds. 

31st March. — The morning broke very cold and foggy, with 
the temperature at 34°. While having breakfast a pair of Lyre- 
birds, Menura victorice, quizzed us curiously from the trees near 
by, but disappeared before the camera was ready. On proceed- 
ing up the Gehi Valley a fine plump Wonga Wonga Pigeon, 
Leucosarcia picata, rattled away ahead of us, while several Black 



92 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

Cockatoos, Calyptorhynchus funereus, flapped sluggishly across 
the valley, emitting their mournful cries. The river near here 
was bordered with the usual vegetation — Christmas-tree, 
Prostanthera lasiantha, Musk, Aster argophyllus, Hazel, 
Fomaderris apetala, Silver Wattle, Acacia dealbata, Tree Ferns, 
&c. Past the Gehi hut a glorious view of Kosciusko was 
obtained. Range after range, densely clad with timber, peeped 
above its fellow for miles back from the river, till with one mighty 
sweep the bold, bare, granite escarpments of the parent mount 
reared themselves high above the faint wavy tree-line, while the 
clouds, departing from the glistening valleys as if loth to vanish, 
disported their loitering vapours 'mid the crags and battlements. 
We could not reach Kosciusko up this valley, which is unexplored, 
but followed the track which runs southerly and crosses the 
Youngal Range, a western spur from Kosciusko. Wherever the 
rocks were visible on this range they were granitoid in character. 
The range where we crossed it was specially noticeable for its 
stillness, even in these usually quiet Australian forests. Occasion- 
ally the twitter of the Scrub Wrens, Sericornis, could be heard 
in the scrubby gullies, the rush of the startled Scrub Wallaby, 
Macropus ualahatus, on the spurs, while in the tall trees the only 
birds heard were the Laughing Jackass, Dacelo gigas, the Grey 
Magpie, and the King Lory Parrot. Strangely enough, not a 
Lyre-bird was seen or heard, though traces of them could be 
seen on every hand. 

The forest in part was a splendid one of Peppermint, Messmate, 
Eucalyptus obliqua, and Black butt, Eucalyptus pilularis, with thick 
scrubs of Acacias (Wattles, Native Willows, &c.), Hazel, Tree 
Ferns, &c., especially in the gullies. We soon crossed this range, 
at an altitude of about 2,700 feet, and descended steadily, waist 
deep through Native Hop scrub, Daviesia latifolia, and Kangaroo 
Grass, to the Indi River flats below Groggin. The gently sloping 
strip of country between the range and the river had numbers of 
small springs in Tea-tree patches, and from them and from the 
river below numerous cattle tracks led in every direction. Near 
Groggin this granitoid rock, probably a quartz-mica-diorite, can 
be seen in the Indi River. It extends up past Groggin, and 
constitutes part of the ridge between the Snowy and the Leather- 
jacket (Leatherbarrel) Creeks. Groggin consists simply of an old 
hut on the New South Wales side and another on the Victorian 
side. The latter was occupied by old Jack Riley, the stockman 
of the run ; the former is used by drovers and wild horse hunters, 
and in it we camped. 

ist April. — This morning we were astir early, and got direc- 
tions from Riley for Kosciusko, but, as we found later on to 
our cost, he omitted the most essential one. This resulted in 
our missing the proper track after crossing Snowy Creek, and 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



October, 1905. 




Hi^jhest mounraim rfius -Booonc /Routes trare/Zed to MounI /(oiciusko m /BBS fhus ,n /ase ffiui -. 

/Jccurafe (j/t//uc/es in /ee/ a6ove. sea /eye/ //tus - SS08 , ap/TOX "■nafe //}ty.i-/&VS 

Sketch maf of poht/o/^ of /Vorth £Asr£Rfv Victor /a 
AND THE M^ Kosciusko region. N.S.W. 



THK VICTOKIAN NATUKALIST. 93 



following one of the many cattle tracks in the locality. The track 
eventually disappeared, and while we wandered along the top of 
the range between the Snowy and the Leatherjacket we suddenly 
saw a fine shaggy Dingo, Canis dingo, sniffing round a hollow 
tree. I gave a Dingo howl, which brought the animal at once to 
attention. It located us on the howl being repeated, and gazed 
at us curiously for a few seconds till a yell sent it bolting away. 
Thinking the track wound round this range low down the slope, 
we descended the spur to the Leatherjacket Creek in a deep 
gorge, where we had much difficulty in getting the mare on to 
a small patch of ruslies growing on an island in the stream. It 
was now nearly dark, so, after cutting away the scrub and rolling 
logs out of the way, we camped on the only available spot on a 

slope. 

2nd April. — After a hurried breakfast the mare was packed as 
lightly as possible, and with many misgivings we set off back up the 
slope, 1,400 feet, to the top of the ridge. The creek— or, rather, it 
is a river — here runs through a gorge with a vertical cliff, fully 60 
feet high, of slate. The cliff" was capped with loose rocks, form- 
ing a bad foothold, and on account of this the mare and I narrowly 
escaped going over the cliff into the stream below. She slipped, 
sat down'^ and slid to within a yard of the edge, where, fortunately, 
I was able to hold her till she recovered strength and was success- 
fully rushed up the slope to a safe position. On reaching the 
ridge we could, through a gap in the timber, see Kosciusko away 
to the N.N.E., and we decided to follow the ridge, which here 
turned sharply to the north. To the south, on the horizon, the 
bare prominent peak of the Pilot (6,020 feet) stood out clearly 
beyond the forested ridges and valleys of the basin of the Indi. 
We soon found the almost obliterated blazes of the old Manaro 
track, and pressed confidently on. The track, rarely more than 
18 inches wide, was covered with dead leaves, while all the leaves 
and grass on both sides had been burnt by a recent, bush fire. 
This characteristic of some bush fires is well known to bushmen. 
About 7 miles from Groggin the track leaves the dividing ridge 
between the Snowy and Leatherjacket Creeks, and plunges 260 
feet down into the leafy depths of the latter creek. This could 
appropriately be called the Leatherjacket Wall, and is apparently 
the spot called Woolayian by the late Rev. W. B. Clarke, and 
described* by him as a nearly vertical wall of slate. The rocks 
are blates similar to those forming the Gehi Wall. They strike 
generally N.N.E., and run in a strip along the valley of the 
Leatherjacket. The country between Groggin and here had 
been devastated by a recent bush fire, and no animals but the 
Dingo were seen. Birds also were scarce ; they were chiefly 
Grey Magpies and Laughing Jackasses. The rocks in this area 

* " Researches in the Southern Goldfields of New South Wales," p. 121. 



94 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

are quartz-mica-diorite to within about two miles of the ford, where 
the slates (of Ordovician (?) age) commence. The slates are con- 
siderably altered along the contact by this intrusive mass. 

Through the quartz- mica-diorite several dykes from 3 to 25 
feet wide can be seen.* 

The locality about the ford (3,300 feet) is an ideal one for a 
camp, being well grassed, sheltered and sunny, with plenty of 
firewood and water and pretty views. The ridge across the 
Leatherjacket is much higher than that on the west, and the track 
winds laboriously up for some 700 feet before getting an easy 
grade at about 4,000 feet. Here the scrub was exceedingly 
dense. The orange racemes of the Native Hop, the purple 
panicles of the Indigo, Indigofera anstralis, blending with the 
delicate green leaves and white fruit of the graceful Native Elder- 
berry, SambucKS gaudichaudiana, the pretty red and green Native 
Currants, and the blue and yellow flowers and purple berries of 
the Native Flax Lily, Dianella revoluta, scattered among the greens 
of the Dogwood, 6'assi?i;'a aculeata, Hazel, Wattle, and ever-present 
Wire-grass, made lovely pictures. Grand old Manna Gums reared 
their tall white trunks high overhead, and sprinkled the vegetation 
below with snow-wliite manna, while all around the scattered 
humus attested the energy of Lyre-birds. So deep was the humus 
that only an occasional fragment of slate was found until, 2 or 3 
miles on, the slates gave place to gneissic granite and the vegeta- 
tion became less luxuriant. With increased altitude also the 
timber showed signs of dwarfing ; moss-covered wattles began to 
appear, and, bursting through the scrub, we came on to a small 
open saddle in a belt of Snow Gums, Evcalyptus coriaceaf?), 
where we pitched camp. The weather since starting the trip had 
been beautiful, but now the wind was strong, and caused us 
serious misgivings as we went to rest. 

3rd April. — The morning broke fine, but a gale was blowing, 
and the aneroid showed signs of an approaching change. We 
struck camp and pushed on in haste up an increasing slope. 
The trees grew shorter and shorter, the Snow Bush appeared, 
while white and yellow Everlastings (Helichrysum)and purple Flax 
Lilies flecked the little open patches. Several Gang Gang Cocka- 
toos, Gallocephalon galeatum, flew from tree to tree along the 
track, watching us curiously and making their mournful grating 
cry. The track climbed steadily, while the thick Snow Scrub gave 
place to detached Snow Gums. We were soon among the great 
blocks and bosses of granite and coarse mountain grass. High 

* For further remarks on the geology of the country passed over on this trip 
see the following papers : — Kitson, A. E., " Geological Notes on the Gehi 
and Indi Rivers and Manaro Gap, Mount Kosciusko, N.S.W. ," Proc. Roy. 
Soc. Vict., vol. ix. (N.S.), 1896; Kitson, A. E., and Thorn, W., "Contri- 
butions to the Geology of Mount Kosciusko and the Indi-Manaro Track, 
N.S.W., Aust. Ass. Adv. Science, Sydney, 1898; Hovvitt, A. W., "Notes 
on Samples of Rocks Collected by A. E. Kitson and W. Thorn," ibid. 



THK VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



95 



ahead of us loomed mighty blufifs of granite, dotted with Snow 
Gums in friendly niches and ledges. Their gnarled, knotted 
boles, o'erhung with white spreading branches and dense, shming, 
dark green foliage, showed sharply against the smooth, bare sur- 
faces of the granite. Three Crows, Corvus coronoides, cawed 
high overhead, trying to beat against the gale. In a few minutes 
we reached the Manaro Pass, at an altitude of about 6,000 feet, 
where glorious views were obtained from S.W. to N.W. across the 
densely forested ranges and valleys of the Indi basin and 
Benambra, and from S.E. to N.E. over the high ridges and bleak 
plateaux of the Australian Alps and the wide, deep valley of the 
Crackenback River, which, by its numerous smoothed and rounded 
eminences seems to indicate a typical old glacial valley. How 
bitterly I regretted, as after events proved, not takmg a series of 
photographs of these magnificent views. Time was so precious 
that we pushed on as fast as possible, hoping to get a good camp 
before the storm broke. Near the pass we saw a limb of a Snow 
Gum that had been ripped open by a Black Cockatoo to get one 
of the large grubs that bore up the centres of these trees. We 
struck along an indefinite track through the Snow Gums and long 
coarse grass, and over lichen-covered granite blocks, to the 
plateau. Heavy clouds were now dashing against the crags and 
buttresses, and the wind was a howling gale as we slowly forged 
our way towards Kosciusko Valley, into which we had great 
difficulty to get the mare. The slopes of all these ridges are 
seamed with narrow watercourses several feet deep. These are 
filled with blocks of granite and covered with long grass and 
low matted shrubs, which completely hide the cavities and 
make progress painfully slow and dangerous for a pack-horse. 
We reached the floor of the valley and crossed the Leather- 
jacket, here a stream 4 or 5 paces wide, and wound round the 
southern end of the ridge on which Mt. Kosciusko stands. Near 
here we disturbed three Black Ducks, Anas superciliosa, that 
were swimming about on a small marshy lagoon. On the 
southern slope of the Mueller Range, to the north, lay a snow- 
field shaped like a huge spirifer. The wind had now moderated, 
but dense black clouds were quickly coming up from the 
N.W., with frequent flashes of lightning and loud peals of 
thunder. These hidden watercourses on the slope of the 
ridge proved such serious hindrances that it was hopeless to 
attempt to reach the sheltered slopes of the range across 
Wilkinson Valley before the storm broke, so we hastily un- 
packed and closely hobbled the mare. Then we tied one 
end of the tent to tussocks of grass, pulled the other on to 
the top of the rock, and, tying it to large stones, crawled inside. 
The storm and darkness came upon us simultaneously, and for a 
long time talking was impossible. The wind, rain, and hail were 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



very heavy, while the lightning was almost continuous. About 
I a.m. the storm passed, the wind ceased, a heavy fog set in, and 
the temperature fell to 24° Fah. The tent had perforce been 
placed over a watercourse, and the water streamed through, com- 
pelling us to sit the whole night crouched up under our blankets, 
so we were glad when daylight (4th April) came, and we found 
the mare safe. Her mane and tail were frozen into solid masses, 
and she was one mass of small icicles, and shivering violently. 
Under the circumstances we decided to return after climbing to the 
summit, as our holidays did not allow us to wait for the clouds to 
clear away. We set off up the steep western slope of the mount, 
through the perishing wind, which had returned with daylight. 
As we went higher and higher, under, over, and among the gigantic 
blocks of gneissic granite we were charmed with the multitudes 
of multiplaned icicles, with exquisitely beautiful serrated edges 
pointing to the wind, which were clustered on every possible 
point of attachment. The icicles on the tussocky grass were even 
more beautiful than those on the rocks, and crunching over the 
frozen snow we soon reached the cairn (7^328 feet above sea 
level) on the summit of the highest mountain in Australia. 

The vanes on the long squared pole fixed in the cairn were 
covered with several series of lovely icicles, like iron filings on a 
magnet. Unfortunately the camera had been left at the camp. 
A dense fog, driven before the freezing gale, covered everything, 
but occasionally a glint of sunshine melted the tips of the finest 
icicles, and tiny drops of water formed, only to be instantly 
frozen when the sunlight was past. These rifts in the clouds gave 
us glimpses down the valley of the Snowy River, rising on the 
N.E. slope, but the pictures were reserved for those more 
fortunate than ourselves, and we reluctantly descended to the 
camp at 6,800 feet. On the summit the only form of life noticed 
was a Pipit, Anthvs aiistralis, which quite happily flew about on 
the frozen grass, while among the rocks on the slope I caught a 
glimpse of a small Rat. After photographing the camp, we packed 
up and crossed Kosciusko Valley to the eastern portion of the 
plateau, whence transient views were obtained of the frozen 
surface of Lake May, on the eastern side of Mt. Kosciusko, and of 
the three snowfields on lis eastern flank. We reached the 
Manaro track at dusk, getting a photograph of the Crackenback 
Valley on the way. 

5lh April. — We spent another miserably cold night, and found 
this morning even more unpleasant than the last. Everything 
inside and out was dripping wet, not frozen as on the mount. 
The clouds showed no signs of clearing, so, as photography was 
impracticable, we packed up, and were soon among the timber 
and sheltered from the cutting wind. The Gang Gang Cockatoos 
again escorted us for about a mile, while near our old camp we 



THE VICTORIAN NATUKALIST. 97 



heard some Lyre-birds whistling and mimicking beautifully. 
About noon we reached the comfortable flat of the Leather- 
jacket ford, now bathed in sunshine, and while the camp etfects 
were drying we gazed with vain regrets up the valley to the 
cloud-capped mass of Kosciusko. A few hours of strong sun- 
shine dried our things, and we resumed the journey to Groggin, 
where we found the hut occupied by two wild horse hunters. 
These men had captured 40 horses in the region at the sources of 
the Indi and Buchan Rivers to the south, and were taking them 
to the Wodonga sale yards. On inquiry we found that on their 
strong, wiry ponies they ran these horses down. The method is 
this : each hunter singles out a horse and lassoes it, then gallops 
with it till a suitable tree and time appear, when his pony is 
rushed forward, he jumps off, and, getting^ the rope round a 
tree, the wild horse is pulled down. Before it can rise he sits on 
its head, slips a halter on, and in a little while usually the poor 
brute is cowed and led away. The horses these men had were 
yarded up the river a little, and we arranged to photograph them 
on the morrow. We soon had tea, and were right glad to get a 
good sleep. 

6th April. — The morning broke fine, and we packed up and 
started off. The hunters and wild horses were to overtake us, 
but this they never did, for'we took the wrong one among the 
many scores of cattle tracks that leave the flats, and wandered 
about all day trying to find where it crossed the Youngal Range. 
Towards evening we decided to return to the valley of the Indi, 
which we reached near dusk, and camped about two miles below 
Groggin. 

7th April. — This morning we resumed our journey, crossed the 
Youngal Range, and camped in the Gehi hut. From here a 
glorious view was again obtained of Kosciusko, then quite clear. 
A Copper-headed Snake, Uoplocephalus stiperbus, was found near 
here and disabled, when it bit itself repeatedly and everything 
near it till it was killed. 

8th April. — Another lovely morning appeared, and we were 
loth to leave the valley, but set off, and soon crossed the three 
fords on the Gehi River, taking some photographs on the way. 
At the third ford we found a very large Black Snake, Psmdechys 
forphyviacus, that had been killed by the hunters. The Gehi 
Creek was forded, the " Wall " safely ascended, and we camped 
in the Black Creek hut. 

9th April. — Nothing special happened this day, and we reached 
Corryong about 8 p.m., after an absence of eleven days, during 
which time the only bad weather we had was on Mt. Kosciusko, 
where it was most undesired. 

The next day we returned to Tallangalta by coach, and so 
ended what was, on the whole, a most enjoyable trip. 



98 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST, 

The notes of the second tramp, via Dark River, will follow 
in a later issue. 

[The i^aper was illustrated by a large number of lantern slides. 
— Ed. Vict. I^at.] 



ON THREE NEW SPECIES OF PULTEN^EA. 

By J. H. Maiden, Government Botanist, and Director of the 

Botanic Gardens, Sydney. 

(Communicated by J. F. Haase.) 

{Read before the Field Naturalists' Clnh of Victoria, \Wi Axg^tst, 1905.) 
PULTEN^A VROLANDI, Sp. nOV. 

A diffuse shrub up to 6 feet in height, with terete branches, the 
young branches very pubescent with woolly white hairs. 

Leaves numerous, shortly petiolate, rather stiff but not rigid, 
broad-lanceolate to oval elliptical, 3 or 4 lines long or shorter, 
with incurved margins, the young leaves somewhat conduplicate, 
slightly concave, glabrous or rather granular, rough on the upper 
surface, hairy beneath, becoming glabrous with maturity. Shortly 
recurved at the end, especially wlien young, and terminating in 
an acute point with often three veins spreading on the under side 
from the petiole, the middle one being also sometimes more or less 
penniveined. 

Stiindes rather narrow and flat, about i line long, dark coloured 
along the centre, scabrous at tlie sides, becoming setaceous with 
age ; persistent. 

Flowers from 3 to 6, apparently forming a head, but really in 
the axils of the last leaves, on pedicels of 2 lines or rather more, 
slender and pubescent, the shoot being produced beyond the 
highest pedicel by the time the pods have matured. 

Bracts stipular, i.e., the stipules take the place of bracts ; viscid. 

Bracteoles inserted rather below the base of the calyx and 
completely embracing the tube, semi-transparent, very convex and 
almost orbicular in general outline, the edges overlapping each 
other and having very much the appearance pf a two-leaved cup- 
shaped involucre, glabrous and very viscid. 

Calyx glabrous and very thin, the tube viscid on the outside, 
seemingly from contact with the bracteoles, the lobes almost as 
long as the tube, the upper lobes scarcely as long as the others, 
all acute. 

Standard nearly orbicular, with the very narrow claw twice as 
long as the calyx, the lamina about 4 lines in diameter, the veins 
purple in their lower parts. 

Wings about as long as the standard, scarcely i line broad. 

Keel slightly broader than the wings, but scarcely as long, obtuse, 
with purple markings. 

Ovarium sessile, villous, oval. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 99 

Style leaving the ovarium rather abruptly, subulate, sparingly 
pubescent to half-way up. 

Stigma very small. 

Pod almost oblong, hairy, half as long again as the calyx, the 
pedicels lengthening to about 3 lines. 

On summit of a granite hill about 12 miles from Euroa and 2 
from Mt. Wombat, in the Strathbogie Ranges, Victoria. Collected 
by Mr. Anton W. Vroland, teacher of Strathbogie State school. 
No. 974 of herbarium of Mr. H. B. Williamson, then of Hawkes- 
dale, Victoria, by whom it was forwarded to me. 

In the ordinary sense of the term, the species does not possess 
bracts ; what pass for such are the stipules situated at the bases 
of the pedicels and in the axils of the leaves. The cup-shaped 
involucre-like bracteoles are very distinctive, and are similar to 
those of P. involucrata, which character, together with its slender 
pedicels and the viscidity of the calyx, bracteoles, stipular bracts, 
and to some extent the young stipules, make it a very distinct 
species. Its aspect is similar to tiiat of the short-leaved typical 
form of P. villosa, Sm. 

PULTEN^A WILLIAMSONI, sp. nOV. 

A weak-Stemmed shrub " trailing amongst shrubs." 

Leaves not numerous, up to i inch long, oval to elliptical or 
oblong-lanceolate or even slightly oblanceolate, shortly petiolate, 
with slightly recurved margins or almost flat, with a small 
recurved point, frequently worn ofT in the old leaves ; silky 
pubescent underneath, sparingly so in the older leaves. 

Stifndes broadish, appressed, up to 3 lines long ; much 
broader than those of P. jmlacea usually are ; with scarious 
margins. 

Floioers in dense terminal heads, say half an inch in diameter. 
Rhachis of the flower-head much elongated. 

Bracts imbricate, glabrous or ciliate, scarious, pointed, keeled 
in the upper part and often three-pointed by splitting along both 
sides of the keel. 

Bracteoles inserted at the very base of the calyx but free from 
the tube, broad and keeled, completely enveloping the calyx, in 
shape and texture like the bracts, obtuse but mucronate, and also 
often splitting along both sides of the keel, thus appearing three- 
cleft. 

Standard about twice as long as the calyx, say 3 lines in 
diameter, the base with spreading purple markings. 

Wings as long as the standard, scarcely a line broad ; the keel 
broader than the wings. 

Ovari^im sessile, silky, compressed. 

Fruit sessile, sub-triangular, curved, but not seen perfectly 
ripe. 



100 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

Near creeks, Strathbogie, Victoria. Anton VV. Vroland 
November, 1902 (No. 921 of H. B. Williamson). 

Its closest allies seem to be P. pycnocephala, F. v. M., and 
P. palacea, Willd. Herbarium specimens bear a superficial 
resemblance to P. stricta, Sims, but the latter has never such 
large stipules, and the habit is very different. The shape of 
bracts and bracteoles is much like those of P. palacea, but the 
bracteoles are distinctly free from the calyx. It is a stronger and 
more robust grower than P. palacea, although of the same habit. 
The leaves are very much broader than those of P. palacea and 
almost flat. The difference as regards the bracteoles is very 
marked, and seems of itself sufficient to remove it from that 
species. From P. pycnocephala it differs in the less abundant 
tomentum and in the greater length of the leaves. 

PULTEN^EA LUEHMANNI, Sp. UOV. 

A trailing procumbent straggling shrub with very slender 
glabrous branches. 

Leaves opposite, though sometimes irregularly opposite in some 
shoots, linear to narrow-lanceolate, with so much incurved margins 
that they appear often terete and grooved above, 4-6 lines long, 
quite glabrous. Stipules small. 

Flowers in small few-flowered terminal heads (or rather umbels) 
surrounded by a few stipulary imbricate bracts, hardly as long as 
the pedicels, and by a few, generally 4, floral leaves. 

Bracteoles very small, lanceolate, inserted at the base of the 
calyx, but free from it, densely silky-hairy outside as the calyx 
and the pedicels. Calyx-teeth lanceolate, acute, about as long as 
the tube, the two upper ones united half-way up. 

Petals of about the same length ; the wings and the margins of 
the standard orange-coloured, the keel and central part of the 
standard dark brown. 

Ovarium sessile, densely silky-hairy. 

The most striking character in this graceful plant is the 
slender branches, almost filiform in the side-branchlets and the 
distant leaves ; the leaves are on the flowering branches from % to 
above i inch apart, though they are denser on leafy shoots ; but 
I have seen only a few specimens. 

Grampians, Victoria. H. B. Williamson, No. 1160. Novem- 
ber, 1904. 

The systematic position of the species is in Section iii., Euchilus, 
on account of its opposite leaves and branches, but it is distin- 
guished from all species of this section by the head-like inflor- 
escence. Its closest affinity appears to be P. tenella, Benth. 

I dedicate this beautiful species to the memory of my friend 
and colleague J. G. Luehmann, Government Botanist of Victoria, 
whose death, following too closely on that of Mueller, leaves a 
great gap in the sparse ranks of Australian botanical systematists. 



Cbc Uictortan naturalist 



Vol. XXII.— No. 7. NOVEMBER 9, 1905. No. 263. 



FIELD NATURALISTS' CLUB OF VICTORIA. 

The ordinary monthly meeting of the Chib was held at the 
Royal Society's Hall on Monday evening, 9th November, 1905. 

The president, Mr. F. G. A. Barnard, occupied the chair, and 
about 90 members and visitors were present. 

REPORTS, 

In the absence of the leader, Mr. G. Weindorfer, the chairman 
reported that the botanical results of the excursion to Sandringham 
on Saturdav, 23rd September, were not of much importance, only 
the ordinary spring flowers being noted. Mr. J. Shephard said 
that the pond-life section of the party visited several ponds, but, 
doubtless owing to recent rain and the influx of water, little of 
interest was found, the most notable being a rotifer of the genus 
Asphanchnopus, and the alga Apiocystis browniana. Specimens 
of Nostoc were fairly plentiful. 

A report of the excursion to Braybrook on Saturday, 7th 
October, was given by the chairman, in the absence of the leaders, 
Messrs. G. Weindorfer and R. A. Bastow. The day was very 
fine, and a fair number of members attended, but as was antici- 
pated flowering plants were not numerous, Ptilotus spathdatus 
being the most novel. The outing was devoted principally to a 
search for mosses and lichens, the latter being very conspicuous on 
the basaltic rocks bordering the Kororoit Creek, and six mosses 
and fourteen lichens were collected by Mr. Bastow during the 
afternoon. 

The hon. secretary reported that the junior excursion to 
Sandringham, on Saturday, 7th October, under the leadership of 
Miss R. Cowle and Miss J. White, B.Sc, was in every way a 
success. Between 40 and 50 juniors were in attendance, who, 
under the guidance of the leaders, were soon busily engaged in 
collecting botanical specimens. At the close of the afternoon 
Mis White gave a short lesson on the structure of a plant, 
taking as an example the pretty liliaceous flower, Chamaescllla 
corymhosa. 

ELECTION OF MEMBERS. 

On a ballot being taken, Miss Marjorie Friend and Messrs. 
G. H. and A. G. Carter were elected as ordinary members ; Miss 
Vera Carter, as an associate ; and Misses Leura M. and Dorothy 
Andrews, V. Minford, R. Johnston, F. Swan, ]. M'Kechnie, 
F. Barfus, O. Barfus, H. Bowles, N. Shappere, G. Gibson, 
D. Gibson, J. Roberts, Masters, E. H. Coghill, N. Farmer, 



102 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

A. Lawrence, B. Leach, T. Finding, G. Silk, and E. Mead were 
elected junior members of the Club. 

GENERAL BUSINESS. 

In the absence of the mover, Mr. A. J. Campbell, Mr. F. G. A. 
Barnard moved pro formd the motion standing in Mr Campbell's 
name on the notice paper, viz. : — i. " That as Melbourne is the 
geographical as well as the commercial metropolis of the 
Commonwealth, and as it stands on the Yarra, which river's 
source has not yet been properly surveyed, for the credit of the 
State of Victoria, and in the interest of geographical knowledge 
generally, it would be advantageous were the source or sources 
of such an important river determined." 2. " That copies of 
this resolution (if carried) be forwarded to the Surveyor-General, 
Victoria, and to the Royal Geographical Society of Australia." 

Mr. Barnard said that, while moving the resolution, he 
was not pleased with the phraseology employed, and would 
prefer that the motion stand over until Mr. Campbell's return 
from Adelaide. 

Mr. A. D. Hardy, in seconding the motion, remarked that the 
determination of the source of the Yarra might have been left 
with the Royal Geographical Society to deal with, though the 
actual source of the river was of great interest to all the members 
of the Club 

Mr. J. Shephard suggested that the motion be left over until 
next meeting, to enable the mover to be present. He was 
opposed to the wording of the resolution, and stated that, as the 
Government Surveyors were now in close proximity to the 
supposed source of the river, it was quite probable that before 
very long the actual source would be discovered. 

Mr. T. S. Hall, M.A., was opposed to the Club taking any 
action in the matter. 

Mr. F. Wisewould and Mr. A. E. Kitson also took part in the 
discussion. 

Mr. J. C. Kauffman, LL.D., moved, as an amendment — "That 
the motion be postponed until the next meeting." This was 
seconded by Mr. T. S. Hall, M.A., and carried. 

PAPERS READ. 

I. By Mr. Robt. Hall, F.L.S., C.M.Z.S., entitled "Birds and 
Fishes : a Comparison." 

The author said that he had often remarked a likeness of 
habits between birds and fishes which did not appear to exist 
between any other two classes of animal life. For instance their 
migrations — the bird from the mountain to the valley, the fish 
from the river to the sea, while each migrates from south to north. 
Colour protection seems equally evident in lorikeet and pilchard. 
Certain birds and fishes so place their eggs as not to need their 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 103 

personal attention during the period of incubation, while plovers, 
ground -parrots, penguins, &c., amongst birds, and salmon, 
herrings, catfish, &c., among fishes, have their special ways of 
providing for their eggs and young. 

The paper was illustrated with a number of specimens bearing 
on the different points mentioned. 

Owing to the lateness of the hour, Mr. T. S. Hall's paper, 
entitled "The New Rules of Zoological Nomenclature," was 
postponed until next meeting. 

NATURAL HISTORY NOTE. 

Cuckoos. — Mr. C. French, jun., inquired whether other 
members had heard the Pallid or Fan-tailed Cuckoos uttering their 
well-known notes during the night, as recently he had heard 
several of these birds at Camberwell late in the evening. 

Mr. G. A. Keartland said he had recently heard these cuckoos 
in the University grounds at nearly midnight. 

EXHIBITS. 

By Mr. F. G. A. Barnard. — Flowers of Red Ironbark, Euca- 
lyptus leucoxylon, from Bulla ; eucalyptus twigs with particularly 
large galls, from Broadmeadows. 

By Mr. R. A. Bastow. — Typical lichens of the Braybrook 
district. 

By Miss L. Cowle. — Dried plants from Northern Tasmania. 

By Mr. A. Coles. — Ornaments and native weapons from the 
Bismarck Archipelago, including shell armlets, money shells, 
wooden club, bone knife, &c. 

By Miss S. W. L. Cochrane. — Orchids in bloom, Lyperanthus 
nigricans, Prasophyllum elatum. 

By Mr. C. J. Gabriel. — Shells, Limopsis rubricata, Tate, 
dredged in Western Port Bay, about 5 fathoms, associated with 
the Polyzoa Catenecella hastata. 

By Mr. J. Gabriel. — Nest of Buff-rumped Tit, Geobasileus 
reguloides. 

By Mr. A. D. Hardy. — Fruit of Native Cherry, Exocarpus 
cupressiformis, early fruiting, from Yan Yean. 

By Mr. G. A. Keartland. — Skin of Aj)teryx owenii. 

By Mr. J. A. Kershaw, F.E.S. (for National Museum). — Nest 
and clutch of eggs of the White-throated Scrub or Fern Wren, 
Oreoscopus {Sericornis) gutturalis, De Vis. The nest was built 
partially in a hole in the ground in a deep gully at Mount 
Williams, N.E. Queensland. In the Agricultural Gazette 
(N.S.W.) for March, 1905, Mr. A. J. North created a new genus 
(Oreoscopits) for this bird, and at the same time described the 
nest and eggs. 

By Mr. F. Pitcher. — Scorpion, Scorpio afer, from India. 

After the usual conversazione the meeting terminated. 



104 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

FIELD NATURALISTS' CLUB CONVERSAZIONE. 

The fifteenth conversazione of the Field NaturaHsls' Club of 
Victoria was held in the Masonic Hall, Collins-street, Melbourne, 
on Thursday and Friday, 19th and 20th October, 1905. 

According to the programme the proceedmgs should have 
been inaugurated by the Hon. John Murray, Minister for Lands, 
but he was unable to carry out his promise, and an opening 
ceremony was dispensed with. 

During the three years which had elapsed since the last exhibi- 
tion of specimens, the Club membership has been greatly 
increased, in a great measure by the enrolment of a large number 
of junior members, who with their young friends attended in large 
numbers, and showed a decided interest in the various exhibits. 
There was also a good attendance of members and of the general 
public. 

Since last used by the Club, some sixteen years ago, the 
Masonic Hall has been greatly improved, and when the numerous 
exhibits had been staged presented a very interesting sight. The 
platform was decorated with pot plants, of Australian vegetation, 
kindly lent by Mr. W. R. Guilfoyle, F.L.S., Director of the 
Melbourne Botanic Gardens, who also sent a fine series of cut 
blooms of Victorian and other Australian shrubs and plants 
grown in the Botanic Gardens, which were greatly admired ; 
amongst these may be mentioned a fine Waratah, Telopea 
speciosissima. 

One of the features of the conversazione was the exhibition of 
wild flowers, which, though very good, was, owing to the 
unfavourable season, hardly as attractive as on some former 
occasions. Individually members had been to considerable 
trouble, either in collecting the flowers themselves or getting their 
friends in distant parts of the State to forward specimens for 
exhibition. Mr. F. VVisewould tried the experiment of removing 
some of the plants as growing specimens with the soil attached, 
but the result was hardly commensurate with the trouble taken. 

Very great interest was shown in the display made by the 
microscopists of the Club, whose well-known good nature was 
heavily taxed by the inquiries of the wondering public. 

On Thursday evening a lecturette, entitled " The Geology and 
Scenery of the Eastern Suburbs," illustrated by lantern views, was 
given by Mr. T. S. Hall, M.A., who pointed out in a popular 
manner the probable origin of what was once a sandy plain on 
the eastern and south-eastern side of the Yarra, now converted 
into more undulating country by the cutting down of the creek 
valleys to nearly sea-level, and contrasting the resulting scenery 
with that of the basaltic plain on the western side of Mel- 
bourne. 

The lecturette on Friday evening was entitled '• The Upper 
Waters of the Yarra," and was delivered by Mr. A. E. Kitson, 



THK VICTOKIAN NATURALIST. 



105 



F G S This was illustrated principally by a fine series of lantern 
slides, kindly placed at his disposal by Mr. A. J. Campbell, Col. 
Memb B O.U., who was away in Adelaide attending the annual 
congress of the Australasian Ornithologists' Union. The lecturer, 
after illustrating the character of the scenery of Falls and other 
creeks in the vicinity of the Yarra's source, briefly sketched the 
geological features of the Baw Baw district, and exhibited some 
slides of the country in which the Yarra was formerly supposed to 

On Friday morning the exhibition was honoured by a yisit 
from Her Excellency Lady Northcote, who had expressed her 
desire for a private view of the wild-flower exhibits. The 
president, Mr. F. G. A. Barnard, with Messrs. F. Wisewould, G. 
Coghill and J. A. Kershaw, was in attendance, and conducted 
Her Excellency round the hall, giving briefly such information as 
was possible about the exhibits. Lady Northcote expressed great 
pleasure in the display of flowers, and made inquiries as to what 
species were capable of cultivation, and also took particular 
interest in Miss Cochrane's paintings of the native orchids and 
wattle, so that an hour hardly sufficed to inspect the flowers 

^^The Club was once more indebted to Mr. J. Searle for his services 
and the use of his lantern for illustrating the lecturettes ; while the 
programme distributed to the visitors was a distinct advance on 
those of previous years, as it included the excursion list for the 
year, as well as specimens of the illustrations from a recent 
Natnralisf, thus enabling non-members to gain some idea of the 
aims and objects of the Club. 

EXHIBITS. 

The following is a list of the exhibitors, with the particulars of 
their exhibits as furnished by them :— 

Barnarp F G a., Kew— GrowinsT Victorian Ferns, includintr Lomaria 

nlpin.1, L. fluviafiUs, Woodvmrdia aspera, Osiuuvda harbara, Gleichema 

flaheliala. &c. ; also early stages of a fern (growing). 
Barrett, C. L., and Nicholls, E. B. -Collection of Birds Nests 
Best D Hawthorn— Five cabinet drawers of Australian Beetles (Cole- 
" optera). One drawer of Australian Wasps, Hornets, &c. (Hymenoptera). 
Chapman F. A L.S., Camberwell— Samples of Deep Sea Soundings taken 

around the Atoll of Funafuti by H.M.S. Penguin, with illustrations of 

their contents. Collection of Minerals. 
Campbei.t , A. G.. Armadale— Soil Charts. 

Carter, Mrs., Brighton— Case of Seaweeds. ^ ^ , . , , * , r 

Cochrane, Miss S. W. L., Melbourne— Paintings of Orchids and Australian 

Wild Flowers. ^ ^ ., t->- 

Cot Fs A Melbourne— Mounted Specimens of Emu, Kangaroo, Uingo, 
Fox Wallaby Tio-er Cat, Group of Iguanas, Native Companion, Wedge- 
tailed Eagle, case of White Hawks, case of Chestnut-breasted Shieldrake 
and young, case of Brown Quail, case of Snipe^ &c &c. Mounted 
Fish —Murray Cod, Murray Perch, Murray Cod Perch, Blackfish, 
Yellow-tail, Rock Eing, Flathead, Flounder, Sergeant Baker, and 
Mackerel. 



106 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



Cole, Percivai. C. — Aboriginal .Sacred and Ceremonial Sticks and Stones, 

" Bull-roarers." 
CoWLE, Miss K. , East Melbourne — Collection of Victorian Dried Plants. 
Ukpartment of Agriculture, Entomological Branch— Five cabinet 

drawers of Life-Histories of Insects. One drawer of .Scale Insects 

(Coccidse). 
Dixon, T. E. , Richmond — Case of Oligocene (M'Coy) Fossils from 

Balcombe's Bay, near Mornington. Case of Older Pliocene (M'Coy) 

Fossils from Beaumaris ; also Photographs of First " Camp-out " of 

Club at (Jlinda Creek, 9th November, 1884. 
French, C, F\L. S. , Malvern — Four cabinet drawers of Foreign Lepid- 

optera (Butterflies). 
French, C, jun., Camberwell — Collection of Aboriginal Stone Implements. 
French, Mrs. C, jun., Camberwell — Collection of Spondylus .Shells 
Gabriel, T-, Abbotsford— Collection of Australian Birds' Eggs. 
Gabrif.i,, C. J.. Abbotsford — Collection of Marine Shells. 
Gatliff, J. H., Carlton — 100 species of Japanese Marine Shells. 
Hall, R., F.L.S., C.M.Z.S., Box Hill— Australian Birds' Skins. 
Hardy, A. D. and A. F. W. , Melbourne— Botanical Specimens in a fluid 

preservative. 
Keartland, G. a., Preston — Collection of Australian Birds' .Skins. 
Kershaw, J. A., F. E. S., Windsor — .Six cabinet drawers of Australian 

Butterflies. 
KlELY, Miss, .South Yarra — Case of Minerals. 

KiTSON, A. E., F.G..S., Melbourne — Collection of Geological .Specimens. 
KiNANE, C. P. — Photographs of Australian Birds and Nests. 
Le Souef, D., C.M.Z.S., Parkville — Australian Birds' Nests and Eggs, Live 

Snakes and Lizards. 
Mattingley, a., Melbourne — Australian Echinoids (Starfish and .Sea 

Urchins). 
Newell, J., Fitzroy — Eleven cases of Foreign Butterflies and Moths. 
Pitcher, F., .South Yarra — Complete Collection of Victorian Ferns (dried). 
ROLLO, Miss J., Wonga Park Case containing Petrified Plants from .South 

Australia, Lava from Herculannsum, Glass, Antimony from Ringwood 

(Victoria). 
Spry, F. P., .South Melbourne — Two cabinet drawers of Life- Histories of 

Butterflies and Moths. 
Weindorfer, G., Melbourne — General collection of Australian Plants (dried), 

in herbarium cases. 
Microscopic Section. — Microscopic exhibits were made by the following: — 

Miss F. Bage, B.Sc, and Miss J. White, B.Sc , development of chick 
embryos. 

Mr. F. Chapmnan, A. L.S , microcline felspar under polarized light. 

Mr. J. Gabriel, circulation in tail of tadpole. 

Mr. A. D. Hardy, living and mounted fresh-water algce ; V^allisneria, 
showing circulation of protoplasm. 

Mr. H. Hartnell, crystals of fatty acids under polarized light. 

Mr. J. C. Kaufmann, LL. D., building rotifers, hydra. 

Mr. J. Shephard, pond life. 

Mr. J. Stickland, pond life. 

Mr. W. Stickland, pond life. 

Messrs. W. Watson and Son, various choice mounted objects. 
Wild Flowers. — Exhibits were staged by — 

Miss M. H. Montgomery, from Echuca. 

Mr. F. Wisewould, from Carrum, .South Gembrook, Springvale, and 
San Remo. 

Mr. A. Collingwood, from Belgrave. 

Miss L. Foot, from Bendigo. 

Mrs. Hume, from the Mallee, near Swan Hill. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 107 



Miss S. W. L. Cochrane, from Sandringham. 

Mr. C. Oke, from Beechworth. 

Mr. J. P. M'Lennan (teacher) and Pupils of State School, from Emerald. 

Mr. J. Paul, from Grantville. 

Mr. G. Coghill, from Echuca, Mansfield, Portarlington, Tunstall, and 

Castlemaine. 
Mr. F. G. A. Barnard, from Benalla and Frankston. 
Mr. C. Ashley, from Adelaide. 



TRAMPS THROUGH BENAMBRA, VICTORIA, TO 
MOUNT KOSCIUSKO, NEW SOUTH WALES. 
Part II. — Via Dart and Gibbo Rivers. 
By a. E. Kitson, F.G.S. 
[Read before the Field Naturalists' Chih of Victoria, IWi March, 1905.) 
On the second journey * a party of three, Messrs. W. Thorn, jun., 
J. Walker, and I, left Tallangatta at lo a.m. on Saturday, 14th 
March 1896, for Cravenville, 27 miles to the S.E. We started 
with two pack and two saddle horses, but before many miles had 
been done one of the saddle horses had to be impressed into pack 
service. The first 4}4 niiles were along the Corryong road over river 
terraces and alluvium and the ends of low spurs of metamorphic 
rocks. At the State school these rocks are silky, pitted and 
nodular mica-schists of various shades of grey, brown, yellow 
and red, with a N.W. strike and S.W. dip of from 75° to 80°. 
A short distance past here the valley of Tallangatta Creek takes 
a sharp bend to the S.E., while the road crosses it near the 
junction of Dry Forest Creek. Here a dyke of granitoid rock 
can be seen in schist. About half a mile from the crossing the 
Cravenville road leaves the Corryong road and runs down the 
valley of Tallangatta Creek, About ij4 miles from this junction 
a massive quartz reef, 3 to 15 feet wide, outcrops from mica- 
schists, similar to those at the State school. The reef strikes 
N. 47° W. with the containing schists. The quartz is opaque 
white and laminated with reddish-brown mica. Continuing along 
the creek flat for about a mile we passed over a tongue of granite, 
and here recrossed the creek. This granite is, in part, of white 
to grey colours, with muscovite, while in others it is a reddish 
variety, with biotite ; some ot it shows foliation. We continued 
over alluvium, 15 to 20 feet deep, for some distance, then over the 
second terrace till the stream impinged against the western edge of 
the valley. Here fine mica-schists and slates were visible, with a 
S.E. strike and S.W. dip of 80° to 85°. About 7 miles from the 
Corryong road we passed the Wyeeboo State school, and then the 
creamery, over slates having the same strike and dip ; then for 
about 3 miles over the terraces of the stream, and crossed Honey- 
suckle Creek. The camp was made i^ miles further on, near 
Macklin's crossing at Polmear's. 

* See map published with Part I. in the Victorian Naturalist, October, 1905. 



108 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

15th March (Sunday). — The morning broke cloudy, and it 
soon began to rain, and continued steadily all day, so we did not 
shift camp. The rocks near at hand proved to be olive-green, 
grey, brown and yellow slates, showing great jointing and 
numerous threads and veins, up to 3 inches, of quartz. The 
beds appeared to have a similar strike and dip to those near 
Wyeeboo. 

i6th March. — The rain ceased during the previous evening, 
and early in the morning we resumed our journey. For some 
3 miles we passed over the stream terraces, then crossed Waterfall 
Creek, and Tallangatta Creek for the last time, about 6^ miles 
further on. There was at that time no surface running water in 
the latter — only a mass of pebbles, with the water probably beneath 
them. The track now bore to the east, along the valley of 
Buckeen Creek, and about 2 ^ miles on we reached Goodwin's 
Hotel, in the small, remote township of Cravenville. The low 
spur between these two streams consists of grey, yellow and blue 
slates and fine sandstones. The blue slates are exceedingly like 
the graptolite shales near Lancefield, but no Graptolites were 
found in the outcrops examined. Mr. W. H. Ferguson, of the 
Department of Mines, did, however, some years later, find some 
in this locality.* They have been determinedf by Mr. T. S. 
Hall, M.A., as belonging to the genera Climacograptus, Diplo- 
graptus, Glossograptus and Dicellograptus, and prove that the 
beds belong to the Upper Ordovician series. The strata strike 
N.W. and dip to N.E. at about 87°, showing that an anticline 
occurs, and that Tallangatta Creek runs for at least some 20 miles 
along approximately the crest of it. 

A noticeable feature on the road between the crossing and 
Cravenville was the large number of ant beds of the common 
" Meat Ant," Formica purpurea. It is puzzling to know why 
these ants so often settle on "hard roads, where, owing to their habit 
of pouring forth from their holes in hundreds when disturbed by 
passing traffic, multitudes of them are killed and maimed. 

Tallangatta Creek valley is a wide open one, with farms on 
both sides, up to the junction of Buckeen Creek ; above there to 
its source at Mt. Benambra it is narrow, and lies in wild, 
uncleared country. From Cravenville onwards the route taken 
was through the forests of the mountains of Benambra, where in 
over 200 miles of country traversed we saw only 10 habitations. 
Cravenville lies in the narrow valley of the Buckeen, amidst a 
forest of living timber consisting chiefly of Peppermints, and 
here we camped. 

17th March. — We had found our horses not quite able for the 

* " Report on the Geology of Portion of the County of Benambra," Monthly 
Prog. Rcpt. Geol. Surv. Vict., No. 11, Feb., 1900, p. 21. 

t " Report on the Graptolites of the Dart River and Cravenville District," 
ibid , Nos. 6 and 7, Sept. and Oct., 1899, p. 13. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 109 

camp material for a three weeks' trip, so obtained another pack- 
horse, and leaving Cravenville began a long, steep climb of 
about 700 feet up a spur of fine-grained pink and pinkish-grey 
granite for about a mile, where dark blue and grey slates and 
shales occur, with strikes of VV.N.W. to E.N.E. and dips of 75° 
to 85° to N.N.E. and S.S.E. These strata show well in side 
cuttings on the track. At an altitude of 770 feet above Craven- 
ville very fissile grey slates appeared, dipping to W.S.W. at 87°, 
and striking N.N.W. A fine view of north-western Benambra 
was obtained from this point, also a glimpse of Mt. Benambra 
(4,840 feet) to the S.S.W. From here to about 4 miles from 
Cravenville the strata comprise olive-green and highly ferruginous 
slates, micaceous shales and thick-bedded siliceous sandstones. 
They strike from N. to N. 30° W., and dip to E. and S. 60° W. 
at from 75° to 89°, thus indicating two synclines and one 
anticline. 

Between this place and the top of the cutting on the range, 
about 2,470 feet above Cravenville, there is a most interesting 
series of sections disclosed by the cuttings on the track. The 
main mass of the rocks consists of red, brown, yellow and white 
contorted, pitted and nodular micaceous and argillaceous schists, 
quartzites, and altered sandstones, containing not fewer than 18 
dykes of granite,* varying in width from 5 to 130 feet. Most of 
them have a general N.E. and S.W. strike ; one has a N. and S. 
strike, and another an E. and W. one. They have undoubtedly 
been intruded into Ordovician slates and sandstones, changing 
these rocks into metamorphic ones. The dyke-rocks consist very 
largely of orthoclase, quartz and muscovite, with here and there 
some biotite, while one of them contains a considerable quantity 
of schorl. Reefs and veins of quartz occur in this strip, the 
largest noticed being 3 feet wide and bearing N.E. Payable 
gold does not, however, appear to have been obtained here or in 
Tallangatta valley. Whether that is due to its scarcity or the 
want of careful prospecting remains to be proved. 

About 5 miles from Cravenville, at about 3,900 feet, the track 
to Glendart reaches its highest point, the side cuttings disappear, 
and it passes south easterly over an undulating plateau of quartz 
and quartz- felspar porphyry, covered with good grass, Black- 
butts, and Snow Gums. The Grey Magpie, Laughing Jackass, 
and the King Lory were the only birds heard, and, though good 
country for kangaroos, not one was noticed. About 5 miles 
further on we reached the Half-way Spring (about 3,380 feet). 
One of the led horses, apparently suffering from the effects of an 
old fistula, had been standing on his hind legs every now and 
then and lashing out without warning, so we changed the pack to 

* The term "granite," wherever appearing in this paper, is used in its 
popular sense. The rock probably contains hornblende in some places, and 
appears to merge into porphyr y, as is the case in various parts of the State. 



110 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

the saddle horse. As it was getting late, Mr. Walker went ahead 
with 3 horses, while we made the change and followed later on. 
About 2 miles further the porphyry gave place to altered then 
normal siliceous and argillaceous sandstones, forming an anticline, 
with a strike of N.N.VV. Anotlier 2 miles brought us to Moran's 
Lookout, whence the track commenced to descend into the valley 
of the Dart River. It was now quite dark, and in rounding a 
fallen tree, burnt down by a recent bush fire, we lost the track 
for some time. On regaining it we found several examples of a 
highly phosphorescent Fungus, giving light enough to read print. 
The forest here was quite lively with the " Mopoke " of numerous 
Boobook Owls, the " Oohh, oolih " of the Podargus, Podargus 
)itrigoides{?), and the howls of a Dingo far down in the Dart 
valley. The track descended steadily to " Starvation Camp," 
where a side cutting commenced, and we were soon fording the 
Dart River, about 1,300 feet lower than the plateau. Though 
the rocks could not be examined carefully, some highly jointed 
light-coloured ones, like the cherts of the Healhcotian series, 
were seen near the top of the cutting. They strike N. and dip to 
W. at 85°. Near the ford we found the first habitation since 
leaving Cravenville, and continuing up the valley for about i J4 
miles we reached the Dart River Hotel, at Canvastown, near 
midnight, and found Mr. Walker had arrived without mishap. 

1 8th March. — During the morning we spent a little time 
looking about the place. This little mining settlement is one of 
the most inaccessible in the State, and though much gold occurs 
in the district, it is principally contained in rather refractory ores 
(the sulphide ores below the zone of surface decomposition), which 
have not yet been treated economically on this field. The strata 
are Upper Ordovician slates and sandstones, striking N.N.W. and 
dipping to W.S.W. at high angles, while 2 miles lower down the 
river they dip to the N.E., showing the presence of an anticline. 
At Glendart* similar Graptolites to those at Cravenville have been 
found by Mr. Ferguson — see reports quoted. Leaving this 
place we followed the valley of the Little Dart along a cutting 
through similar strata and over a syncline. At the top of the 
cutting, 2 miles from the settlement, the track to Dart River joins 
that from La Mascotte. We were then on the divide between the 
Dart River and Zulu Creek, a tributary of the Corryong Creek. 
The ridge trends S.E., and along it runs the track from Omeo to 
Corryong, connecting Gippsland with the North Eastern district. 
Two miles along this ridge the track to Zulu Creek branches ofif 
to the east, and plunges down 2,000 feet to the township. While 
we were passing the miners of the district were proceeding to a 
rendezvous to act as self-appointed porters of a sick woman at 

* For further notes on this district see " Report on the Dart River and Zulu 
Creek Goldfield," R. A. F. Murray, Frog. Rept. Geol. Surv. Vict., No. viii., 
pp. 64-65, 1894. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. Ill 

Zulu Creek. She was to be carried first up from that creek, 2,000 
feet, to the main ridge, then along the ridge to where a wheeled 
conveyance could be brought, thence to Corryong, 30 miles, for 
medical attention. Such is the fellowship of the mountains ! 
This Dart-Zulu divide consists largely of siliceous sandstones, 
which weather into sharp points and litter the surface with jagged 
fragments, making it a serious matter for unshod horses. Quartz 
veins are numerous, but not auriferous. The ridge owes its shape 
to these hard rocks, which have resisted weathering so much that 
the soft slates of the Zulu valley have been worn away 2,000 feet 
deeper than those of the ridge. This is a good example of the 
influence of strata upon the sculpturing of a country ; also of 
the occurrence of gold belts, for, while the main ridge is barren, 
Zulu Creek has yielded a great deal of gold. 

We followed this ridge for about 4 miles past the Zulu Creek 
turn-off to a point about 4,450 feet above sea level, then, leaving 
the Omeo track, bore away S.S.E. Yz mile down a steep hill to a 
saddle 350 feet lower. White, yellow, bluish-grey and olive 
fissile slates were here seen, with a strike to E. and dip to S. 
at 45°. Another mile over a high point brought us to the saddle 
where a blazed track goes down to Zulu Creek. From here our 
track steadily ascended the N.W. slope of Mt. Wild Boar for 
about a mile, to an altitude of close on 5,000 feet. The strata 
passed over were bluish-grey slates and sandstones, striking from 
N. to N.N.W. and dipping to W. and E.N.E., at from 86° to 
51°, indicating a syncline and an anticline. From the slope of 
Wild Boar we had a most glorious picture of the sun near the 
horizon peepii'g out from behind a lovely cloud before setting 
behind Mt. Benainbra. The camera was hastily set up and a good 
photograph taken. 

Fine views were also obtained from the summit of this peak of 
the greater part of Benambra. From N.W. to N.E. could be 
seen the deep valleys of tlie Mitta Mitta, Dart, Cudgewa, Wabba, 
Zulu, Wheeler's, Corryong and Jeremal, with their high dividing 
ridges. In the N.W. Mt. Benambra (4,840 feet) formed a 
prominent figure against the bright light of the western sky; over 
Pinnibar (4,100 feet) to the N.E. Kosciusko and the Snowy 
Mountains north of it could be dimly seen in the light blue haze 
of distance ; in the E. the bold Gibbo Range, with its highest 
peak, Mt. Gibbo (5,764 feet), almost devoid of timber on its 
summit, formed a barrier to anything beyond ; while to the S. 
the ridges between the Mitta, Gibbo, Buenbah, Indi and 
Benambra stood out clearly over the dull green of their dark 
valleys. From N.E. to S.E. there lay a thousand square miles of 
forested mountain and valley, with no resident save the stock- 
man and one selector of the far back Groggin run, and the old 
hermit of the Indi. Much of this country is still unexplored. 
It has not yet been trodden by the foot of even the most enter- 



112 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

prising prospector and trapper. What an immense area of 
probable mineral wealth awaiting development ! The top of this 
mount is about 5,000 feet in altitude, and covered with stunted 
examples of the Snow Gum, Eticalyptus coriacea ? It is much 
exposed, so we pushed onwards along the ridge, and camped at 
an altitude of about 4,850 feet. The place was so littered with 
fallen timber that out of consideration for the horses we merely 
put small chains instead of hobbles on them. As the sequel 
shows, this was a great mistake. 

19th March. — The morning broke with such a dense fog that 
nothing could be seen 20 yards away. No bell was audible, and 
the horses had disappeared in quest of water. After a tedious 
search four of them were found, some 800 feet down in Zulu 
Valley, but the Cravenville mare was missing. While looking for 
the horses I had the rare pleasure of seeing two male Lyre-birds, 
attended by a female bird, dancing on one of their well known 
dancing grounds.* I rode back to Dart River (14 miles) in the 
hope of finding the mare, but was unsuccessful. She had not 
returned (though eventually she did do so), and, getting a billy of 
water at Dart River, I got back to camp. The horses had then 
been 30 hours without a drink, and were very restless, so after boiling 
the billy we had tea and took them down to Saltpetre Creek. This 
descent proved a serious matter, for in about a mile we descended 
2,300 feet. Fortunately we had a small lantern, and got down 
without mishap. Here we watered the horses and let them feed 
on good grass for two hours. We left the creek about midnight, 
and after hard climbing for three hours reached the camp with a 
billy of precious water. That night and thenceforward the horses 
were closely hobbled to prevent any recurrence of trouble. 

20th March. — About 7 a.m. I was awakened by a spirited 
whistling at the tent door, and found a male Lyre-bird mimicking 
the various birds of the bush. It was on a fallen tree within a 
few feet of the door, and out of curiosity was peering into the 
tent. Trembling with anxiety, I put the camera together — a slow 
process, as my two companions were lying on either side — when, 
just as the photograph was about to be taken, the bird suddenly 
and silently disappeared. My feelings had better be imagined 
than described. Some photographs were taken after breakfast, 
and we continued in a northerly direction over the mount, then 
descended steeply, 1,500 feet, along a line of old blazes, to a low 
saddle at the source of Saltpetre Creek, where we met a newly 
blazed track. Mt. Wild Boar consists of olive and bluish-grey 
slates and micaceous sandstones, with strikes of N. to N.N.W., 
and general dips of 64° to 84° to E.N.E., though a small syncline 
also occurs. This new track we followed north for about 2 miles 
till it ran down into a branch of Wheeler's Creek, when we found 

* For further notes on this, see my paper, " Notes on the Victoria Lyre- 
bird, Menura victoria'," The Emu, vol. v., part 2, October, 1905, p. 63. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST, 113 



it was leading away from Mt. Gibbo, so camped near the remains 
of an old hut. 

2ist March.— During the morning Mr. Thorn followed the 
track for 2 miles north, while I examined the valley to the east, 
when we decided to return to the source of the Saltpetre and 
follow the main ridge to Gibbo. On tlie return journey Mr. 
Walker was violently kicked on the leg by one of the horses and 
crippled for the remainder of the trip. On reaching the saddle 
of the range, therefore, we camped on a knoll overlooking both 
valleys, and found good water a few hundred yards from camp. 

22nd March.— This was Sunday, so, while Mr. Walker rested, 
Mr. Thorn made a traverse of the spur to Wild Boar, while I 
pushed on along the main range towards Gibbo, hoping to find 
a practicable route for the horses. A Copper-headed Snake 
3 feet 3 inches long was killed on a very rocky ridge far from 
water. One part of this range was covered with a dense growth 
of Native Hop, Daviesia latifoJia, about 15 to 20 feet high. The 
prevailing timber on these lower spurs was Peppermint, Black- 
butt, Wattle, Acacia dealbata, and Native Hop, which grew 
profusely on a reddish-yellow loam, derived from argillaceous 
slates. As the ridge grew higher the vegetation described gave 
place, about 5 miles from camp, to gnarled and stunted Snow 
Gum scrub, up to 25 feet high, richly clothed with moss. There 
was no track, but only a few old blazes, most of them obliterated 
by decay and moss. Many of the trees were dead, and the ridge 
was strewn with pieces of this timber, rendering progress tedious 
and slow. Whether these trees had been killed by bush fires or 
iiisects was not ascertained. Numerous male and female Lyre- 
birds were perched among the trees, and were not at all shy, but 
rather inquisitive. A very extensive view to the west, showing 
the Victorian Alps and Mounts Bogong and Feathertoi) was 
obtained from the top of one of the trees, but the outlook 
towards Gibbo was by no means promising along the ridge, 
though, probably, the flanks of the range below the Snow Gum 
limit might have been practicable. With this unsatisfactory 
information a return was made to camp, where we decided to try 
on the morrow to cut our way ihrough the dense Hop scrub. The 
rocks noticed in this area were slates and sandstones similar to 
those on Mt. Wild Boar, while about the camp the strata were 
principally bluish-grey slates and fine to coarse yellowish 
micaceous and siliceous sandstones, having a general N.N.W. 
strike and high dip to E.N.E. 

A sharp syncline occurs about 3 miles down one of the 
branches of Wheeler's Creek. To the west of this creek, on 
the track, there is a small area showing evidence of contact 
metamorphism. In passing over this patch from south to north 
the following rocks are observable :— (i) normal blue slate, (2) 
slightly spotted slate, (3) fine sandstone, (4) spotted slates, (5) 



114 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

finely foliated schist, (6) spotted slates, (7) normal blue slate. 
Here the metamorphism has not advanced to the stage of coarse 
schists and gneiss or granite, and the occurrence is probably due 
to a subjacent boss of intrutled plutonic rock. Some of these 
sandstones have an abundance of decomposing felspar, and have a 
strong resemblance to decaying dyke-stones. On the knoll at 
the source of Saltpetre Creek there are highly jointed siliceous 
slates, which break into various geometrical figures. These rocks 
are full of veins of quartz. In general ciiaracter they resemble 
some of the beds in the Heathcotian series, and may represent a 
small inlier of this series. All the Ant nests here were covered 
with small pieces of this slate, instead of bits of twigs, as is 
usually the case. They are much cleaner and neater in appear- 
ance than those with wood, and are safer from destruction by 
fire and rain. 

23rd March. — The morning broke cold and foggy. We struck 
camp early and tried to get through the Hop scrub, but progress 
was so slow that after several miles liad been done we abandoned 
the attempt, and followed Saltpetre Creek down for some 3 miles, 
crossing an old mining water race, and came to the place where 
we had watered the horses when at the Wild Boar camp. This 
is the site of the old Lady Loch (Federation) mine, which 
originally had a quartz reef, said to have been from 5 to 15 feet 
wide and to have yielded 15 dwts. of gold (about ^3) to the 
ton of ore. It bears north and underlies to east. An old stamp 
battery was rusting in its shed, and, save for two prospectors 
working lower down the creek, the place was deserted. The 
transport of this quartz-crushing battery from Cravenville to this 
spot forms an example which, for a feat of bush engineering, can 
hardly be excelled. After great difficulty the machinery was 
brought by bullocks for about 40 miles over high mountains to the 
top of Mt. Wild Boar, where it was 2,100 feet above its 
destination in a distarice of a little over a mile. It was then 
very slowly and carefully lowered by gravitation with strong 
chains from tree to tree, while the team of splendid bullocks 
backed steadily, yard by yard, till the goal was reached. It is 
said that, just when everything was in readiness to treat the large 
quantities of ore from the reef, further working proved it to 
" pinch out," and operations were abandoned. Another reef, the 
Mountaineer, near at hand, has also been partially worked. 

We continued down the creek to the alluvial workings of 
Messrs. Curry and Rowe, who were sluicing the gravels of the 
creek about i '/2 miles below the old Lady Loch mine, where we 
camped. Mr. Curry, who was living here, kindly invited us to make 
use of his hut, which we gladly did. He and Mr. Rowe showed 
us about half a saucerful of good gold, probably about 15 ozs., 
worth ;£^6o, which they had obtained. Wnile having a quiet 
chat over the fire we were greatly amused on hearing that 



THK VICTOKIAN NATUKALI8T. 115 

we had been mistaken for horse " duffers " the night we 
brought our horses down to water from the Wild Boar camp. 
Mr. Rowe, who lived in a hut near the mine, had heard us that 
night, and naturally concluded something was wrong, for, he 
thought, no sane and honest men, after descending such a spur at 
such an hour, would climb it again the same night. On our 
second visit, however, the sight of an umbrella, borne by one of 
our party, dissipated the only lingering doubt as to our respect- 
ability, for no horse duffer would be seen with such an article ! 

24th March. — We packed up and left about lo a.m., and some 
5 miles below the Lady Loch mine crossed Sassafras Creek, just 
above its junction with Saltpetre Creek. At this place the track 
up the Sassafras to Zulu Creek, Dart River and Corryong meets 
the Saltpetre track. An accoumiodation house, kept by a Mrs. 
Lawrence, stands here. It is probably the most out-of-the-way 
residence of a woman in Victoria. 

This Saltpetre valley affords a fine example of successive river 
terraces of pebbly gravels extending to about 150 feet above the 
present level of the stream. The higher portions had been 
worked by adits, the lower by shafts and drives. The strata 
forming the bed rock are slates and sandstones, similar in 
character and general dip to those higher up the valley. One 
place in this valley afforded a small but fine example of the 
damage done by a waterspout. The bed rock had been denuded 
of soil and loose rock, which had been left in heaps lower down 
the valley. 

From the Saltpetre-Sassafras junction the Omeo track climbs 
over a spur between the latter creek and the Gibbo River, 
and about 2 miles further on it crosses the Gibbo on a bridge 
at Mr. Peter Mason's sluicing claim. On this spur near the 
bridge there is a large " buck " reef — i.e., one which does 
not contain gold. The river gravels in Mason's claim were 
about 50 feet thick, and were being ground-sluiced into the 
river. The water was being brought by a race from the 
Buenbah River. This river is apparently the main branch of the 
Gibbo, and becomes known as the Gibbo below the junction of 
Saltpetre Creek. Here we had another example of the energy 
and indomitable spirit of the miner of the Victorian mountains. 
This race, 6 miles long, with numerous flumes across the gullies, 
had taken 18 months to construct. Much of the timber had to 
be carried to the places where used, and all the work was done 
solely by Mr. Mason. Just after the water had been turned into 
the race a bush fire raged through the district and burnt a good 
deal of the fluming. Repairs were effected, and when we passed 
through Mr. Mason had the race again in working order, 
bringing in a good stream of water, and was getting satisfactory 
yields of gold. 

In this locality the strata are yellow slates, dip^iing to N.W. at 



116 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



62°, sliowing that an anticline occurs somewhere about Sassafras 
Creek. Mr. Mason kindly offered to show us a short cut over 
the range to tlie Benambra valley, to save the long route down 
the Gibbo River and up Morass (Murphy's) Creek. This offer 
was gladly accepted, and about i p.m. we set off southwards 
up a steep spur. Between 3 and 4 miles from Mason's claim 
we reached a point about 1,500 feet above the river, 
where the ridge takes a sharp turn to the east, and we lost 
some time through taking a wrong spur. When the right course 
was recovered it was getting late, and darkness found us at an 
altitude of about 4,300 feet at the head of Turnback Creek, on a 
very rocky, narrow ridge. The strata along this range are chiefly 
indurated siliceous sandstones with a few thin beds of bluish-grey 
slates. Tiiey strike generally N.N.W., and dip to W.S.W., still 
showing the western limb of the Sassafras anticline. This was a 
sorry camp in every way. There was no water, very (aw shrubs, 
and little grass for the horses, but we close hobbled them and 
turned them loose ; then pitched camp on the least rocky place. 
Mr. Mason disappeared into the blackness of the Big Creek 
valley, returning after a long, stiff climb with a billy of water, and 
we soon had tea. Here the Bull-dog Ant, Myrmecia sanguinea, 
again came into evidence. While drinking some tea, Mr. Thorn 
was bitten and stung on the tongue and lip by one of them. On 
going into the tent to put down the blankets we discovered numbers 
of these ants. A candle had been left burning, and the light 
had deceived them. They were over everything — blankets, pack 
saddles, provisions, walls of the tent — but we were not inclined 
to shift, so simply killed all visible and lay down. A startled 
whinny roused us, and we found that three of the horses were 
missing. A faint tinkle of the bell showed where they were — far 
down the ridge to the river — and we were compelled to bring them 
back and tie them to trees near the camp. Another lost day was 
thus narrowly averted. 

25th March. — In the morning we continued our journey along 
the steadily rising ridge, covered with Mountain Peppermints and 
Snow Gums, and rounded the source of Big Creek. The ridge 
here trends N.E. to a high point, close on 5,000 feet, about 700 
feet higher than the last camp, and from this point we had a fine 
view of the Omeo district. The strata, still the same kind of 
rocks, dip to E , indicating the eastern limb of the anticline. 
Near here Mr. Mason left us, and we descended 1,900 feet into 
the Benambra Valley. On the way another Copper-headed 
Snake, 3 feet 3 inches long, was killed, at an altitude of about 
4,600 feet, and far from any water. The timber on this slope 
consisted of Peppermint, Blackbutt and Messmate, with very 
dense Native Hop and Hazel scrub ; while near the floor of the 
valley there was a strip of Blue Gums, Encahjjdus globulus. We 
found a splendid place for a camp at a fine spring coming from a 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 117 

Tea-tree patch in the midst of an open place in the forest, where, 
among plenty of good grass, we pitched camp early in the after- 
noon and gave the horses a much needed feed and rest. 

26th March. — The morning broke fine, and we soon packed up 
and crossed the marshy flats, partly through Tea-tree, Lepto- 
spermum scoparium, coarse Swamp Grass, &c., and about 2 miles 
on crossed Benambra Creek. About half a mile further we 
met the old Omeo-Manaro track, about i mile above the outpost 
of settlement. We were now on the main track to Kosciusko, 
and following it in a N.E. direction for about 2 miles, over low 
spurs of slates and sandstones, we recrossed Henambra Creek at 
the head of the morass. From here we went in a generally 
northerly direction up a small creek to the divide between 
Benambra Creek and the Buenbah River. Benambra Creek at 
the crossing showed sand and pebbles of slates, sandstones, 
quartz and mica, indicating a melamorphic area towards its 
source. The strata of the creek to the divide are indurated 
siliceous slates, similar to those of the possible Heathcotian series 
at the source of Saltpetre Creek, and of which they are probably 
the southerly extension along the strike. They dip to S.W. at 
58°, but further on have a dip to E.N.E., showing the occurrence 
of an anticline. Only one Kangaroo, Macropus gignntetis, was 
seen, though this was an open gum forest with good grass and 
just the country for kangaroos. 

The track crosses this divide over a low saddle, only about 500 
feet higher than the crossing over Benambra Creek. On the 
Buenbah fall there is a great deal of broken quartz wash, in which 
a shaft, 10 feet deep, had been sunk, obviously with no encourag- 
ing prospects of gold. Heavy clouds were now gathering fast 
from the north. About 2 miles from the saddle we reached the 
fine flat of the Buenbah, the site of the old Buenbah cattle station. 
A small empty hut and some yards were all that was left of the 
buildings. The threatened thunderstorm burst as we neared the 
hut, so we took refuge in it. Between the Benambra divide and 
the Buenbah flats the visible strata are argillaceous and siliceous 
slates, dipping to S. 60° W. at 75°. On the opposite side of the 
Buenbah the spur terminates in steep cliffs at the river. After 
the storm ceased we resumed the march along the flat in a 
generally N.E. direction for about half a mile, and came to the 
point of a spur abutting on the stream. Here the strata are fissile 
slates and sandstones, dipping to N. 80° E. at 45°, indicating 
another anticline. A second thunderstorm passed over as we 
continued our journey. The track left the river and crossed a 
small creek in a marsh, then an open forest, covered with 
fine Kangaroo Grass, Anthistiria ciliata, to the ridge overlooking 
Running Creek. A short descent of 120 feet brought us to 
Running Creek, where we pitched camp on its small grassy flat. 

27th March. — This was a lovely morning, and we looked for- 



118 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

ward to reaching the Indi River at Groggin on the next march, so 
hastily packed up and sent the horses to the ford. Three of 
them crossed without the slightest difficulty, but the timid, 
clumsy brute, that had given us the trouble near Craven ville, 
refused to do so. He was finally got over by tying a coat over 
his head, leading him up to the ford, and dusting his back at the 
crucial moment. 

Several mining shafts, 8 to 12 feet deep, occur on the north 
side of the creek, but payable gold has not been found. The 
strata in tlie vicinity are siliceous sandstones and slates, consider- 
ably contorted, dipping to N. 60° E. at 62°. Running Creek is a 
strong stream of beautiful water, and is about 15 feet wide. It 
evidently drains a good extent of country, though its course is 
not visible for more than a quarter of a mile above the ford, 
where, in a series of small falls and rapids, it descends from the 
plateau to the east. 

We now crossed a small gully and ascended a long, steep spur 
over unaltered slates dipping to N. 60° E. Here another 
Copper-headed Snake was killed, and a little later two more. 
Further on slightly spotted slates and siliceous sandstones 
appeared, still with the same dip ; then very fine mica-schists, 
and, finally, coarse and fine nodular and wavy mica-schists of 
yellow, brown, red, olive-green and grey colours, with a few 
bands of quartzite. All of tliem are greatly jointed, and have 
numerous veins and patches of vitreous barren quartz running 
obliquely across their strike. The dip is of foliation, and is to 
the west at 78° to 80°, indicating a conformance between the dips 
of the strata and of foliation and the presence of a syncline. 
These mica-schists form the summit and upper portion of Mt. 
Hope, which lies about 4 miles from the ford on Running Creek. 

Two fine photographs of Mt. Gibbo were here obtained. In 
passing on, contorted, crinkled and pitted mica-schists were seen, 
but nowhere on the track was there any evidence of gneiss or 
granite. Proceeding 3 miles further to Dinner Creek, the reverse 
gradation to normal slates was observed. Mt. Hope itself is 
about the centre of this metamorphic area. Its summit is some- 
where about 4,700 feet, and from it a fine view can be obtained 
across N.E. Benambra. 

The track followed the main ridge to within about half a mile 
of Dinner Creek hut, where it left the ridge in a belt of dense 
Hop scrub and continued north easterly along the shallow valley 
of this creek to the hut near a spring amongst Tea-tree. This 
is at an altitude of some 4,400 feet. The hut was empty at the 
time, but was apparently being used by an oi)ossum-trapper, as 
skins of these animals were nailed out on the trees. At this 
place we had lunch and rested the horses, so as to reach Groggin, 
10 miles on, if possible, that night. After an hour's rest we 
pushed on again just before dusk. A short distance N.E. from 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 119 

the hut a small gully runs into Dinner Creek, and this is about 
the easterly limit of the metamorphic area, for on the opposite 
slope normal sandstones appear, still with a W.S.W dip. This 
Mt. Hope area is another example of the presence of a subjacent 
boss of intrusive plutonic rock. In this case, judging by the 
greater degree and extent of the metamorphism, this boss is 
nearer the present surface than that at the source of the Saltpetre. 
To the north of the main ridge Omeo Creek takes its rise, and we 
followed the ridge in a N.E. direction, parallel with that creek. 
The country between here and Groggin had to be traversed in 
the moonlight, and this, and the absence of observed outcrops, 
prevented the character of the strata from being ascertained. 
Some dips taken, however, seem to point to another syncline 
and anticline occurring there. The rocks seen were principally 
slates, with a few beds of sandstone. Along this section of the 
trip we had much difficulty in keeping the track. The long 
shadows of the trees often lay parallel with the ridge, and the 
intervening shafts of light, like tracks, were continually leading 
us astray. This ridge has a special interest, inasmuch as it 
furnished the original of the beautiful picture by Eugene von 
Guerard, " Mt. Kosciusko, from the Mt. Hope Ranges in 
Victoria," now in the National Gallery in Melbourne. We could 
not, of course, identify the point of view of this picture, but 
doubtless splendid glimpses could be obtained during daylight of 
Mt. Kosciusko from this range. Near midnight we reached the 
end of the range, crossed Boggy Creek in an almost flat area of 
granite, and were on the flats near Groggin. We camped on the 
side of the stream in a finely grassed patch, where the horses had 
a good feed and rest. 

28th March. — Though rising early, it was not till near noon that 
we set off across the low quartz-mica-diorite ridge that separates 
Boggy Creek from the Indi. Two miles of open undulating 
country, clothed chiefly with Peppermints and good grass, 
brought us to the Indi at Groggin. Here we saw one of the only 
two inhabitants of the place, Jack Riley, and renewed our 
acquaintance of the previous year. The river was fortunately not 
in flood, so we forded it easily, and pushed on past the old 
Groggin hut, across Snowy Creek, and along Leatherjacket Range 
to the ford on Leatherjacket Creek. At this place we had a late 
lunch, and resumed our march about 6 p.m. to Manaro Pass. 
As this part of the journey had already been travelled by me the 
previous year, we had no difliculty in finding our way in the 
moonlight. Save for the "mopokes" of several Boobook Owls 
and the squawk of an occasional Mountain Opossum, Trichosurus 
cmiinus, no sounds of animal life broke the silence of the forest, 
and we reached the Pass, 7 miles from the ford, about 10 o'clock. 
We camped on the north eastern fall of the range, near the 



120 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



old camping-place of the previous year, and had a very cold 
night. 

29th March. — On rising we found, as on the previous trip, that 
the unwelcome change in the weather was coming, so decided 
not to shift camp, but to try and reach Mt. Kosciusko on horse- 
back. Mr. Walker, who was still lame, remained in camp, while 
Mr. Thorn and I pushed on northwards, up a wide, grassy 
gulch, between abrupt bluffs of granite. The clouds were rapidly 
settling down on the mountain, and before we reached the 
plateau a snowstorm came on before a driving wind. When the 
snow ceased a heavy fog obscured everything a few chains away. 
We pressed on for some miles, hoping the clouds would clear 
ofif, but in vain, so we regretfully returned to camp, full of mis- 
givings as to the prospects for the morrow. The previous night 
ihad been so cold that one of the ho'rses, though closely hobbled, 
had shuffled down into the warm timber, a mile back along the 
track, so, to prevent tiie risk of losing them all, we reluctandy tied 
them up at the camp. 

30th March. — The night proved very cold. The morning broke 
with a heavy frost on the ground. After the sun rose, thick 
banks of fog collected from the moist ground. We set oflf for 
the mount, Mr. Walker riding, Mr. Thorn and I walking, so as 
the better to examine the country. All the shrubs and coarse 
grass were beautiful under a thick covering of frost till afternoon. 
We reached the plateau and climbed up one of the numerous 
bluffs that occur in parallel lines on it, with grassy saddles 
between them. Here a fine example of a rocking stone was 
found, and on passing between this bluff and the next one 
to the north we found that the former gave such a fine echo 
that we called it Echo Point. These bluffs are due to weather- 
ing along vertical joints, which occur in great numbers through 
the granite mass of Kosciusko. On the S.W. slopes of Mt. 
Etheridge we found some pebbles, which, though not showing 
any distinct striae, were distinctly grooved, facetted, and polished, 
and so much resembled glacial stones that we felt no doubt they 
were of glacial origin. A large patch of snow rested on the S.E. 
slope of Mt. Kosciusko, while in Kosciusko Valley the clear, still 
waters of Lake May, with eight Black Ducks swimming about, 
glistened under the mount. We crossed Ram's Head Pass and 
rapidly climbed up the slope to the summit of the mount, which 
we reached about 2.30 p.m , but the views were fleeting, as the 
big clouds continued their endless procession under a strong gale 
from the N.N.W. Photography under such circumstances was 
not promising, but, two of us holding the camera, a panorama 
from the " Roof of Australia " was obtained, besides a few other 
views about the valley. Frost action is evidenced everywhere 
by the sharply cleaved blocks of rock. Viewed from the 
summit of Kosciusko the absence of arboreal vegetation renders 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 121 

the landscape rather uninteresting from the N.N.E., down the 
valley of the Snowy River to the S. along the whale-backed 
ridge running from the summit. But from the N.N.W. to 
the S.S.VV. the view is over the wooded valleys of the Gehi 
and the Indi, and across the great expanse of mountains in 
Benambra and Bogong in Victoria ; in these directions glorious 
views were obtained. During our return to camp sleet came 
on, and the hairs on our faces became frozen together. Near 
Ram's Head Peak we were surprised to see what we all believed 
to be a Rabbit. It ran across our track for about loo yards and 
disappeared among some rocks. We reached camp about dusk, 
and again tied up the horses, though with guilty consciences. The 
poor beasts were shivering, and the hair on their bodies standing 
straight out. We passed an unpleasantly cold night, shivering 
and dozing fitfully, for sleep was out of the question, and were 
right glad to welcome the daylight. 

31st March. — Fortunately the morning broke fine, and 
developed into a lovely day, with scattered clouds floating about. 
Mr. Thorn and I set off once more to the mount. This time, 
on reaching the plateau, we went northwards, crossed a small 
grassy plain half a mile long, and before getting down the steep 
fall into Kosciusko valley, clambered over large blocks of granite, 
which give the place the appearance of the " Ploughed Field " of 
Mt. Wellington, Tasmania. We examined parts of the eastern 
side and floor of the valley, and found the former to be littered 
with masses of granite and indurated slates and sandstones, while 
the latter consists of these indurated sediments, covered with 
large blocks of granite and a detritus consisting of boulders, 
pebbles, gravel, &c. All these sedimentary rocks dip to the 
east at high angles. The presence of these masses of granite, far 
out on an area of sedimentary rocks, points to a glacial origin for 
them. Moreover, the valley, terminating in a very steep outfall 
to the south, is a broad one, with a flat floor — a U-shaped valley — 
in which the present stream — the Leatherjacket — has cut a shallow 
channel. The eastern side has no well defined gully cutting into 
it, but possesses numerous small, narrow channels, which seam its 
slope. The western side consists of a line of disconnected bluffs, 
once continuous, but eaten through apparently by backward 
corrasion from the lower regions of the mount. The evidence 
points to a geologically recent period for the denudation, such as 
would be accounted for on the assumption that in recent times a 
glacier filled the valley. Undoubted glacial evidence has been 
adduced by Mr. R. Helms, in 1893,* and by Professor David, 
B.A., F.R.S., and Messrs. E. F. Pittman, A.R.S.M., and R. 

* " On the Recently Observed Evidences of an Extensive Glacier Action at 
Mt. Kosciusko Plateau," Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., viii., part 3, Oct., 
1893. 



122 THK VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



Helms, in 1901,* as occurring to the north, and they prove, as 
we suspected from our hasty examination, that Lake May is a 
glacial lake. 

On returning to the camp we passed between the wrong bluffs 
on the plateau, but fortunately the evening was fine, and just on 
the edge of dusk we came on to the Manaro track, about half a 
mile away from the camp, which we soon reached. The wind 
was very cold nnd blowing a gale, so that, with the experience of 
the past two nights, we decided to strike camp and try to reach 
the Leatherjacket furd that night, since our holidays were fast 
drawing to a close. After lea, while making a supply of scones, 
we were surprised to find that some water, taken from a running 
stream and standing in a basin for a few moments, close in front 
of the intermittent heat-blasts from a large fire, had been frozen. 
We packed up, and at 9 o'clock left this cold spot, and were soon 
over the Manaro Pass and among the warm timber. Now, it is 
an easy matter following a rapidly ascending ridge, but quite 
a different one descending a ridge, especially in the dark. 
About a mile from the ford we took the wrong spur for a 
hundred yards before discovering our mistake. The moon was 
now up, and on returning to the main ridge, here almost flat, we 
searched for the track for a long time without success, till, at 
3 a.m. on ist April, we decided to camp till daylight. On this 
trip, as on the same day last year, we had lost our way. The 
only sounds of animal life heard were the peculiar squawk of a 
Mountain Opossum and the never-failing " Mopoke." 

ist April. — Daylight showed us the missing blazes, and we 
packed up, reaching the ford at 10.30 a.m. Here we had 
breakfast, rested the horses, and dried our things. Leaving here 
about noon, we made no delay in reaching Groggin, where we 
arrived about 2.30 p.m. Our provisions were very low by this 
time, but we were able to get some salt meat from Mr. Riley. 
This we cooked, and made some scones, so as to lose no time 
during the forced marches necessary to cover the remaining 
distance, about 40 miles, to Corryong, along a newly cut track on 
the Victorian side of the Indi. We left Groggin about 6 p.m., 
and, after following an ill-defined track for about 2^ miles along 
the Indi flat over a river terrace, crossed Omeo Creek near its 
junction with the Indi; then for about i}^ miles over a lower 
river terrace and marshy ground to where a steep spur joins the 
river. This place we reached at dusk and found a large unnamed 
creek, which we called Pinnibar Creek, as it rises on the flanks of 
Mt. Pinnibar, flowing from the west into the river. In the creek 
partially metamorphosed slates were visible in a small outcrop, 

* " Geological Notes on Kosciusko, with Special Reference to Evidences of 
Glacial Action," <»/. cit., xxvi., part i, March, 1901. 

For further information on the geology of this district the papers specified in 
the appendix to the latter paper should be consuUed. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 123 

due to the proximity of an intrusive mass. Crossing the creek 
we commenced a very arduous and steep zig-zag climb for 1,700 
feet in the dark, first over chloritic slates, then red and grey mica- 
schists. Reaching the top of this ridge about 10.30 p.m., and 
winding round it for some distance, we were dismayed to find 
the track descending almost in a straight line into the depths of 
a deep gorge. We promptly readjusted the packs on the horses, 
girthed them as tightly as possible and, with some trepidation, 
began the scramble down. After slow, careful travelling over 
schist and granite we were fortunate in getting the horses down 
nearly 2,000 feet without mishap, and found ourselves at the 
junction of a large swiftly running creek with the Indi. Both 
streams were roaring so much that ordinary conversation could 
not be heard, so we silently unpacked and let the horses go. 
The tent was then pitched on a raised bed of river drift, we had 
an early morning tea, and, wondering how any man could expect 
a track of this kind to be used by horses, fell asleep to the music 
of the rushing waters. 

2nd April. — The morning increased our astonishment, for we 
were in the canyon of the Indi. Both sides of the river were 
formed of steep cliffs, between which the stream ran roaring from 
the east in a series of rapids to meet its still more turbulent 
tributary from the S.W., before it turned to the N.W. to continue 
its rushing course onward. There is a romance attached to this 
place, as we found out later. It appears that, while the track was 
being cut, the men on reaching this spot found, to their amaze- 
ment, a hut, a small clearing and a man, clothed almost entirely 
with opossum and wallaby skins. On this small clearing he had, 
it is said, grown some tobacco and wheat, and, resenting the 
encroachment on his privacy, he at once disappeared, no one 
knows whither, taking his history with him, to some other 
inaccessible part of the mountains. A bush fire had ravaged 
most of the locality, and burnt the hut, which had stood on the 
spot where we camped. The creek had no name, so we called it 
Hermit Creek. The locality is interesting geologically, for the 
stream runs approximately along the line of junction between 
granite on the S.E. and schists on the N.W. 

We had a long, hard day's tramp of about 30 miles before us 
to reach Corryong and catch the coach next day, so we hurried 
away and climbed 500 feet up the slope across Hermit Creek, 
over quartz and mica-schists, then wound along the side cuttings 
by the Indi till we came to another large unnamed stream, to 
which the name Coynallan Creek has been given. This country 
is composed of schist, caused by the intrusion of the granite mass 
at Hermit Creek, and through it run granite dykes. About the 
junction of this creek with the Indi the vegetation was extremely 
dense, consisting mainly of Hazel, Pomaderris apetala, Musk, 
Aster argophyllus, Blanketwood, Senecio bed/ordi, Tree-ferns, 



124 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



Alsophila australis, matted together with Clematis, Clematis 
aristata and Wire-grass, Ehrharta jnticeo', affording a strong 
contrast to the burnt hillsides. 

As we progressed down the canyon, the track wound through 
side cuttings made in the slates, with here and there strips of 
Swamp Tea-tree, where corduroy of tree-ferns, saplings, and tea- 
tree had been made. The cliffs gradually became less steep, 
while the rocks merged imperceptibly into normal slates and 
sandstones, with numerous quartz veins, until, some 7 miles down 
stream, the gorge opened into a fairly wide flat, where Barlow's 
Creek joins the Indi. The strata are probably Ordovician. 
They have a general N. to N.W. strike, and dip to the E., 
S.W., and W., showing, as far as noticed, a syncline and an 
anticline, though probably more occur. The natural section is a 
grand one for the geologist, and the canyon most pleasing to the 
photographer, but our time did not admit of examination or 
photography, so we hurried on. For a more detailed description 
of the area between Groggin and Corryong, see a former paper* 
by me. 

Leaving the Indi River, we jtassed over the alluvium of Barlow's 
Creek valley and came on low spurs of intrusive granite, like that 
at Hermit Creek, forming the divide between Barlow's and 
Bunroy Creeks. This gave place in about 2 miles to slates and 
sandstones, considerably indurated near the granite contact. The 
track from here continued north for several miles, crossing 
Bunroy Creek and M'llree's Gap, then turned west across the 
Elliott Range. The strata about M'llree's Gap are probably 
Ordovician, but granite occurs on the eastern flanks of the range. 
It gives place to nietamorphic rocks, principally schists, on the 
western slope into the Thowgla Creek valley. It was long after 
dusk before we crossed the Elliott Range and reached the valley, 
where we had some difficulty in finding the way to Corryong.f 
Finally, near midnight, we reached that township, had tea, packed 
up ready for the morrow, and retired to rest. 

3rd April. — Early in the morning the coach to Tallangatta (50 
miles) took Messrs. Thorn and Walker, with the camp material, 
while I rode one of the horses and drove the other three to the camp 
of their owners, between Cambourne and Koetong, and, leaving 
them there, reached Tallangatta about 6 p.m. 

So ended a useful trip of three weeks, comprising some 300 miles 
of mountain travel, of which 250 miles had been done on foot, 
with good weather during most of the time. 

* " Geological Notes on the Lower Indi River District, Eastern Benambra," 
with map, Prog. Rept. Geol. Surv. Vict., vol. ix., 1898, pp. 67-70. 

+ For further notes on this district, see " Report on the Corryong Gold- 
field," R. A. F. Murray, Prog. Rept. Geol. Surv. Vict., No. viii. , p. 47, and 
" Report and Plan of Geological Survey of the Parish of Towong," W. H. 
Ferguson, Monthly Prog. Rept. Geol. Surv. Vict., Nos. 6 and 7, Sept. and 
Oct., 1899, pp. 6-8. 



Che Uictorian natura list 

Vol. XXII.— No. 8. DECEMBER 7, 1905. No. 264. 



FIELD NATURALISTS' CLUB OF VICTORIA. 

The ordinary monthly meeting of the Club was held at the 
Royal Society's Hall on Monday evening, 20th November, 1905. 
The president, Mr. F. G. A. Barnard, occupied the chair, and 
about 90 members and visitors were present. 

REPORTS. 

A report of the excursion to Ringwood on Saturday, 28th 
October, was forwarded by the leader, Mr. C. French, jun., who 
said that there was a large attendance of members and friends. 
The party rambled for about two miles along the railway line 
towards Bayswater, and then turned to the right to a series of 
hills, which were searched for flowers, with very good results. 
Altogether during the afternoon some sixty species of plants were 
found in bloom, of which no less than twenty-three were orchids. 
Among the latter may be mentioned Thelymitra carneM, T. ixioides, 
Caladenia suaveolens (very fine), C. cairnsiatia (usually rare, but 
here a patch of thirty-five specimens was found), and Praso- 
phyllum fuscum. Other noteworthy plants were — Phylloglossum 
drummondi, Utricularia dichotoina, Stackhousia linarifolia (with 
pink flowers), Bossicea prostrata, and Acacia juniperina. Ento- 
mological specimens were scarce, doubtless owing to the recent 
exceptionally cool weather. Three Copper-headed Snakes, 
Hoplocephalus curtus, were seen during the afternoon, two of 
which were killed. 

A report of the three-days' excursion to Warburton, on Satur- 
day, nth November, and following days, was given by the 
leader, Mr. F. G. A. Barnard, who said that the attendance was 
rather small, and, owing to the wintry weather, plants and insects 
were very backward. A number of interesting planarian worms 
were secured, and, under the guidance of a geological member, 
some attention was devoted to the geology of the district. 

A report of the junior excursion to the Botanic Gardens on 
Saturday, 4th November, was given by the leader, Mr. F. Pitcher. 
Owing to threatening weather the attendance was not so large as 
was expected. However, about forty-two members put in an 
appearance. Many of the useful trees and plants were pointed 
out, and their various uses explained. Among the interesting 
plants noticed was a fine specimen of the Banana, Musa erisete, 
bearing flowers and developing fruit — i.e, seeds — the leader 
explaining that, though not the same species as the edible 



126 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

banana, the mode of flowering and the development of the fruit 
was similar. 

The hon. librarian reported the receipt of the following 
donations to the library : — " Department of Mines, Victoria, 
Bulletin 17 : Newbridge Goldfield," from the Secretary for Mines, 
Melbourne ; Journal oj Agriculture of Victoria, July and August, 
1905, from the Secretary for Agriculture, Melbourne ; " Depart- 
ment of Mines, New South Wales : Records, vol. viii., part i, 
and Annual Report, 1904," from the Secretary for Mines, 
Sydney ; Agricultural Gazette of New South Wales, Ji^'y ^^^ 
August, 1905, from the Secretary for Agriculture, Sydney ; 
" Proceedings Linnean Society of New South Wales, vol. xxx., part 
I, and Supp. ; also Rules and List of Members," from the 
Society ; " Queensland Flora : Index and Supplements," from 
the Government Botanist, Brisbane ; " Proceedings Royal Society 
of Queensland," vol. xix., part i, from the Society ; Journal oJ 
West Australian Natural History Society, part 2, May, 1905, from 
the Society; Nature Notes, July, 1905, from Selborne Society, 
London ; also " Proceedings Royal Society of New South Wales," 

1877, " Transactions New Zealand Institute," vol. xi., 1878, and 
" Proceedings Royal Society of Tasmania," 1876 (imp.), 1877, 

1878, 1879, 1880, 1881, and 1882, from the University Library, 
Melbourne. 

ELECTION OF MEMBERS. 

On a ballot being taken, Mr. A. H. Tricks, Victoria-street, 
Camberwell, Mr. Thos. Mahood, Argus office, Mr. H. Kendall, 
Argus office, Mr. F. G. Cormack, General Post-Ofifice, Mr. F. 
Cornall, Lome-parade, Surrey Hills, and Capt. R. J. Dawes, 
Williamstown, were elected ordinary members ; Eric Mansfield 
as an associate ; and Misses Phillis Vale, W. Larard, W. 
Shappere, Masters Alex. Godfrey, A, M. Hall, O. Childers, H. 
MuUett, H. Monk, L. J. Lodge, J. Stewart, and A. P. Flockhart 
as junior members of the Club. 

GENERAL BUSINESS. 

The chairman stated that the members would be pleased to 
learn that the Director of Geology had instructed Mr. W. Bara- 
gwanath, junior, to extend the survey of the Baw Baw district to 
the north and west of the area already surveyed ; this would 
probably cover the supposed source of the River Yarra, and so 
settle the uncertainty at present existing on that point. 

PAPER READ. 

By Mr. A. Mattingley, entitled " A Naturalist's Notes in 
North Queensland." 

In an interesting paper, illustrated by about seventy lantern 
slides, the author described many of his experiences during 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST, 127 



several trips to the Great Barrier Reef and the adjoining coast of 
North Queensland. Some fine views of the reef and its in- 
habitants were shown, including one of a very large rookery of 
Sooty Terns. 

Mr. W. H. M'Mahon mentioned that the author, during his 
recent sojourn at Warrnambool, had been the means of 
stimulating the interest in natural history in that district. 

The chairman remarked that the members were indebted to 
Mr. Mattingley for his paper, and complimented him upon the 
excellent series of slides shown, which recalled to him pleasant 
memories of a brief visit to that part of Australia. 

Owing to the lateness of the hour, Mr. T. S. Hall's paper, 
entitled " Notes on Zoological Nomenclature," was held over 
until next meeting. 

EXHIBITS. 

By Mr. R. A. Bastow. — Hermit Crabs, Nectoearcinus 
Uiherculosis, in shell of Valuta roadknighke, and a so-called 
petrified mushroom (a root of sea-weed), from Cape Schanck. 

By Miss Cochrane. — Paintings of nine varieties of orchids 
collected at Ringwood excursion, 28th October, 1905 ; also 
Lyperanthus hurnetti, from Emerald. 

By Mr. A. Coles. — Pair of Warbling Grass-Parrakeets —male in 
normal plumage, from Swan Hill ; also a female, imported from 
England, showing change in colour of plumage, caused probably 
by in-breeding. 

By Mr. C. French, jun. — Cut-worm moths, Agrotis spina, 
appearing during October and November in many parts of 
Victoria in countless thousands. 

By Mr. F. G. D'Ombrain. — Hybrid Scarlet Lory and Rosella 
shot at Mooroolbark. 

By Master J. D'Ombrain. — Black Snake, Pseudechis 
porphyriacus, killed at Croydon in October. 

By Mr. C. J. Gabriel. — Shells, Ranella perca, Perry, from 
Japan, and Gypriea physis, Broc, from Algeria. 

By Mr. J. R. M'Lennan. — Orchids in bloom, Lyperanthiis 
hurnetti, Microtis porrijolia, M. atrata, and Plerostylis cucullata, 
from Emerald. 

By Mr. J. Tovey, for National Herbarium. — Dried plant, Emex 
australis, found growing in the Brighton district. A native of 
South and Western Australia. 

By Mr. F. M. Reader. — Dried specimens of plants, Stellaria 
multiflora and Stipa pubescens. 

By Mr. F. Schafer. — Native stone axe found at North Brighton. 

After the usual conversazione the meeting terminated. 



128 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



EXCURSION TO WARBURTON. 

For the second year in succession Warburton was the locality 
chosen for the three-day excursion which has become an 
annual fixture for the King's Birthday season. It had been 
anticipated that a large party would have gone up to War- 
burton this year, but from various reasons only seven 
members took part in the outing, and this full complement 
was not made up till the Saturday evening, nth Novem- 
ber. Those who went up by the early train spent the day 
in exploring the river banks in the immediate vicinity of the 
township. Owing to recent rains, the river was extra noisy as it 
rushed over its stony bed, and a ramble by moonlight to one of 
the numerous bridges crossing it showed that the stream was 
running at a great rate. During the night several showers of rain 
occurred, and it was with grave fears that we turned out in the 
morning. Two members who went for a stroll before breakfast 
returned with wet jackets as their reward for early rising. After 
breakfast, the weather having cleared, it was decided to make a 
start for the Yuonga Falls on the Yithan Creek, and, if possible, 
reach the summit of Donnabuang (4,080 feet), the peak which 
dominates the township on the northern side of the Yarra; but we 
had no sooner crossed the Wonwondah Bridge than a heavy 
shower came on and necessitated shelter being sought under a 
friendly roof The owners being piscatorially inclined, natural 
history items naturally filled up the conversation. The 
weather clearing a little, the crustacean division made 
towards a backwater of the river to set their traps for 
" Yabbies " (fresh-water crayfish), Astacopsis serratus, var. 
yarraensis, M'Coy, and dig for the land forms (Engseus, sp.) on 
the adjacent hillside, where they secured several specimens. 
Three others, representing entomology, botany, and geology, 
with photography, followed the tram track to Robertson's 
Sawmills, where shelter had to be again sought from a sharp hail- 
storm. Here we had a chance of admiring the handiwork of some 
of the operatives who devote their spare time to manufacturing 
walking sticks from "fiddle-back" Blackwood, Acacia melanoxylon. 
A short scramble along a slippery path brought us to the falls, 
but they are being despoiled of their lovely surroundings of 
vegetation more and more every year, and shortly much of the 
water will be conducted across the hillside to drive the machinery 
of the Echo Printing Works, in course of construction near the 
Wonwondah Bridge. It was now time to return to the hotel for 
lunch, but, as we had climbed some 750 feet, it seemed a pity to 
go down without doing more ; we therefore decided that lunch 
was unnecessary, and determined to follow the tram track higher 
up the mountain. At the falls Tecoma aiistralis and Clematis 
aristata were festooning the shrubs with their beautiful flowers. 



THE V/C7VR/AN NATURALIST. 



December, 1905. 



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THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 129 

The fine bushes of Correa lawrenciana are still not far from the 
track, but the variety of small ferns did not seem so good as noted 
in the Naturalist of February, 1903 (xx., 116). The tram track 
is very steep, a wire rope and winding plant being required 
to transport the logs, consequently we rapidly increased 
our elevation, and in half a mile came to a junction at 
about 1,250 feet. The vegetation was too wet to allow us to 
venture far from the track, so ievf plants were noted, the only 
novelty being Zieria smithii (Rutacese), with white flowers, 
resembling an Eriostemon, which keep very well when picked. 
Following the tram for another stage, we reached the locality 
where the trees were being felled, and almost the head of the 
Yithan Creek, and found that the current maps of the county of 
Evelyn are considerably wrong, as the Yithan does not nearly 
reach Mt. Juliet, the Dividing Range approaching much nearer 
the Yarra than shown on the latest maps. The sketch plan 
of the district taken from a recent survey, showing the 
Acheron rising much nearer the Yarra Valley than it is 
usually marked, is probably almost correct. Our photographer 
wanted to get a view up the Yarra Valley, so we struck off 
to the right, towards a ridge which seemed to offer the best 
look-out, but we had not reached it before a heavy hailstorm 
lasting quite half an hour came on, and caused us to seek what 
shelter we could find among the tall, straight trees (here we 
were at an elevation of nearly 2,000 feet by the barometer). The 
stump of one recently felled exhibited a splendid series of rings, 
which were counted, in order to ascertain its age, but yielded only 
125 rings, which, if representing one year each, seemed to us too 
short a life for such a fine stem, about 5 feet through. The wind 
blew from all quarters, and it was difficult to escape the driving hail 
or dripping trees, while the hillside became a watery slope. At 
length the weather cleared, and we decided to descend and leave the 
conquest of Donnabuang for some future day. This was quickly 
accomplished to the upper winding engine, when another hail- 
storm stuck us up. From here some fine cloud effects were 
noticed over the valley of Big Pat's Creek, and duly transferred to 
a negative. The feeders of the Yithan were running their best 
as we regained the tram line, and we several times involuntarily 
sat down to contemplate the scene. The descent of the tram 
track was soon made, but a further wait was necessary at the 
sawmill while another hailstorm passed over. Then we made 
for our comfortable quarters at the Alpine Retreat Hotel, which 
we reached about 5.30, and a change of clothing soon removed 
all traces of our adventures. 

Late in the evening heavy rain again came on, and made 
us despair for the morrow. However, the morning broke 
fairly fine, and as flowers and insects were scarce the majority of 



130 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST, 

the party turned their attention to geology, under the able 
guidance of Mr. A. E. Kitson, and wended their way up Scotch- 
man's and Backstairs Creeks to a tunnel in the hillside, with a 
miniature battery alongside, known as the Evans Reward mine, 
romantically situated, with a background of tree-ferns. Here we 
went the length of the tunnel, some 170 feet, and inspected the 
face, obtaining samples of the decomposed granite of which the 
payable portion consisted. A dish of this was afterwards washed 
off, and yielded a nice little sample of gold. We then went 
further up the hill to the Old Warburton road, which we followed 
to the site of the old sluicing works on the hill called " Little Joe," 
carried on in the early sixties. The gulch washed out is now 
filled with trees and shrubs, and is a sort of concentrated 
botanical museum of the district, and there the fern collector can 
get seedlings of all kinds in abundance. We were astonished to 
find trees 40 to 50 feet high growing in the bottom of the cutting, 
and on the hillside we were shown fine trees at least 2 feet in 
diameter which have grown up during the last 40 years. Signs of the 
scratching of Lyre-birds were noted in the bottom of the cutting. 
Samples of the highly coloured clays, &c., occurring in the walls 
of the gulch were secured, as well as a number of fern seedlings, 
and then we returned down the eastern side of the valley. This 
locality, as reported last year (Vict. Nat., xxi., 136), is un- 
doubtedly the best all-round locality for the field naturalist at 
Warburton, and we greatly regretted we had not longer time to 
devote to its exploration. Two additional ferns were noted here, 
Pteris argnta (tremula) and P. falcata, making thirty-six now 
noted for the district, which list could probably be increased by 
further search. Fine specimens of the orchid Caladenia 
carnea were plentiful, and numerous planarian worms were 
collected from under the fallen logs. After lunch at the hotel 
it was time to pack up and catch the afternoon train for 
town. On our way down so many queries were put to our 
geological member that the journey seemed to pass more quickly 
than it really did, and we parted at our various suburban stations 
thoroughly satisfied with our three days on the Upper Yarra. 
As an example of the difference in the seasons, it may be men- 
tioned that last year the Black Wattle, Acacia moUissima, was in 
full bloom about Woori Yallock and elsewhere, this year the buds 
only were to be seen ; last year the Tecoma was over, this 
year it was in full bloom ; now Leptospermum scoparium did 
not seem to have a single beetle feeding on it, while a few 
Painted Ladies were the only butterflies seen. 

I am indebted to members of the party for the following 
additional results of the excursion. — F. G. A, Barnard, 

The following are the more important Coleoptera noted by Mr, 
J. A. Kershaw, F.E.S. : — Notonomus besti, SI., N. peroni, Castel., 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 131 

N. chalybeus, Dej., Ceneus chalyleipennis, Chaud., Loxodactylus 
carinulatus, Chaud., Cestrinus trivialis, Erich., Lissotus furcicornis, 
Westw., Crepidomenus filiformis, Cand., Apasis howitti, Pasc, 
Adelium similatum, Germ., A. punctipenne, Bdv., Seirotrana 
proxima, Pasc, Saphron inornatus, Newm., and Lemodes coccinea. 

Several species of Myriapoda were collected by Mr. W. J. M'Caw, 
among them being Scutigera maculata, Henicops maculatus, 
Cormocephalus esulcatus, C. westwoodii, and Necrophloephagus 
antipodum. 

Of land planarians Mr. Kershaw reports that six species were 
collected. One of these, a small specimen found under a log on 
the side of a hill, was unknown to him, but, on being forwarded 
to Mr. T. Steel, F.L.S., of Sydney, who is devoting his attention 
to this group, it was identified as Geoplana venti-opunctata, Dendy. 
Tins prettry little species has also been recorded from Ferntree 
Gully, where it was taken plentifully by Dr. Dendy on the Club's 
excursion to that place in March, 1891. Several specimens of 
Geoplana siigdeni, Dendy, were found crawling along the open 
tracks, and one was taken on a tree trunk about 18 inches from 
the ground. The following is a full list of the species taken : — 
Geoplana ventropunctata, Dendy, G. sugdeni, G. mediolineata, 
G. alba, G. spenceri, and G. frosti. 

Regarding the geology of the excursion Mr. A. E. Kitson, 
F.G.S., furnishes the following notes : — 

The locality about Warburton possesses interesting geological 
features. The rocks represented are Silurian sediments, com- 
prising marine claystones, mudstones and sandstones ; Lower 
Devonian grano-diorite, Upper Mesozoic or Lower Cainozoic 
dacite and volcanic ash ; a series of clays, sandy clays and 
clayey gold-bearing sands of probably Lower Cainozoic age and 
of fluvio-lacustrine origin ; remnants of the Yarra River terraces 
of pebbly gravels of Upper Cainozoic age ; and Recent alluvium 
and hill wash. 

The Silurian strata can be seen in railway cuttings between 
Yarra Junction and Warburton, and up the Yarra, a short walk 
above this township. The beds are probably the same as those 
of the Melbourne area, and reappear here owing to the folding 
of the strata by earth movements. Those beds have been 
grouped together by Professor Gregory, D.Sc, F.R.S., and called 
the Melbourne Series or Melbournian — see "The Heathcotian — a 
Pre-Ordovician Series — and its Distribution in Victoria," Proc. 
Roy. Soc. Vict., Vol. xv. (N.S.), part ii., 1902 (1903). Where 
noticed here they have a strike of about N., and dip to E. at 
high angles. 

The grano-diorite occurs close behind the railway line at 
Warburton, and extends back for many miles, forming the 
mountainous country in Beenak and Tonimbuk. It has been 



132 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

intruded into the Silurian strata, altering these rocks considerably 
along the contact. It is auriferous in parts, and from it has 
probably been derived the gold that has been and is still being 
found along Scotchman's Creek. At the present time a specially 
interesting occurrence of gold can be seen in the Evans Reward 
mine, on Backstairs Creek, a western branch of Scotchman's 
Creek, where decomposed grano-diorite is being crushed from a 
strip between 2 and 3 feet wide, yielding ^^ oz. of gold to the 
ton of material. There is no trace of any vein or reef of quartz ; 
the gold is simply distributed among the decomposed and dis- 
integrating grains of felspar and quartz of the grano-diorite, 
which lie between what appear to be two parallel fault planes or 
master joints, and are partially bound together by infiltrated oxide 
of iron, derived from the decomposition of the hornblende and 
biotite (black mica) of the grano-diorite. 

The dacites join the grano-diorite close to the Warburton 
railway station and stretch northwards across the Yarra, forming 
the high mountain, Donna Buang, about 4,080 feet above sea 
level, which overlooks Warburton from the N., as well as the 
mass of ranges about the head waters of the Graceburn, Maroon- 
dah (Watts), Acheron, Ligar and other streams. Beds of 
volcanic ash occur at various places along the flanks of this great 
volcanic mass, which has been referred to by Professor Gregory 
— see "The Geology of Mt. Macedon, Victoria," Proc. Roy. Soc. 
Vict., Vol. xiv. (N.S.), part ii., 1901 (1902) — as the stump of an 
ancient volcano. The dacite shows well in railway and road 
cuttings in the township of Warburton, and usually decomposes 
into a red soil of good quality, supporting a splendid forest. 

The Lower Cainozoic (?) sediments can be best seen in some 
old gold workings, now about 60 feet deep, on the southern slope 
of Little Joe, a high point between Warburton and Warburton 
West. Here the upper deposits are red and yellow clays, with 
pebbles and angular fragments of indurated Silurian rocks ; the 
lower ones are yellow and pink finely sandy clays. The latter 
have probably been deposited in a shallow lake, while the former 
appear to be of fluviatile origin, and to have been brought down 
by a river into a rapidly shallowing lake, perhaps formed during 
the dacite eruptions by the damming of some valley. They are 
auriferous, and at this place have yielded a great deal of gold. 
The upper beds are visible in railway cuttings between Warburton 
and Warburton West. 

The old Yarra terraces can be seen in several places in the 
valley, while the Recent alluvium forms the present flats of the 
streams. 

There are many points of geological interest not mentioned 
in these brief notes, but they could not be examined in the 
very short time available during the excursion. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 133 

A NATURALIST'S NOTES IN NORTH QUEENSLAND. 

By a. H. E. Mattingley. 
{Read before the Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria, 20th Nov., WOo.) 
As one approaches North Queensland from the south, on reach- 
ing the Tropic of Capricorn you pass Lady Elliot Island, the 
southern extremity of that stupendous structure, the Great 
Barrier Reef — the greatest piece of animal architecture at present 
existing, whether constructed by the human or other species. 
Beside it the Great Wall of China sinks into insignificance. For 
over 1,300 miles, stretching from Rockhampton to New Guinea, 
this coral reef buttresses the rollers that sweep in from the wide 
Pacific towards the Queensland coast. As the reef lies from 20 
to 130 miles from the mainland, there is a large and almost 
pellucid lake lying between the reef and the coast-line. It is there 
that those who suffer from mal-de-mer can take a trip in comfort 
amidst most enchanting scenery, the boat threading its way 
through a maze of pine-clad islands that scintillate like gems on 
the ocean, appearing to rest in mid-air when you are some 
distance off, owing to the refraction of light which prevails in 
those latitudes. 

It is a mistake to think that coral reefs themselves afford 
bewitching scenery as one passes them in a steamer. Lying, as 
they do, almost level with the surface of the water at low tide, 
they might be mistaken for ordinary mud-flats ; but land on them 
and they assume a different aspect — life, palpitating life, is every- 
where visible, and both the naturalist and the excursionist will 
find much to interest them. 

Before dealing with some of the sights on this Great Barrier 
Reef a few remarks on the nature of the reef itself may not be out 
of place. According to the theory of that greatest of all naturalists, 
Charles Darwin, which has not been disproved, that coral reefs 
are built upon the submerged land, we find that the line of the 
Great Barrier Reef was once the foreshore of North Queensland, 
and that the land has subsided about 2,000 feet. This we judge 
from the fact that the coral insects, as they are usually called, 
cannot live at a lower depth than 200 feet, nor at a higher level 
than extreme low water, while they must have a winter tempera- 
ture not lower than 60° F. Now, as the water alongside the 
reef is 2,000 feet deep, and coral is found on the bottom — a 
greater depth than it is possible for the creature to exist in — the 
question arises, how was it formed ? Simply this: the foundation 
on which the animals commenced their work was once near the 
surface of the ocean, and has gradually sunk to its present depth, 
the coral polyps building upwards as the foundation sank. 
Again, we find in some places the reef is above high water level, 
and able to sustain vegetation. This is caused by the breakers, 



134 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

which constantly fall on the outer parts of the reef, breaking off 
large masses of coral and heaping them on to the top of the living 
coral, to which they become cemented, and so the surface of the 
reef is raised above high water level, and on it debris of all 
descriptions accumulates, and, disintegrating, forms a suitable 
soil for the germination of seeds of plants and trees carried there 
by the waves, wind, or birds, and thus plant and other life finds a 
home. 

Owing to its isolation, many birds, particularly the Sooty 
Terns, Sterna fuliginosa, repair to the Barrier Reef to breed, and 
on approaching their " rookeries " thousands upon thousands of 
birds can be seen sitting in compact masses on their nests. 

Frigate-birds, Fregata aquila, are also found frequenting the 
same rookeries. These birds have been utilized by the traders 
and missionaries of the South Sea Islands as letter carriers. 
Captured when young they have an attachment for the home in 
which they were reared, and, if taken away to another island, 
will, when liberated, invariably return to their home. Taking 
advantage of this fact, the missionaries forward birds by the 
trading schooners to such places as they may desire communications 
from, and, when the necessity arises, such as a hostile visit from 
the natives, or pressing business communications, a letter is tied 
to the leg of a Frigate-bird and it is released from its place of 
captivity. Being strong fliers — in fact, the swiftest and most 
powerful of all the ocean-roaming birds — they soon reach their 
home, and alight on the perch where they had been fed during 
their infancy. So powerful are these birds that they have been 
observed to fly against the strongest cyclones that sweep across 
the ocean. 

Crabs frequent the reef in large numbers, and act as scavengers, 
but they can be a trouble to the naturalist, as on one occasion, 
when camped on the reef, some valuable specimens which I had 
left exposed were entirely destroyed by these voracious creatures. 

Many different kinds of coral are found on the reef, and may 
in future years prove a valuable asset to the Commonwealth, as 
from its calcareous nature it is a useful manure for exhausted 
soils. It can also be used for the preparation of lime for build- 
ing purposes, and, as the reef is, as I mentioned, some 1,300 
miles long, the supply is practically inexhaustible. One must 
not suppose that the coral reef resembles the bleached specimens 
usually seen. When alive — that is, when tenanted by the polyps 
by which it is formed — it assumes the most varied colours, and 
to watch the animals in some calm pool expanding and retracting 
their tentacles in search of food is indeed a fascinating sight. 

Holothurians, generally known as Beche-de-mer or Trepang, 
abound everywhere along the reef. They are greatly prized by 
the Chinese as an article of food, being considered a great 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 135 

delicacy. From 250 to 300 tons of the prepared fish, valued at 
nearly ^30,000, are annually exported from the reef by the 
Chinese, in whose hands the trade entirely is. They are prepared 
by being gutted, boiled for about twenty minutes, and then dried; 
sometimes they are smoked in addition, and are undoubtedly 
very palatable. Some very large Holothurians are found on our 
Victorian coasts, and would probably be just as edible as their 
northern congeners. They belong to the Echinoderms or prickly- 
skinned animals, along with the star-fish and sea-urchins. 

An animal which it is most necessary to avoid when walking 
over the reef is the Giant Clam, Tridacna gigas, a shell-fish 
which often grows to over a ton in weight. Should one accidentally 
put his foot into the open shell of this creature as it lies open 
amongst the coral awaiting its food it is more than likely that it 
would break his ankle with the great pressure which it exerts 
when closing its thick and solid shell, wliich it invariably does 
when interfered with, besides which he would be slowly but surely 
drowned as the tide rose, since it would require the use of a 
sledge hammer and chisel or a strong crowbar to force open the 
shell sufficiently for his release. 

A peculiar animal found along the Queensland coast is the 
Dugong or Sea-Cow, Ualicore auslralis, which sometimes weighs 
as much as 16 or 17 cwt. The male Dugong is furnished with a 
pair of tusks set in its head somewhat like those of the Walrus, 
but not so protuberant. The oil of this animal has been largely 
used in place of cod liver oil for lung and nerve troubles, and 
was some years ago a universal household remedy, but of late 
years has fallen somewhat into disfavour owing to its adulteration 
with shark oil. The cow Dugongs contain a greater quantity of 
oil than the bulls, and are so assiduously hunted that, unless 
some protection is afforded them, it is only a matter of time when 
they will be exterminated. From the fact that the Dugong sits 
upright in the water when suckling its young, holding the calf to 
the breast with the forearm or flipper, and also to the human 
facial expression which they bear, has arisen the stories of the 
mermaids of the old Dutch navigators. 

One of the methods adopted by the natives for their capture is, 
when they discover where the Dugongs come in to browse on the 
Seagrass, an alga, Posidoina australis, which grows on the mud- 
banks near the shore, to erect a staging on which to stand and 
then on moonlight nights to take up their position on the staging 
with a harpoon and coil of rope. The harpoon consists of a long 
pole with a hollow in one end, into which is fitted a wooden head, 
which is attached to the middle of the pole by a grass rope. 
Upon espying a Dugong they plunge the harpoon into it, where- 
upon the animal immediately rushes off; the harpoon head 
becomes dislodged from the pole, but, being tied to the pole at its 



136 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



centre, retards very effectively the animal's progress through the 
water. The native paddles after it in his canoe, waiting till the 
animal becomes exhausted before finally despatching it. 

Another method is to spear them from a canoe in the daytime 
as they are making their way to some feeding ground. The 
spear used for this purpose is composed of a light wooden shaft 
in which is imbedded a piece of sharpened fencing wire. This 
is easily plunged through their gutta-percha-like hide, and, as the 
animal dashes off, the wire bends like a fish-hook, and tows the 
shaft or some other float behind, and is easily followed by the 
natives in the canoe. The spear thrust is, however, not sufficient 
to fatally injure the animal, and it is therefore necessary for the 
natives to kill it, which is done by suffocation. Being a mammal, 
it is necessary for the Dugong to come to the surface to breathe. 
One of the natives dives overboard, and endeavours to insert a 
wooden plug into the animal's nostrils, and so cause suffocation ; 
failing this, they usually tie a rope round its tail and drag it down 
under the surface of the water, and so drown it ; in the event of 
both these methods failing, they spear it through the nostrils. 

White men adopt a different method for their capture. A 
huge, thick net of large mesh (over a mile in length) is spread 
along the outside of the mud-banks on which the Sea-grass grows. 
The net is set when the tide is out, and is held up by stout 
stakes. When the Dugong comes in to feed it does so on the 
high water of the flood-tide, thereby passing over the net. On 
the ebbing of the tide the animal tries to return, but finds its 
course barred by the net. It swims up and down the net until, 
driven to desperation, it thrusts its head through the mesh in its 
vain endeavours to get past, and, becoming tangled up in the net, 
is at last drowned. 

Crossing over to the mainland we find the mouths of the tidal 
streams lined with mangroves, the roots of which are usually 
covered with oysters. These require a hanmier and chisel to detach 
them, and, if one has the other necessary additions, a splendid 
lunch can be obtained Fireflies are often seen flitting about these 
streams. At night the light emitted by them when flying appears 
as if someone was walking about carrying a lantern. When 
boating at night, what with the fireflies, the phosphorescence of 
the water, running from the oars like streams of liquid fire, and 
the crackling of the molluscs on the mangrove roots as they are 
left bare by the tide, one gets a very weird, uncanny impression 
of these tidal estuaries. 

Colonies of huge destructive bats, Pteropus poliocephalus, 
known as Flying Foxes, make the Mangroves their home, and in 
the daytime can be seen hanging to the boughs by their hind 
toes, head downward, by thousands. They sally forth at night 
to any orchard in the vicinity, and feed upon and destroy large 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 137 



quantities of fruit. They also eat the different kinds of mangrove 
nuts and other edible wild fruits, such as those of the various 
species of Ficus (fig-trees) so plentiful in the scrubs. They move 
about silently, but, should a contention arise among them, they 
make weird, piercing shrieks. Their presence can be readily 
detected when resting in the daytime by the pungent musky 
odour they emit. They appear very large when flying, and 
specimens have measured 4)^ feet from tip to tip of the ex- 
tended wings. On the ground they are extremely helpless, and 
in the daytime appear to be blinded by the light. Their general 
appearance is uninviting, and it is no wonder that it is recorded 
that, when Captain Cook was voyaging these parts, and one day 
sent a boat ashore to obtain fresh water, one of the sailors while 
searching for water came suddenly upon a large Flying Fox 
flopping about on the ground, whereupon he rushed back to the 
boat and breathlessly announced that he had seen the devil. 

In the tropics, owing to the great heat, one usually sleeps with 
the window wide open, and on one occasion I was rudely 
disturbed from my slumbers by one of these uncanny creatures. 
They are very fond of the fruit of the Paw Paw tree. One of 
these trees laden with ripe fruit was growing alongside my window, 
and attracted the attention of some of these animals, when one 
of them, perhaps mistaking the opening for the entrance to a 
cave, where they also like to sleep, entered and commenced flying 
round my room, when, discovering its mistake, it vainly 
endeavoured to get out again, and in doing so brushed over my 
face, waking me. On lighting my candle I found the intruder 
to be a large Flying Fox, which I quickly despatched with a boot. 
Further sleep that night was out of the question, and next night 
I awoke in a terrible nightmare, and from the appearance of the 
bedclothes I must have been wrestling with another of these 
gruesome creatures in my dreams. 

Crocodiles, Crocodihis porosus, infest the tidal mouths of the 
streams and vie with sharks in gobbling up the large Sand Mullet 
and other fish which abound in those genial tropical waters. 
Crocodiles — they are usually called alligators, but there are no 
alligators in Australia — lay from 60 to 70 eggs, in a nest composed 
of mud and vegetable rubbish in the mangroves ; the eggs are 
covered over by the mother with this vegetable material, which, 
as it rots, assisted by the sun, generates sufficient heat to hatch 
out the eggs. The mother lies in a wallow alongside the eggs, in 
order to protect them from the depredations of wild pigs and 
other enemies. 

One day, whilst collecting birds in the mangroves, I stumbled 
across a female crocodile in a wallow by her nest, and as I 
was looking upwards in search of birds I got within a dozen 
yards of her without knowing it. She soon let me know of her 



138 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

presence by making a savage rush at me, uttering at the same 
time a kind of hissing, grunting noise ; quick as lightning I 
discharged the contents of my gun, consisting of No. 8 shot, into 
her eyes, completely blinding her ; then running back I hastily 
loaded the gun with No. 2 shot, and approaching within about 25 
feet I discharged the contents into her under the forearm — the 
softest part — and so despatched her. 

It is a common error to suppose that a bullet will bounce off 
the skin of a crocodile. The best weapon undoubtedly to shoot 
them with is a shot-gun, provided you use large shot and can get 
near enough to them. A crocodile's skin on the animal is as soft 
as raw bullock hide, but when removed it dries and assumes a 
hard and horny appearance. Of course the serrated ridges on 
the back, composed of plates of bone, will turn a bullet if fired 
sideways. 

On one occasion a friend of mine secured some crocodile eggs 
for blowing, and having placed them in a hat-box under his bed, 
forgot all about them. One day some time afterwards he was 
surprised to hear a great commotion in the house, and on rushing 
in found his wife and the black nursegirl on top of the bed 
screaming. It appears they were cleaning out the room, and 
happening to open the hat-box, some 25 little crocodiles started 
out and rushed round the room snapping at everybody in a 
vicious manner, but they were soon despatched. 

The young crocodiles when born are provided with a small 
knob, as it were, of egg-like material, attached to their stomach, 
to enable them to survive until such time as they can assist them- 
selves. This egg-sac is assimilated by the system, and takes the 
place of food, slowly disappearing as the little creature grows 
older, and is finally absorbed after about a month. It was this 
provision of nature which enabled them to live in the hat-box for 
some time without other nourishment. 

In the open country Termites' or White Ants' mounds are 
frequently met with, and it is a remarkable fact that one of the 
parrakeets, Psephotus pulchert'ijnus, the Beautiful Parrakeet, 
selects them to nest in. The bird bores a hole through the hard 
exterior into the honeycombed interior, in which it forms a 
chamber to receive the eggs. The Termites do not appear to in 
any way interfere with the young parrakeets, but they often 
desert their mounds. 

The Megapode, Alegapodius duperreyi, or Scrub-Hen, makes 
its large nest or mound of leaves and rubbish in the dense scrub. 
They are often of considerable size, being about 25 feet in 
diameter at the base, and 8 feet high. The birds collect all the 
materials together by scratching, which entails a considerable 
amount of labour. The eggs are always laid in the mound 
upright, with the smaller end downwards, and are covered over 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 139 

with more leaves, &c., so that the heat of the decaying vegetation 
may hatch them out. The young ones make their exit by 
scratching with their specially adapted feet as they He on their 
backs in the mound. 

Where the giant creepers and cUmbing plants are found in the 
densest part of the scrub there is to be found the Cassowary, 
Casuariiis australis, Australia's noblest bird. Specimens have 
been recorded weighing nearly 250 lbs., compared with which the 
heaviest Emu weighs about 120 lbs. They are proud of mien, 
and have been known to jump a fence 8 feet high for the purpose 
of fighting an adversary. They are provided with a large horny 
casque, to enable them, whilst running through the thorny scrub, 
which they do with the head thrust forward, to push aside the 
prickly boughs, and so save the neck, which is bare. The wings 
perform the same duty for the body. It must be remembered 
that the Cassowary is a flightless bird, and is provided with long, 
hard quills instead of feathers on its wings. The feathers, too, 
are hard and bristly, and specially adapted for traversing thorny 
country. 

These birds are easily hunted, owing to their plucky nature — 
that is, provided you have dogs accustomed to them. After a 
short run through the scrub they will turn and face the dogs, and 
gradually drive them back to their owner for protection, the dogs 
knowing full well that one kick from a Cassowary's huge leg 
would be instant death. Their leg development is two or three 
times that of an average Emu, and as Emus have been repeatedly 
known to break a strong wire fence, one can imagine the force of 
a Cassowary's kick. On one occasion a turkey-hunter was out 
looking for Scrub Turkeys when his dogs killed a young Cassowary 
close to the road along which he was walking, when out rushed the 
mother and attacked him so fiercely that he had to shoot it for his 
own protection. 

Cuckoos are well represented in the north, and conduct them- 
selves as in other parts, in that ihey do not burden themselves 
with the hatching of their eggs or rearing of their young, getting 
other birds to do so for them. Laying an egg on the ground the 
cuckoo takes it in its bill and places it in the nest of a wren or 
some other small bird, which hatches out and faithfully rears the 
young cockoo. A few hours after being hatched the young 
cuckoo commits wholesale murder by throwing out the other 
occupants of the nest, whether they be birds or eggs. This action 
is caused by the sensitive nerves with which nature has endowed 
the skin of the young cuckoo receiving a stimulus or irritation on 
coming into contact with the heated surface of the skin of its 
puny fellow-nestjings, and urging it to eject its foster-brethren. 
It seems impossible that such a small, featherless mite could at 
this stage of its existence instinctively know that the nest would 



140 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

be too small to hold all the other occupants later on, when they 
had grown larger, and that the foster-parents would be incapable 
of feeding all the family. Besides which the young cookoo is 
blind at this stage of its existence, and incapable of seeing the 
opening of the nest, which is a covered-in one, with a side 
entrance, out of which it ejects the eggs or nestlings as 
the case may be, and were instinct or reason the predominating 
faculty operating nature would assuredly have brought into power 
the most important organs of the bird and those closest to the brain 
— in short, the visual organs, or use of its eyes. Hence it is safe to 
assume that neither instinct nor reason is the faculty which 
operates in the young cuckoo, but that its action is a guiding 
propensity or physiological law more fundamental even than 
instinct. 

Many species of lizards are to be found in North Queensland. 
One known as the Diamond-tailed Lizard or Gecko, Phyllurus 
platurus, is frequently met with in rocky country, and is always 
found with its head downwards on the rocks. It assumes this 
position in order to make its enemies, such as hawks, believe that 
its tail is its head, and when they attack it, as they usually do, at 
the supposed head, they pull off the tail instead, and the lizard 
wriggles away and survives. Insects creeping about the rocks 
frequently fail to distinguish between the rock and the lizard, and, 
walking over it, are licked off by its long tongue and swallowed. 
Iguanas 6 and 7 feet long are not uncommon in the open forest 
country, and give one a considerable start as they make for the 
nearest tree up which to scramble. 

Turning to the vegetation found in North Queeensland, one 
finds many singular forms. One of the most unpleasant sensa- 
tions in travelling through the scrub is to come in contact with 
the Giant Nettle, or Stinging Tree, Laportea moroides. It has 
large soft-looking leaves like a geranium, and fruit like a rasp- 
berry. The sting of this plant causes excruciating pain, and its 
effect can be felt for months afterwards, especially should the 
part stung be bathed with water. If a person be riding a horse 
through the scrub and it should be accidentally stung, the rider 
has to shin up the nearest tree as fast as he can, as the pain 
drives the animal almost mad, causing it to bite and tear at 
everything in its paroxysms of agony, and one therefore runs the 
risk of being killed should he remain on the ground. 

When staying at a sugar plantation up north I was awakened 
by piercing shrieks and howls, and upon hastening to ascertain 
the cause found a Hindoo yelling at the top of his voice being 
carried off to his hut by some fellow-countrymen, who informed 
me that he was bewitched and possessed of a devil. It appears 
that the Hindoos are inveterate thieves, and as the stores on the 
plantations are built on piles, to prevent the white ants from 



THE VICTOKIAN NATURALIST. 141 



eating the floors and to keep the goods dry in the wet season 
should floods occur, the Hindoo had conceived the plan of 
getting into the store by cutting out some of the flooring. The 
first night he did not succeed in getting through, but his marks 
were observed by the manager, who determined to teach tlie 
would-be robber a lesson, more particularly as the Hindoos were 
unacquainted with some of the peculiarities of Australian vegeta- 
tion. Accordingly he went into the scrub and cut down some 
stinging trees, and carefully placed them so that the coolie, 
creepiiig up to his unfinished work of the night before, would 
come in contact with them. As he wore very little clothing it is 
needless to say the lesson was effective. 

One of the most curious, and at the same time valuable, trees 
growing in the open country is the Bottle-tree, Sterculia 
rupestris, so called from the trunk of the tree being thick and 
rotund at the bottom, and gradually tapering to a bottle-neck 
above. This tree is capable of withstanding the severest 
droughts, and when all other vegetation has disappeared the 
Bottle-tree still flourishes. It is then its value becomes apparent. 
The trunk, being composed of a soft, spongy, moisture-laden fibre, 
affords sustenance when cut down for starving stock, which 
greedily eat it, and its contained moisture to some extent over- 
comes the terrible thirst of the unfortunate animals. It is in 
times of stress that the value of protecting our native flora 
becomes more apparent, and such valuable trees as these 
Sterculias should be jealously guarded as a last resource in times 
of drought. 

The " Lawyer " Palms, Calamus rmielleri, form a great 
hindrance to one's progress through the scrubs. They climb in 
all directions, and should one try to force his way through them 
he is soon hooked up by the thorny tendrils which this palm uses 
to climb its neighbours in the forest. They derive their name 
from the tenacity of their grip, which resembles that of their 
human namesakes, but they are, nevertheless, charming and 
extremely graceful objects in the landscape. 

The many varieties of fig-trees (genus Ficus) form a consider- 
able portion of the vegetation of these northern scrubs, and a 
number of species are parasitic — that is, they grow on other trees, 
to which they firmly attach themselves, and slowly but surely 
strangle their foster-parent, eventually assuming their foster- 
parent's shape. They will even envelop rocks in their rambling 
roots, as depicted in the slide. Most trees bear their fruit 
on the smaller branches and twigs, but here one of the figs 
produces its fruit in compact bunches on the main trunk. The 
fruit is very dry, and only eaten by birds or rats. It is probable, 
were cheap labour available, much could be done among the fig- 
trees in the way of rubber-getting, as the juice of the bark when 



142 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

collected and properly prepared should equal the india-rubber of 
commerce. 

The Match-box or Queensland Bean vine is found growing in 
moist places along the streams, preferably over the Melaleuca or 
Paper-bark tree. The pod is often 2 to 3 feet long and 4 inches 
broad, and contains six or eight large hard-shelled seeds. These 
are utilized by jewellers to form into match-boxes, hence the 
popular name. 

The natives, in times of scarcity, utilize the fruits of the 
Pandanus or Screw Pine to prepare a coarse flour, out of which 
they make a damper of a most indigestible character. The fruit 
grows in huge bunches of hard nuts, resembling an enormous pine- 
apple. Zamia nuts are another article of food used by the natives. 
These are the product of the cycads or " fern-palms," and occur 
on the stem, just at the bases of the leaves. They are a very 
favourite article of food with the natives, and large heaps of the 
shells of the nuts are often found near their camping spots. 

Beautiful water-lilies grow in the pools, while the Burdekin 
Plum, Pleiogynium solandri, Engl., is usually found in the 
vicinity. It bears dark-looking acrid fruit, of which the blacks 
are very fond. These pools are usually the home of numerous 
fish, which the natives have a very simple way of obtaining, if a 
poison tree is growing near by. They cut a few of the branches, 
and, having bruised the leaves, throw them into the water. The 
poison quickly acts on the fish, which rise stupefied to the surface, 
when they rake out the fish, and cook and eat them, with seem- 
ingly no bad effects. 

There is a species of harmless fresh-water crocodile, Philas 
johnsoni, found in some of the streams. They do not grow as 
large as the crocodile previously mentioned, but to a new-comer 
they look more formidable on account of their longer jaw and 
sharper teeth. Their food is principally fish. On one occasion 
we came across several of these creatures in a stream. It was a 
hot, humid day, and my companions had dived in for a swim ; 
not to be outdone, I reluctantly followed ; a great sense of 
insecurity, however, overcame me in the water, and I was glad 
when my friends, who knew the habits of the creatures, went on 
shore again, so that I could do likewise. 

But I would weary you were I to recount a quarter of what 
interested me during several visits to tropical Queensland, which 
is a veritable naturalist's paradise, and should be visited by all 
who wish to see Nature in her most bewitching moods. 

[The paper was illustrated by a large series of lantern slides. 
— Ed. Vict. J}^at.] 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 143 

Botany at the University. — Dr. A. J. Ewart, who has just 
been appointed by the Council of the University of Melbourne to 
the new chair of IBotany, will occupy that position in conjunction 
with the post of Government Botanist for Victoria. Both the 
University and the Government were anxious to secure a botanist 
who would be of especial assistance in agricultural matters, and, 
in recommending Dr. Ewart's appointment. Professor Marshall 
Ward, of Cambridge, and Professor F. W. Oliver, of London, laid 
stress upon the fact that his very extensive knowledge of physio- 
logical botany placed him in a situation of peculiar advantage 
as regards agricultural teaching. Professor Ewart was trained 
at Liverpool University, and obtained an 185 1 Exhibition 
scholarship for agricultural research. This he held for three 
years, two of which were spent at the Leipzig Botanical 
Institute, and one as a travelling student in Java, Ceylon, and 
Singapore, in which places Professor Hillhouse, of Birmingham, 
says that Dr. Ewart carried on research with brilliant success. 
From March, 1902, to March, 1905, he was a tenant at Hurst Green 
Farm, near Birmingham, carrying out commercial and experimental 
farming operations on a small scale, in order to gain a practical 
acquaintance with agriculture. The new professor has also had 
considerable teaching experience ; five years' herbarium woi k in 
Liverpool, three years as extension lecturer in the University 
of Oxford, two years as Deputy Professor of Botany in 
Birmingham University. Dr. Pfeffer, the distinguished Director 
of the Botanical Institute in Leipzig, whose standard 
work on " The Physiology of Plants " Dr. Ewart translated into 
English for the Clarendon Press, says : — " It is also a special 
pleasure to me to be able to state that Dr. Ewart, in virtue of 
his critical spirit, his skill, knowledge, and iron industry, possesses 
in the highest degree the power of successfully attacking and 
solving the most difficult problems and researches." It has 
been arranged that Dr. Ewart will devote half of his time to the 
work of the Government Botanical Department, and half to that 
of the University, and we need hardly add that the new pro- 
fessor will be warmly welcomed by all who are interested in 
botanical work in Victoria. 

Western Australian Pitcher Plant. — Some little time ago 
I exhibited at a Club meeting some growing specimens of the 
Dwarf Pitcher Plant, Cephalotus foUicularis (N.O. Saxifrageae), 
found only in the vicinity of Albany, W.A. Several inquiries 
having been made about the habits of this plant, I append 
the following particulars. The plants grow in damp, swampy 
ground, in small clumps of about a dozen pitchers in each. 
As many as twenty such clusters were noticed on a piece 
of ground only three yards square. Growing as they do 
under the shelter of small shrubs on a slope, which keeps the 
pitcher almost perpendicular, with the mouth uppermost, the 



144 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

plants receive a regular supply of moisture, mainly from the 
dripping branches above, since for the greater part of the year 
the climate is such as would appear to favour a nightly condensa- 
tion of moisture. Some of the plants under observation in a 
garden did not close the lids or trap-doors of the pitchers every 
evening, and were fed every second day with finely minced raw 
meat. The contents of the pitchers of those examined in the 
field consisted of the chitinous remains of insects, such as sand- 
flies, ants, as well as a few small white grubs. The inflorescence 
is white, small, and inconspicuous. — E. B. Nicholls. 

Crvptogamic Botany of Braybrook. — The following mosses 
and lichens were collected during the Club excursion to 
Braybrook on Saturday, yth October, principally on the basaltic 
rocks along the Kororoit Creek. The locality is a good one for 
such plants, and further search would doubtless reveal additional 
species : — Mosses. — Grimmia basaltica, Hedwigidium drummondi, 
Syntrichia princeps, Phascum cylindricum, Leptodontium papilla- 
tum. Lichens. — Leptogium tremelloides, L., Endocarpiscum 
guipini, Stictina crocata, L., Parmelia coerulea-alba, Parmelia 
physodes, L., Parmelia conspersa, Ehrh., var. isidiata, Parmelia 
imitatrix, Xanthoria parietina, Amphiloma murorum, Lecanora 
atra, Huds., Lecanora umbrina, Ehrh., Diploschistes actinostoma, 
Lecidea subulatorum, Lecidea geographica, L. — R. A. Bastow. 

Plague of Moths. — In many parts of Victoria one of the 
Cut-worm moths, Agrotis spina, often known as the Bogong 
Moth, has recently been a veritable plague. At Queenscliff 
particularly the moths entered the houses by thousands, causing 
much annoyance by flying on to curtains, bedding, &c., the scales 
of their wings covering everything as with a brownish dust. 
Similar reports come from all directions, such as Frankston, 
Dookie, Sandringham, Amphitheatre, Bendigo. ist November, 
1905. — C. French, jun. 

Geelong Field Naturalists' Club. — This society, which 
recently celebrated its 25th anniversary, emboldened by the 
success of the nature study exhibition held last Easter, has issued 
the prospectus of another exhibition of a similar character to be 
held in Geelong on Thursday, 12th April, 1906, and following 
days A liberal prize schedule has been adopted, and full 
particulars can be obtained on application to the secretary, Mr. 
A. B. F. Wilson. The Club has devoted the September number 
of its quarterly journal, 2'he Geelong Naturalist, to a complete 
record of its first exhibition. Besides a full list of the prize- 
takers, it contains the lectures and addresses delivered during the 
currency of the exhibition, together with an introduction by Mr. 
Frank Tate, M.A., LS.O., Director of Education, the whole 
forming a very interesting number. Copies may be obtained 
from the hon. editor, Mr. R. E. Trebilcock, Hopetoun 
Chambers, Ryrie-street, Geelong, at is. 3d., post free. 



Cbc Uictortait naturalist 



Vol. XXII.— No. 9. JANUARY 11, 1906, No. 265. 

FIELD NATURALISTS' CLUB OF VICTORIA. 

The ordinary monthly meeting of the Chib was held at the 
Royal Society's Hall on Monday evening, nth December, 1905. 
The president, Mr. F. G. A. Barnard, occupied the chair, and 
about 65 members and visitors were present. 

REPORTS. 

A report of the excursion to Rosstown on Saturday, 25th 
November, was given by the leader, Mr. O. A. Sayce, who said 
that for some reason or other the ponds did not yield the usual 
abundance of animal life. 

A report of the excursion to Ferntree Gully on Saturday, 9th 
December, was given by the leaders, Messrs. J. A. Kershaw, 
F.E.S., and R. A. Bastow, who had charge of the entomological 
and cryptogamic botanical sections respectively. Each reported 
an interesting day, though the specimens obtained were not of 
any great rarity. 

A report of the junior excursion to Brighton Beach on 
Saturday, 2nd December, was given by the leader, Mr. J. 
Shephard, who said that some thirty juniors were present, the 
attendance being smaller than usual, doubtless on account of the 
threatening weather. Unfortunately, owing to a high tide, little 
else than a few sea-weeds and hydroids could be collected, and 
an approaching storm caused an early retreat to the station, con- 
sequently the outing could hardly be considered a success. 

The hon. librarian reported the receipt of the following 
donations to the library : — Journal of Agriculture of Victoria, 
September, 1905, from the Secretary for Agriculture ; " Proceed- 
ings Royal Society of Victoria," vol. xviii. (new series), part i, 
from the Society; Geelong Naturalist, September, 1905, from the 
Geelong Field Naturalists' Club ; Emu, vol. v., part 2, and 
Supplement, October, 1905, from the Australian Ornithologists' 
Union ; "Forest Flora of New South Wales," vol. ii., part 7, and 
" Revision of Genus Eucalyptus," part 7, by J. H. Maiden, F.L.S., 
Government Botanist, from the author ; Agricultural Gazette of 
New South Wales, September, October, and November, 1905, from 
the Secretary for Agriculture, Sydney ; " Annals of the Queensland 
Museum," No. 6, from the Curator ; " Transactions New Zealand 
Institute," vol. xxxvii. (1904), from the Institute; Nature Notes, 
August, September, and October, 1905, from the Selborne Society, 
London ; Nature Study, August, September, and October, 1905, 
from the publisher. 



146 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



ELECTION OF MEMBERS. 

On a ballot being taken, Mrs. Day, Toorak-road, South Yarra, 
Miss Young, Tivoli-road, South Yarra, Mr. Kerr Grant, M.Sc, 
Ormond College, Parkville, Mr. H. Grundt, Collins-street, Mel- 
bourne, Mr. J. T. Hamilton, Heidelberg-road, Ivanhoe, Mr. 
J. H. Harvey, 128 Powlett-street, East Melbourne, and Mr. 
J. S. Morrison, Eglinton-street, Moonee Ponds, were duly elected 
as members ; Mr. Wm. Wallace, Grantville, as a country member ; 
Mr. J. E. Marshall as an associate ; and Masters J- Erey, 
G. Taylor, J. Maxwell, A. Day, J. Minifie, C. Nixon, H. Rabling, 
R. Elder, A. Gaye, C. Young, G. M. Hall, H. Deniston, 
A. Adams, H. Adams, and R. Green as junior members of the 
Club. 

GENERAL BUSINESS. 

Mr. A. J. Campbell wrote suggesting that the Club approach 
the Minister of Public Works with a view to having a track cut 
from the Matlock track to Mt. Baw Baw, a distance of five miles, 
which he considered would enable tourists to reach the principal 
peak of the mount from Melbourne in a day's journey, going by 
way of South Neerim instead of the Moe and the old Tanjil 
track. 

Mr. A. E. Kitson, E.G.S., said that Mr. Catani, Engineer of the 
Public Works Department, was desirous of having a track cut 
between the Tanjil-Matlock track and Mt. Baw Baw, but that 
before taking any steps to have this done he would await the 
result of the geological survey of the district now being carried 
out by Mr. Wm. Baragwanath jun., of the Department of Mines, 
so as to utilize the information furnished by that survey ; and in 
view of this statement no action was taken on Mr. Campbell's 
letter. 

The hon. secretary read a letter — received from Mr. J. T. Paul, 
of Grantville— relative to the alleged destruction of Black Swans 
in Western Port Bay, in which he stated that the statements 
made in the press did not apply to that part of the bay extending 
from Lang Lang to Corinella, where the birds could be seen in 
hundreds throughout the year. 

PAPERS READ. 

I. By Mr. T. S. Hall, M.A., entitled " The Rules of Zoological 
Nomenclature." 

The author pointed out the need of rules and the necessity there 
was for those who attempted to write with scientific exactness to 
obey these rules. Some points in the new code issued by the 
International Zoological Congress were drawn attention to, and 
it was urged that we should fall in with other countries in 
adopting them. A name is regarded as a mere label, and as 
such it has no meaning, just as people's surnames have no 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 147 

meaning. There is, therefore, no excuse for altering a name on 
account of its being improperly formed or being inappropriate. 
The distinction between a homonym — the same name for two or 
more things — and a synonym — a different name for the same 
thing — was explained and illustrated by examples. The 
distinction made in the code between rules and recommendations 
was commended, and in the case of the recommendations it was 
stated that the custom of the journal might well be followed, and 
that most of the points dealt with in them were questions for the 
editor to decide. 

In reply to a number of questions by Mr. A. E. Kitson, the 
author said that the use of capitals for specific names in the 
genitive (in the possessive sense) was optional, and that the 
custom of the journal or editor should rule, to produce uniformity 
in the publication. The rules applied to groups of all rank, 
from sub-kingdom to species, and further if it was wished to go 
further. The rules were zoological only, and did not apply to 
botany, for the botanists had their own rules. All questions of 
type or mode of printing were dealt with under recommendations 
and not under rules. There was no distinction between recent 
and extinct animals, for zoology dealt with both. 

Messrs. Shephard, Sayce, Mattingley, Kendall, and the Presi- 
dent also spoke, and the author dealt with the points raised by 
them. 

2. By Mr. A. J. North, C.M.Z.S., entitled " Description of 
New Bird of Paradise." 

The author described as Paradisea granti a new Bird of 
Paradise from German New Guinea, the type specimen of which 
is in the collection of the Australian Museum, Sydney. The new 
species somewhat resembles P. intermedia, De Vis, and P. 
augusta-victorice, Cabanis, but certain differences of plumage 
appear to warrant its being regarded as a distinct species. 

3. By Mr. F. M. Reader, F.R.H.S., entitled "Contributions 
to the Flora of Victoria, No. 15 — Description of Pultencea 
maideni, sp. nov." 

The author described as Pultencea maideni, in honour of the 
Government Botanist of New South Wales, a new species of 
Pultenaea, collected in the Victoria Ranges, Dundas, Victoria, by 
Mr. J. B. Williamson, of Hawkesdale. The new species is 
closely allied to several other members of the genus Pultenaea, 
but differs principally in the shape and size of the bracteoles. 

EXHIBITS. 

By Mr. F. G. A. Barnard. — Orchid (epiphytal) in bloom, 
Sarcochilus parviJlor2is, collected on Ferntree Gully excursion. 

By Mr. E. E. Barker, F.R.M.S., on behalf of Mr. E. E. Green, 
F.L.S., Government Entomologist, Ceylon. — Gigantic spider, 



148 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

Pcecilotheria sitbjusca, probably a bird-eater ; porcupine quill 
measuring 29^^ inches in length. 

By Mr. R. A. Bastow. — Fourteen species of mosses, two 
hepatics, and seven lichens, collected at Ferntree Gully 
excursion, in illustration of report. 

By Mr. C. French, jun. — Three species of rare Victorian 
longicorn beetles — Distichocera macleayi, from Dandenong 
Ranges ; Microtragiis mormon, from Mallee ; and Cercegidion 
horrens, from E. Gippsland. 

By Messrs. J. H. Gatliff and C. J. Gabriel. — Shells, Pinna 
tasmanica, T.-Wds., encrusted with several species of Polyzoa, 
dredged in Western Port Bay. 

By Mrs. Hardy. — Mountain Opossum skins from the Blacks' 
Spur, near Marysville, showing tawny (abnormal) colouring in 
fur. 

By Mr. G. A. Keartland. — Skins and eggs of Yellow-tinted 
Honey-eater, Ptilotis Jlavescens. 

By Miss Grace Leishman, Albany. — Painting of Western 
Australian Pitcher Plant. 

By Mr A. Mattingley. — Twigs of the Quandong, Santalum 
acuminatum, with fruit attached, collected at Nhill ; Little 
Falcon, Falco lutinlatus, from Kangaroo Island. 

By Mr. F. M. Reader. — Dried specimens of plants, PuUencea 
maideni, nov. sp., in illustration of paper ; also Bracliycome 
ciliaris, Less., var. suhintegra, and Vittadinia australis, A. Rich., 
var. platycephala. 

By Mr. C. Walter. — ^Vater plant, Utricularia Jlex^iosa, from 
Murray River, near Kerang, not previously recorded from the 
N.W. of Victoria; collected by Mr. C. French, jun., November, 
1905. 

After the usual conversazione the meeting terminated. 



EXCURSION TO UPPER FERNTREE GULLY. 

This excursion, which took place on Saturday, 9th December, 
was attended by nine members (including two junior members). 
Of these five devoted themselves to entomology, the others taking 
up cryptogamic botany. On arrival at the Gully a consultation 
was held as to the procedure, and it was decided that as the work 
planned out for the botanical section would be confined chiefly 
to the Gully itself, and the entomological section required a 
wider field, the party should separate. 

Entomology. — Leaving the botanists at the Gully, there- 
fore, the entomologists followed along the Gembrook railway 
towards Belgrave. The weather, which was dull and rather 
uncertain at the start, brightened up, and there now seemed 
every prospect of a warm day. The air was filled with the 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 149 

incessant shrill song of the large green Cicada, Cyclochila 
australasice, Don., numbers of which were seen in the small gum 
saplings along the line. A variety of this species, having a black 
abdomen and black markings on the head and thorax, was 
frequently met with. This variety has recently been separated 
from the typical form under the name of Cyclochila spreta, God. 
and Frogg. Intermediate forms, however, are occasionally met 
with, which causes one to doubt the necessity for separating these 
two forms. Little opportunity occurred for collecting until we had 
passed Upwey station, when we found some isolated clumps of 
Leptospermum scoparmm in full flower. Most of these yielded 
a fair supply of insects, but only a limited number of species. 

The common lively little Mordellids, Mordella communis, 
Waterh,, and M. inornata, Lea., were present in great numbers, 
and among others we took three species of Buprestids, two 
species of Longicorns, and a good number of the tiny little 
Cetonid, Valgus laj)eyreusei, Gory. The pretty green moths, 
known as " Foresters," Procris viridipulverulenta and 
F. subdolosa, which are so fond of flying in the hot 
sunshine, were also found on the flowers of this shrub. 
In places the brilliant little jumping beetle, Haltica pagana, 
covered the heads of the common rushe?, in company with the 
well-known white Rush Moth, Scirjjophaga ^^atidella, Walk., and 
an odd specimen here and there of Uuryspa vittata, Baly., a 
beetle which seems to confine itself to this plant. It was here 
we saw our first Skipper butterfly, Hesperilla donnysa, and 
shortly afterwards captured our first butterfly, Epi^iejjhile abeona, 
Don., a fine specimen. A short time was devoted to searching 
among the Sword Grass (Cladium) for the larvge and pupse of 
Skippers, with, however, no success. We then decided to leave 
the railway, and follow a rather rough road leading to Sassafras 
Creek, some three or four miles distant. Some log-rolling was 
indulged in whenever opportunity off'ered, but very little was 
obtained in this way. Before we had gone very far the weather 
became dull and the sky clouded over, and what few insects had 
been on the wing or on the flowering shrubs now seemed to 
disappear. 

We now had lunch and a rest in a beautiful fern gully 
near the road, and then followed the track to Sassafras Creek, 
turning logs, searching under bark, and, as far as was possible, 
among the undergrowth, with very little success. The bush fires 
of last summer had traversed most of this part of the country, 
and seems to have spoilt the district as a collecting ground for 
some time to come. Nearly all the logs lying on the ground 
were charred, and very little life of any kind was to be found 
under them. Not a single land planarian was seen during the day. 
After spending a short time working the more open parts along 



150 THK VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



the Sassafras Creek, we came to the conclusion that while our 
botanical friends would probably have been delighted with this 
locality for their work, we were only wasting good time. We 
therefore decided to work back to Belgrave station, and continue 
our search along the railway line. Following the main road to 
Belgrave, which we reached about 4.30 p.m., we worked along 
the more open part within the railway fences towards Upwey. 
We soon found we had made a change for the better, and our 
nets were again brought into use. Our only umbrella had met 
with an accident which prevented its being opened, so we had to 
make our nets serve its purpose for beating. A number of 
additional beetles, &c., were taken in this way, while the micro- 
lepidoptera, together with larvae hunting, kept us fairly well 
occupied. About a mile from Upwey station we left the railway 
for more open country on the south of the line. Here we 
devoted the remaining couple of hours at our disposal, and were 
so well satisfied with this locality that we regretted we had not 
reached it earlier in the day. After a rest and another meal we 
sauntered along towards the railway line and thence to Ferntree 
Gully, carefully forgetting our unfortunate umbrella, which is 
lying somewhere in the bush — still another sacrifice to the cause 
of science. 

The results of the excursion, if calculated from the value of the 
specimens taken, were not very good ; but when it is remembered 
that, with the exception of the leader, all the members of the 
party were beginners, and that a great majority of the specimens 
met with, together with the method of searching and handling, 
were quite new to them, and that the opportunity was freely 
availed of for asking and answering questions and pointing out 
the various objects of interest, familiar to the experienced 
collector, but new and strange to the beginner, then we must 
regard the results as very satisfactory. 

We reached the station in good time for the 8.15 p.m. train 
to Melbourne (our botanical friends having preceded us by the 
5.30 p.m. train), all being thoroughly satisfied with the results of 
the day's ramble. 

Of Coleoptera about 30 species were taken, of which the more 
important were : — Percosoma montanum, Castel. ; Notonomus 
chalybeus, Dej. ; N. peronii, Castel. ; Ceneus chalybeipennis, 
Chand. ; Loxodactylus carinulatus, Chand. ; Ceratognathus niger, 
Westw. ; Phyllotocus rufipennis, Bdv. ; Valgus lapeyreusei, Gory; 
Apasia howitti, Pasc. ; Stigmodera burchelli. Gory ; S. varia, 
Macl. ; S. signata ; Pempsamacra pygnisea, Newm. ; Hesthesis 
plorator, Pasc. ; Euryspa vittata, Baly. ; Cherrus infaustus, Oliv. ; 
Thallus vinula, Erich. 

Some 20 species of Lepidoptera were secured, among which 
may be mentioned : — Scoliacma bicolor, Bdv. ; Termessa nivosa, 



THK VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 151 

Walk. ; Tortricopsis euryphanella, Meyr. ; Heliocausta euselma, 
Meyr. ; Zonopet;ila decisana, Walk. ; Mosoda consolatrix, Ros. ; 
Philobota iphigenes, Meyr.; Anestia ombrophanes, Meyr.; Bondia 
nigella, Newm. : Epidesmia tryxaria, (Jn. — Jas. A. Kershaw. 

Botany. — On leaving our entomological friends at the entrance 
to the Gully proper the botanists at once began their search for 
such lowly forms of plant life as mosses, lichens, and hepatics, and 
with considerable success. The Gully, doubtless owing to the 
number of holiday-makers which visit it, is hardly the cryptogamic 
botanist's paradise it used to be, still the ramble through its shady 
nooks and corners revealed many species we thought would have 
long since disappeared. Charmed by the delightful aroma of the 
surrounding vegetation, slowly and almost imperceptibly we 
reached the head of the main gully, and betook ourselves to the 
excellently graded path which crosses its head and finally takes 
the tourist out on to the top of the ridge, from whence extensive 
views of the Mornington Peninsula and Western Port Bay are 
easily obtainable. 

Short descriptions of some of the more prominent mosses will, 
I hope, be of service to some of our members, and perhaps 
induce them to become students of this charming group of 
plants. 

One of the first mosses to attract the attention in almost any 
of our fern gullies is probably the lovely species Cyathophorum 
pennatum, which presently we found in fruit. The fronds here 
were about 3 inches long, but at the Blacks' Spur I have obtained 
them 6 inches long,' and 12 inches long at Mt. Wellington, in 
Tasmania. Tiiis plant has frequently been collected as a fern, 
but with ferns it has nothing in common except locality. It will be 
well, therefore, to give some description of it. It is peculiarly 
well named, for the name means cup-bearing feather ; it hangs 
on the old logs that have seen their day and have at last fallen 
over the stream, when this plant steps in and throws a mantle over 
them in feathery masses of greenery, very often in the company 
of the filmy ferns Hymenophyllum and Trichomanes, and some- 
times dipping into the water. The leaves are distichous, very 
flat, bright green and translucent, whilst the smaller dorsal leaves 
are rounded. The fruit-stalk is very short, and is inserted in a 
cup-shaped sheath on the under surface of the stem. The 
capsules are large, ovoid, and pale brown, with a niagnificent 
double peristome. This peristome will reward close examination ; 
it is a row or rows of teeth around the mouth of the capsule, and 
is a good guide in many instances to the genus of a moss plant ; 
they are arranged in series of 8, 16, 32, 64, &c., and are some- 
times double and treble. They are also of various colours — 
brown, red, yellow, or white, with intermediate tints ; when 
placed under the microscope as opaque objects they are exquisite. 



152 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

The antheridege may be found mixed with club-shaped para- 
physes. The cellulation of the leaves is comparatively open. 

After a little more climbing we came across the little lichen 
Bceomyces heteromorjjfms on a clayey bank ; it very much 
resembles a minute mushroom with a rose-pink head. This 
plant may be easily passed over as a fungus, but it is a true lichen, 
with minute simple spores, which may be seen by reducing the 
head to powder on a glass slip with water ; it should then be 
examined with a ^-inch objective; the spores are beautifully 
regular, and are about .01 x .006 millimetres in size. The whole 
plant is not more than a quarter of an inch in height. 

We afterwards collected some good specimens of Hypnoden- 
dron s'pininervum in fine fruit and about three inches high. 
This moss is not unlike a miniature palm-tree, but with the fruit 
rising above the plant on long setee or fruit-stalks. The branches 
and the fruit are disposed very gracefully, and make beautiful 
specimens when neatly laid out. The leaves are deeply serrated, 
both on the margins and on the back, and are consequently 
easily identified. 

On examining an old log at the top of the Gully we found 
Camjiylopus intrqflexus in the interstices ; it was in excellent 
fruit. This moss is specifically named in allusion to the bent 
fruit-stalk, and there cannot be a more charming object for dark- 
ground illumination if well mounted in glycerine jelly. The form 
of the capsule is perfect, and the calyptra (enclosing veil) is 
exquisitely fringed. Unfortunately no other plant has, I think, 
so many synonyms as this. 

Another moss, Acanthocladium extenuatum, was also plentiful, 
with its peculiar pale green shining leaves, each leaf with a long 
piliferous point as long as the leaf itself. This will always be 
remembered when once seen. It forms large light green patches 
on the old logs. 

Many beautiful Hepaticse have been collected in this gully, but 
the disastrous fire eight or nine years ago appears to have nearly 
exterminated them. 

In addition to the foregoing we found the following plants : — 

Mosses. — Rhizogonium spiniforme, Macromitrium erosulum, 
Polytrichum undulatum, Bryum pseudo-pallescens, Hookeria 
rotundifolia, Porotrichum cochlearifolium, Meteorium flexicaule, 
Pogonatum tortile, Thuidium furfurosum, Fissidens, sp. 

Hepatics. — Chiloscyphus laxus, Marchantia polymorpha. 

Lichens. — Parmelia tenuirima, Biatoriopsis lutea, Peltigera 
polydactyla, Stictina crocata, Trypothelium fumosa-cinerea, 
Thelotrema lepadina. 

On reaching the refreshment-house above the head of the Gully 
we rested awhile, and then paid a visit to the new look-out tower 
recently erected by the Government on the summit of One Tree 



TUK VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 153 



Hill, about 1,500 feet above sea level, from which we obtained a 
magnificent outlook, embracing Melbourne and suburbs and the 
whole of Port Phillip Bay, with the Dividing Range as a back- 
ground to the north. The afternoon was fairly clear, and many 
landmarks were easily picked out. We then leisurely followed 
the road down the eastern side of the valley, admiring the many 
charming views on the way, and gathering some of the more 
prominent flowers as reminders of a very pleasant day spent in 
the midst of Nature's handiwork. 

The following notes about some of the phanerogams and ferns 
noticed during the day have been given me by Mr. F. G. A. 
Barnard : — The most important find was a plant of the epiphytal 
orchid, Sarcochilus pai'vijlorus, in bloom, on a hazel which had 
been blown down by a recent storm. After emerging from the 
gully the little Violet, Viola hederacea, was found to be flowering 
in great profusion on the hillside, along with Glycine clandestina. 
On our way back by the road we found FiineUa ligiistrina and 
the charming climber Clematis aristala in full bloom, and on 
reaching the lower country the beautiful white iris, Dij)larrhena 
morwa was fairly plentiful. Magnificent specimens of the 
Victorian Staghorn Fern, Poly podium pustulatum, were seen 
growing on some Blackwoods, Acacia vielanoxylon, nesir the head 
of the gully, while a fine growth o{ Polypodium jnmctatum occurred 
on the roadside as we descended. 

We reached the station in ample time for the 5.30 train, but 
the entomological section was not there to join in the return 
journey. — R, A. Bastow. 



THE RULES OF NOMENCLATURE. 
By T. S. Hall, M.A. 

{Read he/ore the Field Naturalists^ Gluh of Victoria, llth Dec, 1905). 

About seven years ago 1 read a short paper before the Club 
entitled "What's in a Name?" {Vict. Nat., xv., 15). In this 
article some account was given of the rules by which the fixing 
of a name on any particular organism are agreed upon. There 
is not, and cannot be, any supreme power which shall settle these 
things, and punish, by the arm of the law, offenders against the 
rules. Rules, if any be used, must therefore rest merely on the 
agreement of naturalists. The only penalty to be exacted is that, 
if the rules are disobeyed, then the name violating the rule shall 
be ignored by the great body of the scientific public. There 
have been several codes of such rules drawn up, but, in spite of 
the care with which they have been, compiled, difticulties have 
arisen and confusion has occurred. 

Two rules are self-evident as of prime importance, which must 



154 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

be obeyed if confusion is to be avoided. They are that the same 
name must not be applied to more than one group of objects, 
and that once a thing has a name properly applied to it it must 
not be renamed. Yet even here we are met with a difficulty, and 
the first rule is not held to have universal application, for all 
modern codes agree that a plant and an animal may have the 
same name. Thus we have a plant and an animal called 
Orthoceras, and no confusion is likely to arise. Still, though 
there is no rule against this, we are urged not to repeat the 
process in future. 

In zoological nomenclature an important code was drawn up 
some sixty years ago, known as the Stricklandian. The rules 
devised were formally adopted by the leading British and 
American scientific bodies, and long held unquestioned sway. 
We need not discuss their shortcomings, but they have, to a 
certain extent, lost universal acquiescence. 

Of late years there has been held a series of International 
Zoological Congresses, and it was felt that it would be a valuable 
thing if these congresses would draw up a new code, which, thus 
having the support of zoologists the world over, would put an end 
to confusion. Such a code has now been agreed upon, and is 
being formally assented to by leading societies everywhere. We 
all have our little fads, even the most open-minded of us, and I 
may say that one of my own little fads — not my own only, of 
course — has been objected to, and I must amend my ways. 

Space would, of course, not allow us to discuss the rules in 
detail, but authors have no more right to disobey them than they 
have to neglect the laws of grammar or spelling. If they expect 
to be listened to with respect on scientific matters, the least they 
can do is to master what is after all for the most part a simple 
lesson. 

Just as the zoologists have drawn up a list of rules, so an 
International Congress of Botanists has done, though I believe 
the new rules have not yet appeared, and the old rules are still 
being followed. 

With regard to the new rules of zoological nomenclature a few 
points may be drawn attention to. There are thirty-six rules. 
In addition there are attached to most of these certain " recom- 
mendations " which it is advisable to follow, but no compulsion 
is to be exerted in the matter. Thus the first rule says that 
zoological nomenclature is independent of botanical, but a 
"recommendation" says "it is well to avoid introducing into 
zoology as generic names such names as are in use in botany." 
As regards names and their origin, it is clearly laid down, in eft'ect, 
that a name is a name only ; it is an indication of a certain group 
of objects and nothing more. Our right to get names where and 
how we choose is expressly allowed in the recommendations. 



triE VICTOKIAN NATURALIST. l5,5 



They may be from any language or from none. We may make 
up a word out of any jumble of letters we choose, as in the case 
of Clanculus, or we may twist words round, as in the name Alcedo, 
and get Dacelo. Once a name is " published and accompanied 
by an indication, or a definition, or a description ; and . . . . 
the author has applied the principles of binary nomenclature," 
then, provided the group of objects has not been previously 
named in accordance with these rules, the name is valid. Once 
a name is thus given, it can never be recalled ; the question of 
appropriateness cannot be raised. It is now merely a name, 
and as such has no meaning. Thus, for example, Ogilby, in 
1838, described the Pig-footed Bandicoot as Chceropus ecaudatus, 
the Tailless Chceropus. Four years later Gray found that it had a 
tail, and that Ogilby had worked on a mutilated skin. He said 
ecaudatus was then inapplicable, as it meant having certain 
qualities, and so renamed it castanotis, the Chestnut-backed. But 
according to the rule we must go back to Ogilby's name, for 
ecaudatus ceased to have a meaning as soon as it became a 
name. 

Another point may be noticed. The author of a scientific 
name is he who first used it according to the rule mentioned 
above. We quote an author's name for two reasons — firstly that 
we may be guided where to look for the original description, and 
secondly that in the case of two things having been accidentally 
described under the one name we may know which is meant. In 
the case of a species the specific name carries about the name of 
its author, even if we put it in another genus. As an additional 
guide, if it be so transferred, we put the author's name in 
brackets. Thus Gould described Polytelis alexandrai. North 
made the species the type of a new genus, SjJathopterus. If we 
accept the genus, which is a point I have nothing to do with, we 
now write Spathopterus alexandrce (Gould), and if we like we 
may put the nam.e North after (Gould), thus: — Spathopterus 
alexandrai (Gould) North, no commas or other slops being used. 
We may use a capital for alexandrce or not as we choose, and 
may print the name of the bird in any type we like, though we 
are recommended to use some other type than that of the text. 
The question of type, and that of writing out diphthongs in full, 
seem to be matters to be left to the editor, who will be guided by 
the custom of his publication. They are unimportant. 

Space will allow of the notice of only one more rule. There 
are two words in use which may be defined. A " synonym " is 
a different name for one and the same thing; a "homonym" 
is the same name for two or more different things. Rule 36 
says : — " Rejected homonyms can never again be used ; rejected 
synonyms can again be used in case of the restoration of 
erroneously suppressed groups." There has been some con- 



156 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

fusion about this, but the issue is now clearly stated. Some 
authors have revived homonyms ; the rules state that the 
homonym never lived, and it cannot be revived. To take an 
example: "Trichina, Owen, 1835, nematode, is rejected as 
homonym of Trichina, Meigen, 1830, insect." Supposing that 
it were thought that Meigen's insect genus had previously been 
named something else, then his name would be a synonym, and 
would be suppressed ; but this would not validate Owen's name 
for the worm. Supposing, again, that after further examination it 
was found advisable to separate the group Meigen indicated 
from the older genus in which it had been merged, then his 
Trichina would be revived. You cannot kill a synonym — you 
can only suppress it ; and it may always come to life again. My 
impression is that a good many names in use amongst us will be 
changed by this rule, for the clear distinction between homonym 
and synonym has not been clearly appreciated by some previous 
rules. 

The constant changes made in the past in nomenclature are 
a crying evil ; but it is not easy to suggest any ready way out 
of the difficulty and to prevent further changes. It has been 
suggested by those who would cut the Gordian knot that if a 
name had not been used for some years — say, fifty — it should 
be regarded as dead ; but even if this were a rule we should be 
still likely to be disturbed by the discovery that in some obscure 
publication some author had used it, perhaps through ignorance. 
Another suggestion is that a definite list of genera and species 
should be drawn up and accepted as authoritative. This implies 
that all views on classification must be settled correctly, at once 
and for ever — that new work must never unsettle the old ; but 
science will cease to be science when it submits to the impress 
of the dead hand, and we must consent to changes in names, but 
may still hope to considerably limit them. 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW BIRD OF PARADISE.* 

By Alfred J. North, C.M.Z.S., Ornithologist, Australian 

Museum, Sydney. 

(With plate.) 

{Read hefvre the Field Naturalists' Cluh of Victoria, Wth Dec, 1905.) 

Paradisea granti, sp. nov. 

Adult male. — General colour above rich straw colour; sides of 
lower back vinous-brown ; scapulars and least wing-coverts vinous- 
brown, with an ashy shade and washed with straw colour ; median 
coverts rich straw colour ; greater coverts and quills chestnut- 

* Contributions from the Australian Museum, Ly permission of the Trustees. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



yaniiary, 1906. 






THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 157 



brown, washed with straw colour, barely visible on the latter 
except on the edges of the outer webs of the secondaries ; tail 
chestnut-brown, the two centre feathers greatly elongated and 
passing on their terminal portion into bare thread-like shafts ; 
crown of head, neck, and a collar on the lower throat rich straw 
colour, slightly paler on the latter ; base of forehead, lores, cheeks, 
and throat metallic-green ; chin velvety-black, dull metallic-green 
in certain lights ; foreneck and upper breast very dark vinous- 
brown, the plumage, although stiffened, is of a rich velvety 
texture ; remainder of the under surface, thighs, and under tail 
coverts vinous-brown ; elongated flank plumes reddish-orange, 
paler on their apical portion and passing into a dull or a very 
faint orange-white on their long attenuated tips, the side plumes 
being shorter, and some of them dark blood-red on their apical 
portion ; shafts of the plumes orange, their basal portion golden- 
yellow, and paler at their extreme base ; bill bluish horn-colour ; 
legs and feet (of skin) brown. Total length, 14 inches; wing, 
7 inches ; tail, 6 inches ; the two centre elongated tail feathers, 
20 inches ; longest flank plumes, 19 inches; exposed portion of 
bill, 1.25 inches; tarsus, 1.6 inches. 

Habitat. — German New Guinea (?). 

Type. — In the Australian Museum, Sydney. 

Remarks. — Paradisea granti is closely allied to Paradisea 
intermedia, De Vis, and Paradisea augusta-victorio'., Cabanis. 
All bear a strong resemblance one to another on the upper parts, 
and in tlie upper aspect of the flank plumes, P. intermedia being 
slightly richer and darker. The average measurements of the three 
species are almost similar. On the under parts P. intermedia has 
the flank plumes crimson, in P. augusta-victorioi they are golden 
orange, and in P. granti they are a reddish-orange, the yellow 
collar on the lower throat also being broader than in either of the 
preceding species. The colour of the flank plumes in P. granti 
is almost similar to that of the crest plumes of the adult 
male of the Orange-crested Bower-bird, Amblyornis subalaris, 
Sharpe, of New Guinea; if anything, they have a slightly 
more pronounced reddish shade. Of the bird described 
here under the name of Paradisea granti being a distinct 
species there can be no question. My only doubt is that 
so large and an attractive species could have so long escaped 
observation and description. The latter, so far, however, I have 
been unable to discover. On reading Dr. Cabanis's original 
diagnosis of Paradisea augnsta- victor ice, copied by Count Sal- 
vadori into his Supplement to " Ornitologia della Papuasia e delle 
Molucche,"* wherein it is stated the flank plumes are reddish- 

* Part III., p. 241 (1891). 



158 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

orange, I was inclined to believe it referable to that species. In 
Dr. R. B. Sharpe's excellent " Monograph of the Paradiseiidce 
and PtilonorJiynchidiP," however, he states that the flank plumes 
of P. augusta-victorice are golden-orange, and that it has a narrow 
yellow collar on the throat like P. raggiana. This description 
agrees with a specimen of P. augusta-victorice in the Australian 
Museum collection, except that the flank plumes are not quite so 
highly coloured as is shown in Dr. Sharpe's plate. The broad 
yellow collar on the lower throat and distinct reddish-orange flank 
plumes of P. granti preclude it from being confused with 
P. augusta-victorice. The yellow collar on the latter measures 
O.I inch in breadth, in P. granti it is 0.5 inch. The comparative 
difference in the width of the collar on the lower throat may be 
seen in the accompanying plate, reproduced from a photograph of 
the skins of these species laid side by side. 

The specimen from which the above description is taken is a 
native-prepared one, and is said to have been obtained in German 
New Guinea. With it I have much pleasure in associating the name 
of Mr. Robert Grant, Assistant Taxidermist of the Australian 
Museum, who first brought it under my notice, and who has 
been instrumental in acquiring several rare specimens of Para- 
diseiidce for the Museum collection. Should not the present 
species already have a vernacular appellation bestowed on it, 
I propose to distinguish it under the name of Grant's Bird of 
Paradise. 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FLORA OF VICTORIA, 

No. XV. 

By F. M. Reader, F.R.H.S. 

(Communicated by J. F. Haase.) 

{Read before the Field Naturalists' Olub of Victoria, 11th Dec, 1905.) 

PuLTEN^A MAiDENi, F. M. Reader, sp. nov. 

An erect shrub from 2 to 3 feet high ; young branches slender, 
almost terete, more or less pubescent or hoary. 

Leaves nearly flat, broad linear or oblong, frequently narrowed 
towards the base and verging into a cuneate form, more rarely 
obcordate-ovate, usually less than i/^-inch long ; rounded obtuse 
or slightly emarginate, or with a minute callous point, usually 
paler and hairy underneath, with a prominent nerve ; glabrous 
above. Stipules small, lanceolate. Flowers few in small 
terminal sessile heads ; each flower shortly pedicellate. 

Bracts imbricate, covering the pedicels, trifid ; middle lobe 
very narrow and ciliate, the other much broader ; outer bracts 
shorter, inner about i}^ lilies long. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 159 

Bracteoles inserted on the base of the calyx tube, about two 
lines lonp:, obliquely broad linear, narrowed towards the apex, 
hairy on the back. 

Calyx silky hairy, about .tliree lines long; lower lobes narrow 
and rather longer than the tube ; upper lobes more connected 
and somewhat falcate. 

Standard about half as long again as the calyx, emarginate ; 
wings and keel a little shorter than the standard. Ovary villous 
tapering into the flattened, sparsely ciliated style. Pod not 
seen. 

Collected by Mr. H. B. Williamson at the Pipehead Reservoir 
of the Hamilton Waterworks, on the Victoria Range, Dundas 
County, Victoria. November, 1904. 

When the leaves of the species classed in section Eupultensea 
are nearly flat, the recurvature of the margin of the leaves is 
usually more noticeable in the withered leaf In cases where 
this characteristic is absent, the leaves are generally paler 
underneath instead of darker, and more hairy. In P. maideni 
no recurvature of the margin of the leaf in the specimens 
examined exists, and the tendency of the leaf is to be concave or 
folded together rather than recurved, revolute or convex, but the 
under surface is paler and more hairy than the upper ; hence this 
species will find a place in section Eupultengea. 

P. maideni is related to P. retusa, beiithami, scabra, striata, 
and gunnii, and much resembles the two latter species. From 
these it differs in the bracteoles, being larger, and fixed on close 
to the base of the calyx, larger calyx, in the bracts being trifid, 
&c. From P. retusa it is distinguished by the difference in the 
position and shape of the bracteoles and larger calyx. In P. 
benthami the calyx is about of the same size, but the upper lobes 
are united above the middle, the flowers are larger, and the leaves 
are different in shape, &c. 

The bracts in P. scabra are very small, or there are none, the 
calyx is smaller, and the position and shape of the bracteoles 
different. 

The species is named in honour of Mr. J. H. Maiden, Govern- 
ment Botanist of New South Wales, and Director of the Botanic 
Garden, Sydney, eminent for his researches in Australian botany. 



St. John's Wort, Hypericum 'perfoUatum, Linn. — The record 
of this introduced plant, so far as Victoria is concerned, is very 
bad, and is dealt with in full by Mr. C. French, F.L.S., Govern- 
ment Entomologist, in the November number of the Victorian 
Journal of Agriculture. The article emphasizes the danger 
likely to occur if this pest becomes established in the fertile 



160 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

lands of Gippsland. An accompanying map shows that it has 
already crossed the Alps from its place of origin, the Bright 
district, and has been found near Grant, towards the Dargo 
valley. Several illustrations are given showing how it entirely 
usurps the land, and a coloured plate by Miss S. W. L. Cochrane 
should enable the most indifferent botanist to recognize it and 
destroy it at once. The results of numerous experiments are 
given, but all would be very costly, on account of the rough 
country into which it is spreading. Curiously enough, a native 
plant — the Dodder, Cuscuta australis, R. Br. — has proved itself 
able to strangle it, but Mr. French questions whether the remedy 
is not as bad as the disease. A coloured plate of the Dodder, by 
the same artist, is also published. 

Tasmanian Field Naturalists' Club. — This Society has 
entered on its second year, and promises to become firmly 
established. It has recently distributed copies of an interesting 
paper on the Tasmanian orchids by Mr. L. Rodway, Govt. 
Botanist, with illustrations of eight or nine species. Mr. Rodway 
has made as much use of popular names as possible in drawing 
attention to the different species, but, unfortunately, several 
misprints occur in the spelling of the scientific names. 

Australian Journal of Science. — We regret to learn that 
sufficient promises of support have not been sent to the publishers 
to warrant the founding of the proposed Australian Journal of 
Science. We feel sure that had the journal been started, as 
proposed, under the editorship of Prof Liversidge, LL.D., of 
Sydney, it would have filled a decided want among Australian 
science workers, and would have done much to assist the work 
of the Australian Association for Advancement of Science. 
However, the time is not far distant when such a journal must 
come, and so bring workers all over Australia more in touch 
with one another. 

The Eucalyptus as a Timber Producer. — An article by 
Mr. J. Blackburn, Assistant Inspector of Forests, in the Agricul- 
tural Journal of Victoria for December last, gives some idea of 
what has been done in the Maryborough district in the way of 
re-establishing arboreal growth in denuded forest country, and 
the accompanying illustrations forcibly demonstrate to the reader 
the wonderful quickness of growth of such valuable timber trees 
as the Red Ironbark, Blue Gum, Sugar Gum, &c. Mr. Black- 
burn remarks that the carefully protected plantations have 
become quite a home for numerous species of native birds, 
exhibiting a marked contrast to the quietness of the surrounding 
ring-barked areas. 



Cbe Ukforian natisralisi 



Vol. XXIL— No. 10. FEBRUARY 8, 1906. No. 266. 



FIELD NATURALISTS' CLUB OF VICTORIA. 

The ordinary monthly meeting of the Chib was held at the 
Royal Society's Hall on Monday evening, 15th January, 1906. 

The president, Mr. F. G. A. Barnard, occupied the chair, and 
about 70 members and visitors were present. 

REPORTS. 

The President, in calling upon Mr. A. D. Hardy, F.L.S., leader 
of the Club excursion to Wilson's Promontory during the 
Christmas holidays, to give a brief outline of the work done, said 
that the committee, finding complete reports of the outing could 
not be prepared in time for this meeting of the Club, had 
decided to present the pictorial results at a public meeting to be 
held in about three weeks' time, reserving the scientific results for 
the next ordinary meeting. Mr. Hardy then said that the 
excursion had been a great success so far as gaining a know- 
ledge of the characteristics of the country embraced in the 
National Park area, but that the collections made did not contain 
any specimens of particular rarity. 

A report of the excursion to Heidelberg on Saturday, 13th 
January, was given by the leader, Mr. W. Stickland, who said that 
the party was favoured with a lovely day. The ponds on the 
right-hand side of the road, near the bridge over the Yarra, were 
found to be in good condition. A small] but very deep and 
quiet pool, surrounded by trees, yielded many specimens. The 
rotifer genus Lacinularia was much in evidence, beautiful 
growths of L. socialis and one of the pendunculate species being 
obtained. A number of free-swimming rotifers, amongst them 
the somewhat rare Pterodina rejlexa, were noted, and a variety of 
Baker's Brachionus with unusually long posterior spines. 
Amongst protozoa the bell animalcules were the most flourishing, 
Carchesium polypimtm being very abundant ; but the most 
remarkable growths were those of Epistylis Jlavicans, some of 
which could be measured by the inch. Hydra viridis was also 
plentiful. 

ELECTION OF MEMBERS. 

On a ballot being taken, Mr. Wm. M'Kay Cannon was elected 
an ordinary member, and Miss H. Le Souef and Master J. W. 
Collings were elected junior members of the Club. 

GENERAL BUSINESS. 

The chairman announced that Mr. C. L. Barrett, owing to 
pressure of business, had resigned from the position of hon. 



162 THE VICTOUIAN NATURALIST. 

assistant secretary and librarian, which he had so efficiently filled 
for over three years. 

On the motion of Mr. G. Coghill and Mr. J. F. Haase, a 
unanimous vote of thanks was accorded to Mr. Barrett for his 
services to the Club. 

Mr. W. H. A. Roger was nominated to fill the position vacated 
by Mr. Barrett. 

PAPERS READ. 

1. By Mr. A. D. Hardy, F.L.S., and Mrs. Hardy, entitled 
" Notes on the Botany and Ornithology of the Flealesville and 
Buxton Districts." 

The authors described the incidents of a tramp over the Blacks' 
Spur at the end of September, just after a heavy snowfall, noting 
the various birds and flowers seen during the walk. Particular 
attention was called to the many beautiful species of Acacia to be 
seen in bloom in the district at that period of the year. 

Some discussion was aroused as to whether the male Coachwhip- 
bird made the whip-note, or if the latter part of the call was 
made by the female. 

Mr. G. A. Keartland said that his observations led him to the 
conclusion that the male bird made both notes of the familiar 
whip-note, and that the female very often followed this by a lower 
two-note call. 

Mr. Robert Hall, F.L.S., Mr. A. Mattingley, and the chairman 
took part in the discussion. 

The paper was illustrated by a number of dried specimens of 
Acacias collected during the trip ; also a beautiful series of photo- 
graphs of the district, taken by Messrs. Lindt and Caire. 

Mr. Hardy mentioned that he was informed by Miss Keppel, 
of the Marysville Hotel, that the Lyre-birds were increasing in 
the Marysville district. 

2. By Dr. C. S. Sutton, entitled " A Botanical Collector in the 
Mallee." 

The author introduced his remarks on the results of several 
days' collecting around Lake Hindmarsh and at Dimboola by 
some comparison of the Mallee flora with that of other portions 
of the State, and stated that for variety and colour he doubted if 
it was equalled by that of any other locality in the State. 

NATURAL HISTORY NOTE. 

Mr. F. Pitcher called attention to his exhibit of a white- 
flowering variety of the Fringed Lily, Thysanotus tuberosiis, R. Br., 
which he had collected at Emerald, and stated that he had not 
come across the variety before. 

Dr. Sutton said that he had noticed several during a trip to 
the Buffalo Mountains. 

Mr. F. Chapman mentioned that he had obtained some 
specimens during the Christmas holidays at Hamilton. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 163 



EXHIBITS. 

By Mr. F. G. A. Barnard. — Wild flowers from South Wandin, 
including Grevillea alpina, Persoonia jiiniperina, and Lomatia 
ilicijolia ; young fry of fish, probably Galaxias, from Yarra River 
at Kew. 

By Mr. C. French, jun. • — Rare Victorian bird, Hylacola 
pyrrhopijgia, collected by Mr. G. E. Shepherd and himself in the 
Dandenong Ranges (new locality) ; rare Victorian orchid, Caleya 
sullifmii, collected near Gisborne by Mr. G. Lyell, January, 
1906. Only previously found at the Grampians. 

By Mr. C. J. Gabriel. — Shells, Sunetta excatata, Hanley, 
Dosinia crocea, Desh., Glycimeris australis, Quoy and Gaimard, 
and G. flabellalus, 1'. Wds. 

By Mr. A. D'. Hardy, F.L.S., and Mrs. Hardy. — Dried 
specimens of various Acacias from the Blacks' Spur ; also 
photographs, taken by Messrs, Lindt and Caire, of the Fernshawe 
district. 

By Mr. F. Pitcher. — White-flowered Fringed Lily, Thysanotus 
tube7-osus, var. alba, collected near Emerald, 31/12/05. 

By Dr. C. S. Sutton. — Dried plants from the Mallee, in 
illustration of paper. 

By Mr. C. Walter. — Plant, Mitrasacme pilosa, collected by 
Mr. C. French, jun., in the Dandenong Ranges. Only previously 
recorded from the Grampians 

After the usual conversazione the meeting terminated. 



A TRAMP FROM HEALESVILLE TO BUXTON. 

BOTANICAL AND ORNITHOLOGICAL NOTES FOR SEPTEMBER. 

Bv A. D. Hardy, F.L.S., and Mrs. Hardy. 
(Bead be/ore the Field Naturalists^ Cluh of Victoria, loth Jan., 1906.) 

Towards the end of September last year (1905) we crossed that 
part of the Dividing Range known as the Blacks' Spur. Our 
starling point was Healesville, situated at the junction of the Yarra 
and Watts Rivers, 38 miles from town, and our pace was a 
leisurely one, as befits the nature student, on foot, by a route 
which passed through Fernshaw and Narbethong to Marysville, 
and on horses to Bu.\ton, which lies in the Acheron Valley, eight 
miles northerly from Marysville, on the road to Alexandra. The 
distance by road from Healesville to Buxton is, roughly, about 
30 miles. It will be seen by those who know something of the 
locality that we had a well-formed road all the way, to which we 
kept, except for the hundred and one small deviations in search 
of bird or plant life — deviations which added to the length and 
interest of the journey. 

The object of our paper is to tell something of a district which 



164 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

is a little beyond the ordinary holiday rambles of our club, and 
to assist in the recording of the regional distribution of plants and 
birds. 

In the immediate environment of Healesville the country is 
settled, and in many places quite denuded of timber, in other parts 
only partially, so that in some of the paddocks there still remains 
sufficient shrubby vegetation to shelter a number of birds. 

For one ramble we chose the road to the Coranderrk 
Aboriginal Settlement, but had a bad day for natural history, the 
muddy road, frequent showers, and wet grass considerably inter- 
fering with our researches. 

In this locality the eucalyptus trees are stunted, and of little 
use for shade or ornament. The largest, trees other than 
eucalypts were Blackwoods, or Lightvvoods, which were in full 
bloom. Acacia verticillata, known by bushmen as Prickly Moses, 
was just beyond its prime. The two tea-trees, Leplospermum 
lanigerum and Melaleuca sqiiarrosa, were represented. Of smaller 
plants, those seen in bloom were common enough, but are 
recorded for the purpose of comparison with other districts and 
seasons. 

In the doubtful shade of some young eucalypt saplings the 
orchid Pterostylis longifolia grew well, but few in number. 
Tliis was the only orchid seen, either on the lowlands or at 
higher altitudes, during our outing. Other lowland plants were 
Wurmhea dioica, the " Purple Runner," Kennedya monophylla, 
Hypoxis glabella, Drosera whittakeri, D. menziesii, Craspedia 
richea, Br achy come graminea, Viola liederacea, and V. beton- 
icifolia. Along a water-race the ferns Lomaria discolor and 
Gleicheoiia circinata grew luxuriantly, as did also the Maiden 
Hair, Adiantum ctthiopiciim. 

Of the few species of birds seen about Coranderrk and 
Healesville several were represented by large numbers. Blue 
Wrens were wherever a patch of scrub or bracken gave that 
harbour to insects, for which they are ever on the search. The 
Ground Lark, Anthus australis, was plentiful, but only a few of 
the Spotted Pardalote were visible. A few of two common birds 
were noticed, these being the Mud Lark, Grallina picata, and 
the While-backed Magpie, Gyvinorhina leuconota, but the 
" Kookaburra," Dacelo gigas, was numerous, and, though no 
thrushes were seen, the melody of the Harmonious Thrush came 
from many a clump of scrub near the road. 

The walk from Healesville up the Blacks' Spur demands at any 
time a fair amount of exertion, but on this occasion, with 2 inches 
of snow on the road at Healesville, the conditions of the tramp 
at higher altitudes might be anticipated to present some difficulty. 
Notwithstanding the advice of old residents, who declared the 
Spur to be impassable on foot, we set out prepared for a rough 



THE VICTOKJAN NATUKALJST. 165 



time, cold feet, and a pedestrian achievement of some novelty. 
That a member of our Club should be the first lady to cross 
the Spur to Marysville with a reported foot depth of snow to 
walk through, and thereby establish a record, was a temptation 
irresistible. 

At the Maroondah or Watts Bridge, the former site of Fern- 
shaw, the snow deptli had perceptibly increased, and we were 
soon convmced that botanical inquiry was for the time almost 
impossible, as all but the tall trees and larger shrubs were 
completely hidden. P'urther on small branches from the over- 
hanging eucalypts littered the ground, and here and there a great 
limb, unable to resist the increasing weight, had fallen and 
grounded the telephone wire. Creaking and cracking branches 
overhead warned us to get from under in time to "avoid the 
impending danger, while from the more flexible twigs there came 
frequent and sudden showers of snow, and often heavier masses 
that fell without warning and drove one's hat down over the ears in 
a way that was more exciting than pleasant. 

With the crooked horn end of an alpenstock we endeavoured 
to shake many shrubs free of their white load, in order to 
recognize them, but the loitering in snow up to the boot tops was 
not encouraging, and the falling of the cold powder into our 
sleeves decided us to push on, and examine the plants if possible 
on the return journey. The temporarily altered habit of many 
plants— if the expression be allowed — was remarkable, as many 
shrubs of normally erect growth and acutely angular branching 
now appeared like weeping willows, and some of the smaller 
eucalypt bushes were depressed and flattened on top in imitation 
of their alpine kindred. The tree ferns, Dicksonia and Alsophila, 
had lost their graceful appearance, for while the circinate young 
fronds still remained erect the radial, expanded fronds were borne 
down at a sharp angle from the trunk and weighed to the ground 
with snow. 

When half-way up the Spur we halted for early lunch, which we 
ate while we perched on the top rail of a fence, with very wet, 
cold feet, suggesting that the halt should be as short as possible. 
There we measured the snow which capped the fence rail and 
post tops and noted 12^ inches. A solitary mosquito, Culex, sp., 
appeared to be benumbed with the cold as with difticulty'it 
picked its steps amongst the snow crystals. Its appearance 
siirprised us, but on attempting to secure it for our entomological 
friends at home it flew away as airily and healthfully as though it 
were a summer evening. A little further on we noticed an earth- 
worm crossing the road on snow over a foot above the ground, 
but having some difliculty where it sank in some of the newly 
fallen and powdery parts. There was no disturbed surface within 
many yards of the creature, and we wondered whether it had 



166 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



Strayed or was instinctively pursuing some course with an object 
in view. 

After pouring half a flask of whisky into our boots to warm our 
numbed feet, with successful results in about twenty minutes, we 
continued, the walking becoming heavier at each mile, ploughed 
our way through close on i8 inches of snow on the summit, and 
descended, through deep drifts in places, till we reached Mr. 
Lindt's well-known Hermitage, where wet clothes were soon 
dried and good cheer obtained. We found Mr. Lindt busily 
engaged in securing photographs of the snow scenes. Copies 
of these pictures, and some taken expressly for us, are exhibited 
to-night, and will convey an idea of the beauty of the scene 
better than any word-painting. The summit of the spur is about 
1,960 feet above sea level, and in the three miles from the 
Maroondah Bridge we had ascended some 1,200 feet. 

During the ascent few species of birds were seen. These were 
mostly robins ; but one young Kookaburra, which had curiously 
watched us at lunch and refused the crumbs we offered it, 
continued with us a considerable distance up the road, as it flew 
from post top to post top, and fence to twig, often only a few feet 
from us. 

From the Hermitage a fine view of the surrounding country 
is obtained. To the south-east Mt. Dom Dom, about 2,600 feet, 
appears like a blunt cone. Looking north-easterly, a great 
expanse of undulating country is seen stretching across to the 
Cerberean Range. In the valleys of these undulations run the 
various streams from the Blacks' Spur and the foothills of the 
Cerberean Range, which feed the Goulburn River with water, 
that ultimately finds its way by a circuitous route via the 
Murray to the sea. About twelve miles off, and between us and 
the Cerberean Range, the Cathedral Mount is seen peeping above 
the low hill of the foreground. A photograph on the table, by Mr. 
N. J. Caire, taken from a more southerly point — Mt. Bismarck — 
shows the Cathedral with Marysville in middle distance. 

About the Hermitage and along the road up and down the Spur 
grow the Golden and Silver Wattles, Acacia pycnantha and 
A. dealbata, and we do not remember having seen these wattles 
anywhere to better advantage. One of the photographs shows 
the two side by side in cultivation and snow-covered. It will be 
noted that Baron von Mueller made no record of A. j)ycnantha 
in the east or north-east portion of Victoria, but Mr. Lindt 
assured us that these were selected from amongst self-sown plants 
of the locality, and that they appeared, as acacias are known to 
do in other parts, mysteriously, after a bush fire. 

For some miles our way had been over a porphyritic area, the 
resulting soil supporting a growth . of timber trees for size un- 
equalled in Australia, but the aspect of the vegetation changes 



'i'MK VICTORIAN NATUHALlS'r. 167 

considerably as one approaches the lower Silurian country beyond 
the Blacks' Spur. Axe and fire have left their mark, while the 
results of different conditions of soil and climate are seen in the 
plant life. The tall trees are replaced by shorter and scrubbier 
growths, and the undergrowth is of a coarser and stronger nature. 
Crossing a few miles of undulating country through which run 
several headwater streams of the Acheron River, and on one of 
which (Fisher's Creek) the little village of Narbethong is situated, 
we climbed a high spur before dropping down into Marysville. 
This spur has been burnt out as regards all undergrowth, but the 
large trees had not been altogether destroyed, as from the 
blackened trunks young foliage was again sprouting. On the 
ground between the snow concealed very little else than bracken 
and grass-like plants, with a few hardy legumes, such as 
Platylobium, &c., of very recent growth. About Narbethong 
there are in cultivation many fine Blackwood trees, A. melanoxylon, 
in bloom, better than we had ever seen before, of splendid 
symmetry, and affording excellent shade, in every respect 
different to their asymmetrical, stragglingly foliaged kindred of the 
gullies a few miles away, and suggesting possibilities of 
successful experiment with other of Victoria's gully vegetation. 

Leaving Narbethong and Fisher's Creek behind, we climbed 
the spur beyond. The third animal, other than birds, we saw- 
here — a Wombat, Phascolomys mitchelli, Owen, standing with its 
legs deep in snow, and with the ends of a grass-like plant 
projecting from its mouth, being a very conspicuous object. It 
was far from any cover, and stood motionless, and apparently 
numbed with cold, until we stood within six feet of it. Our voices, 
however, caused it to beat a precipitous retreat down the steep 
hillside, a shower of snow following as the weighed down bracken 
fronds were released and the stems acted like springs. Every- 
where the stems of buried bracken fronds appeared like countless 
croquet hoops. We followed back the Wombat's tracks to ascertain 
what plant the animal had been eating, and found it to be Xerotes 
longi/olia, of which the leaves had been pulled up, and the sweet, 
white, succulent parts near the root eaten. Here and there we 
found this Xerotes with the comparatively hard green leaves 
cropped off to the surface of the ground, the root parts being 
neglected. 

At Marysville on the following day the roadway was free of 
snow, except in sheltered parts, but the vegetation was mostly 
covered, so we set off to visit the well-known Stevenson Falls. 
This once beautiful gully had also been burnt out. It was once 
filled with tall timber and fern trees up to 40 feet in height, and 
widi much of the best of our valley shrubs, but now there 
remained nothing but the blackened trunks of burnt trees, and 
the frondless stems of tall fern trees, which, silhouetted against the 



168 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



white coverlet, stood like sentinels over the grave of the 
magnificent vegetation which flourished here a few years ago. A 
solitary group of three young trees, Panax sainbucifolius, each 
exhibiting different foliage, grew on a slope. But why the 
difference of foliage ? Being so close together, neither soil nor 
climate could claim any influence. Bracken, of course, grew 
everywhere, though concealed for the time. The spoliation of 
this once beautiful valley reminded us of the devastation in the 
Otway Forest, and especially of the scene where the fine fall on 
the Little Aire River had been robbed of its pretty and interest- 
ing vegetation by bush fires. The horses grew steadily more 
nervous, because of the insecure foothold, and at last stood 
snorting and trembling, and refused to be ridden further, so had 
perforce to be led through knee-deep snow along a track 
rendered treacherous by holes and boulder faces being concealed 
by drifts. The only birds seen here were Ground Thrushes and 
Robins, but a couple of Sparrow-Hawks circled overhead. 
After a fruitless search for mosses and ferns of more than passing 
interest, and after selecting some probably algse-bearing material 
for subsequent examination, we returned to Marysville. 

Our intention had been to visit the Cumberland Creek district, 
where the giant trees grow, but we found the road practically 
snow-bound, and so, attracted northerly by the report of a pair of 
new birds in the Buxton district, we set out in that direction, an 
additional attraction being a grove of Acacia pravissima, from 
which one Christmas season we had collected fruit specimens. A 
few miles of undulating country road crossed one stream several 
times, and a short gallop along the magnificent avenue known as 
the " Long Reach," an excellent photograph of which, by Mr. 
N. J. Caire, is on the table, brought us to the acacia, which, to 
our delight, was in full bloom. Of all the wattles which we have 
seen in bloom, we do not remember having seen anything prettier 
than this graceful shrub or small tree. From the saddle we were 
able to reach up and collect fine specimens for the herbarium. 

A few miles further on we reached some wooded and scrubby 
paddocks near Mr. Keppel's farmhouse, and, with the owner's 
permission, rode through these, searching the locality for the 
reported pair of birds. Here we found small birds numerous — 
Scrub Wrens, Robins, Blue Wrens, Acanthizas, Pardalotes, &c. — 
while, unseen, the Coachwhip-bird kept whistling near us in a 
grove of Cassinia aculeata and Helichrysuin ferrugineum. 
After much patient searching and watching we discovered the 
birds we sought, and found them to be a pair of Black-faced 
Cuckoo-Shrikes, Graiicahis melaiiops. Mr. Keppel is giving the 
birds every chance of breeding in that part — where they are said 
to be quite new — by disturbing the scrub there as little as 
possible. 



THE VICTUKIAN NATURALIST. 169 



This was the end of our journey north. Further on the road 
runs down the ahnost flat lands of the Acheron Valley, crosses the 
Goulburn near the Acheron junction, and reaches Alexandra 
i}^ miles beyond that river. On the way, near Taggerty, the 
road skirts the base of the Cathedral Mount, a rugged mass of 
sandstone which has intruded into the prevailing Silurian. The 
creek at the base of tlie mount carries gravel from the granite of 
the Cerberean Range away to the east, whence the Rubicon 
River flows northerly. Recently two venturesome residents of 
Alexandra — Messrs. Muntz, C.E., and Leckie— ascended the 
Upper Rubicon with much difficulty and discovered there a 
splendid fall which, with attendant fernery, eclipses both the 
Stevenson Falls at Marysville and the Banyarnibite Falls on a 
tributary of the Goulburn near Thornton, about lo miles east of 
Alexandra, which by many have hitherto been considered the 
best falls in the State. 

An interesting account of the bird-life of the lower Rubicon 
River was given to the Club some timo ago by Mr. F. Billing- 
hurst in a paper entitled " A Day on the Rubicon River " ( Vict. 
Nat., xix., p. 77). 

With the thawing of the snow birds became more plentiful. 
Robins were very abundant, the bushes at times appearing 
to be in bloom with scarlet and pmk flowers. Four species 
were noted — viz., the Rose-breasted, Erythrodryas rosea, 
Scarlet-breasted, Petroica leggii. Flame-breasted, Petroeca pluK- 
nicea, and the Yellow- breasted, Eopsaltria australis. These w^ere 
common from Fernshaw to Buxton, both on the mountain and 
the flat. Of the four, the most plentiful was the Scarlet-breasted 
bird. 

An interesting point noticed was the protective instinct which 
caused these birds, after a flight from supposed danger, to perch, 
often at some inconvenience, with their conspicuously coloured 
breasts turned away from the source of danger. In this position 
they remained motionless for a time until reassured, when they 
hopped and flew about as gaily and famiharly as before. 

On our return journey we saw many plants which had pre- 
viously been invisible, and other birds. In the undulating 
country between Buxton and Marysville large flocks of Grey 
Jays were busily poking their beaks into holes in the ground in 
search of larvae, grubs, &c. Some Red Lories, in their brilliant 
plumage, flashed past here and there, while occasionally a King 
Lory crossed our path. Smaller birds, such as Wrens, Tits, 
Tree-creepers, Robins, and Waxbills seemed to be specially active 
after a protracted fast, while the introduced Starlings were 
numerous. Between the spur near Marysville and the Blacks' Spur 
the undulating Silurian country supported, besides eucalypts, 
Leptosper mum latiigerum, L. scoparium, Melaleuca squarrosa. 



170 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



Hakea ulicina, Ooodia lotifolia, Acacia veriicillata, and Acacia 
linearis (known as Willow Scrub). Amongst these shrubs small 
birds were innumerable. The four robins, the Blue Wren, the 
White-shafted Fantail being most prominent, while Ground 
Thrushes, Ground Larks, and Waxbills were also numerous. 
The discordant cawing of a Crow or Raven out of sight entitles 
one or the other to a place in our list, but we are not sure which. 

Apart from the taming effect of the snow on the birds generally, 
and this was marked, we found a Wagtail busily feeding on the 
flies and moscjuitoes which were annoying an old teamster horse, 
the Wagtail being quite indifferent to our presence ; and a 
Yellow Robin, rummaging on the footboard of a wrecked waggon 
on the Spur, but whether for seed or insects we could not 
determine, allowed us to approach within arm's length. 

About the foot of the Blacks' Spur, on the northern side, the 
bracken is almost ousted in places by Acacia verticillata, A. 
linearis, A. oxycedrus, Platijlohium forniosum, Hakea ulicina, 
and Daviesia lutifoUa which grew about eight or ten feet high, 
whilst almost up to the Hermitage Acacia linearis was abundant, 
and Goodia lotifolia in fair quantity. The bark of the eucalypts 
showed the characteristic tearing and ripping done by Black 
Cockatoos seeking for grubs. We saw only a few of these birds 
on the wing. Both Gang Gang and White Cockatoos screeched 
angrily at our intrusion. 

Acacia oxycedrus grows luxuriantly here, but with a smaller 
leaf than the spreading bushes found about Sandringham, &c. 
Telratheca cillata was poor ; Kennedya nionophyUa, Goodenia 
ovata, Billardiera scandens and £. longiflora, Pinielea axijlora, 
HymenantlLera banksii, Bossicea cinereus, Veronica derwenlia, 
Aster ramulosus, A. stellulatus, Hovea heterofhylla were all more 
or less common. From many of the tall eucalypts hung 
bunches of Mistletoe, Loranthus jjendulus, and already much 
good timber is threatened by this pest. 

On the Spur heights we observed much that had been 
previously overlooked, and small birds were twittering in every 
bush, delighting in the thickets of Fomaderris apetala, &c. 
Aster aryophyllus, Musk, was in bud. The Native Mulberry, 
Hedycarya citnninghaini was in flower. Glycine scandens in 
bloom twined about Pimelea axijlora, but oi Pimelea llgustrina 
we saw nothing. Exocarpus cupressif'ormis bore young fruit. 

The deep, cool gullies are filled with Native Beech or Myrtle, 
Fagus cunningfLumi, Musk, Sassafras, AtJierosperma moschatntn, 
Fomaderris apetala, a little Native Olive, Notehra llgustrina, 
Blanketwood, Senecio bedfordii, in bud, and the Christmas Tree, 
Frostanthera lasiantlia. The rich fernery of these gullies is 
well known, but the photograph by Mr. Lindt shown to-night 
pictures beauty in fernland which would be hard to equal 



THK VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 171 

elsewhere in the State. The ferns seen were Alsophila australis, 
Dicksonia billardierii, Lomaria capeiise, var. jjrocera, Polyfiodium 
jninctaium and P. pustulatum, Pteris incisa, P. aquilina, 
A diaiitimi cethiopicum, Asphniitnijlabelli/'olium. 

The Sassafras tree was in fine bloom between Fernshaw and 
the top of the Spur, and perfuming the air with a scent which 
reminded us of that of the Syringa or Mock Orange. Some 
specimens of the sticky Acacia leprosa were seen in bloom about 
Fernshaw. The Native Pepper Tree, Drimys aromatica, was 
seen along the roadside ; young plants brought away are still 
growing in the open in our garden. 

Of hepatics, mosses, and algse we have made no referfuce 
here, as several require further examination in order to be deter- 
mined, and the fern list might have been considerably increased 
had we explored the deep gullies carefully, but at this season, as 
we have shown, this was impracticable. 

Although we saw nothing of the Lyre-bird, Menura victorice, 
we were informed by Miss Keppel, of Marysville, that, despite the 
fact that foxes had increased rapidly of late, the Lyre-bird was 
more numerous this year than it had been for many years past. 
At Marysville, too, we were informed that Wombats are becoming 
a nuisance because of their interference with cultivated grasses, 
&c. The Satin Bower-bird, also, is reported to be increasing in 
numbers, but we did not see any. 

There was, as before remarked, very little Native Olive, 
Notelcea ligusirina, and no sign of the Satin or Stinking Box, 
Eriostenioti squameus, while Piitosportim bicolor, if present, was 
not prominent, and this, together with the conspicuous presence 
of the Sassafras, Atherosperma iiioscliatum, the Lyre-bird, Afenmra 
victorice, Gld., the reported frequency of the Satin Bower-bird, 
Piilunorhynchus violaceus, Vieill., and the large number of 
Wombats places the Blacks' Spur region in marked contrast to 
the Olway Forest district, vvhicli, however, is an area of Jurassic 
formation and geograpliically isolated, as reflected by its animal 
and plant life recorded in the Naturalist, vol. xxi., p. 149, a few 
months ago. 

Although this paper is primarily a series of notes on the botany 
and ornithology of the districts visited, some generally descriptive 
notes have been added in order that the general reader may be 
able to gain some idea of the country passed through. 

Plants of the Healesville, Narbethong, Marysville, and Buxton 
Districts, including the Blacks' Spur. 

(* in bloom, t in fruit, § specially referred to in foregoing description.) 

Ranunculacea.'— Magnoliaceae — 



Clematis aristata, R. Br. 

microphylla, Cand. 
^Ranunculus lappaceus, Smith 
aquatilis, Dodoens 



SUrimys aromatica, F. v. M. 
Monimieiie — 
*Atherosperma moschatum, Lab, 
*Hedycarya cunninghami, Julasne 



172 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



Lauracese — 

Cassytha glabella, R. Br. (?) 
Violacese — 
*Viola betonicifolia, Smith 

* hederacea, Lab. 
*Hymenanthera banksii, F. v. M. 

Pittosporese — 

Bursaria spinosa, Cavanilles 

tBillardiera longiflora, Lab. 

t scandens, Smith 

Droseracese — 

*Drosera whittakeri, Planchon 

* peltata, Smith 
Polygaleae — 

*Comesperma volubile, Lab. 

* ericinum, Cand. 
*Tetratheca ciliata, Lind, 

Rutacece — 

Zieria smithii, Andr. 
*Correa speciosa, Andr. 

lawrenciana, Hooker 
Urticacere — 

Urtica incisa, Poiret 
Sapindacese — 

Dodonea viscosa, Linn. 
Stackhousieee — 

*Stackhousia linarifolia, Cunn. 
Portulacea; — 

Portulaca oleracea, Linn. 
Amarantacete — 

Alternanthera triandra, Lamarck 
Polygonaceoe — 

* Polygonum minus, Hudson 
*Muehlenbeckia adpressa, Meissner 

Leguminosa; — 

Daviesia latifolia, R. Br. 
Pultenaea daphnoides, Wend. 

stricta, Sims 
Dillwynia ericifolia, vSmith 
*Platylobium obtusangulum, Hooker 
§ formosom, Smith 

* Bossirea cinerea, R. Br. 
*Hovea! heterophylla, Cunn. 

Goodia lotifolia, Salisbury 
Indigofera australis, Willd. 

*Glycine clandestina, Wend. 

*Kennedya monophylla, Vent, 
prostrata, R Br. 

*§Acacia leprosa, Sieber 

*§ pycnantha, Bentham 

*§ pravissima, F. v. M. 

myrtifolia, Willd. 

*§ melonoxylon, R. Br. 

*§ oxycedrus, Sieber 

*§ verticillata, Willd. 

*§ linearis, Sims 

*§ dealbata, Link. 



Rosacese — 

*Rubus parvifolius, Linn. 
*Aca?na sanguisorbfe, Vahl. 
Saxifragene — 

*Bauera rubioides, Andr. 
Halorogea: — 

*Myriophyllum variifolium, Hooker 
MyrtacccX — 

Leptospermum lanigerum. Smith 

scoparium, R. and G. Foster 
*.MeIaleuca squarrosa, Donn. 
fEucalyptus leucoxylon, F. v. M. 
+ melliodora, Cunn. 

+ amygdalina, Lab. 

Rhamnacere — 

Pomaderris apetala, Lab. 
*Cryptandra hookerii, F. v. M. 
Araliacese — 
§ Panax sambucifolius, Sieber 
Umbellifera; — 
*Hydrocotyle vulgaris, Linn. 
*Apium prostratum, Lab. 
Santalaceai — 
tExocarpus cupressiformis, Lab. 
Loranthacese — 
§Loranthus pendulus, Sieber 
Proteaceoe — 

Hakea ulicina, R. Br. 
Lomatia fraseri, R. Br. 
Thymelea; — 

*Pimelea axiflora, F. v. ^L 
Caprifoliacea: — 

Sambucus gaudichaudiana, Cand. 
Composite — 

Helichrysum ferrugineum, Less. 
Aster argophyllus. Lab. 
stellulatus, Lab. 
ramulosus. Lab. 
Cassinia aculeata, R. Br. 
Senecio bedfordii, F. v. M. 
odoratus, Hornemann 
dryadeus, Sieber 
velleioides, Cunn. 
Goodeniacere — 
*Brunonia australis, Smith 
*Goodenia ovata, Smith 
G. geniculata, R. Br. 
Gentianeae — 
*Limnanthemum exaltatum, F. v. M. 
Erythra;a australis, R. Br. 
Plantaginese — 

*Plantago varia, R. Br. 
Jasmine?e — 

§Note]sea ligustrina. Vent. 
Solanacese — 

Solanum aviculare, G. Forster 
Scrophularinere — 

Veronica derwentia, Littlejohn 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



173 



Cyperacere — 

Cyperus lucidus, R. Br. 

Cladium glomeratum, R. Br. 
Graminex- — 

Anthistiria ciliata, Linn, fits 

Arunda phragmites, Dodoens 

LycopodineK — 

Selaginella uliginosa, Spreng. 

Filices — 

Gleichenia circinata, Swartz 
Alsophila australis, R. Br. 
Dicksonia billardierii, F. v. M. 
Adiantum aethiopicum, Linn. 
Pteris aquilina, Linn. 

incisa, Thunh. 
Lomaria discolor, Willd. 

lanceolata, Spreng. 

capensis, Willd. , van procera 
*Asplenium unibrosum, J. Smith 
Aspidium aculeatum, Swartz 
Polypodium punctatum, Thunb. 

pustulatum, G. Forster. 



LabiatK — 
♦Mentha australis, R. Br. 
*Bruneila vulgaris, Linn. 
Prostanthera lasiantha, Lab. 
Epacridea; — 

Styphelia virgata, Lab. 
*Epacris inipressa, Lab. 
Orchidece — 

*Pterostylis longifolia, R. Br. 
Amaryllide;!; — 

*Hypoxis glabella, R. Br. 
Liliacea; — 
*Wurmbea dioica, F. v. M. 
*Burchardia umbellata, R. Br. 
§Xerotes longifolia, R. Br. 
l^emnaceoi — 

Lemna minor, Linn. 
Fluviales — 
*Triglochin procera, R. Br. 
Potamogeton natans, Linn. 
Alismaceoe — 

Alisma plantago, Linn. 
Juncea? — 
*Luzula campestris, Cand. 
Juncus communis, Meyer 

List of Avifauna (46 Species), by Mrs. Hardy. 
(* Indicates species referred to in foregoing general account of excursion. 

Uroaetus audax. Lath., Eagle- Hawk 

Cerchneis cenchroides, Vig. and Hors., Nankeen Kestrel 

Accipiter cirrhocephalus, Vieill. , Sparrow-Hawk 

Ninox boobook, Lath., Boobook Owl 

Petrochelidon nigricans, Vieill., Tree Martin 
*Dacelo gigas, Bodd., Brown Kingfisher, or Kookaburra 

Halcyon sanctus, Vig. and Hors., Sacred Kingfisher 
*Strepera cuneicaudata, Vieill., Grey Jay 

fuliginosa, Gld., Sooty Crow-Shrike 

Graliina picata, Lath., Magpie Lark 

Collyriocincla harmonica, Lath., Harmonious Shrike-Thrush 
*Graucalus melanops. Lath., Black-faced Cuckoo- Shrike 

Micrceca fascinans, Lath., Brown Flycatcher 

Rhipidura albiscapa, Gld., White-shafted Fantail 

* tricolor, Vieill., Black and White Fantail 
*Petrceca leggii, Sharpe, Scarlet-breasted Robin 

* phcenicia, Gld., Flame-breasted Robin 
*Erythrodryas rosea, Gld., Rose-breasted Robin 
*EopsaUria australis, Lath., Yellow-breasted Shrike- Robin 

Malurus cyaneus, Ellis, Blue Wren 

Geocichla lunulata. Lath., Mountain Thrush 
*Ptilonorhynchus violaceus, Vieill., Satin Bower-bird 

Acanthiza pusilla. Lath., Brown Tit 

chrysorrhoa, Quoy and Gaim., Yellow-rumped Tit 
*Psophodes crepitans, Vig. and Hors., Coach whip-bird 

Gymnorhina leuconota, Gld., White-backed Magpie 

Cracticus destructor, Temm., Butcher-bird 

Pachycephala gutturalis, Lath., White-throated Thickhead 
rufiventris. Lath., Rufous Thickhead 



174 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



Climacteris leucophsea. Lath., White-throated Tree-creeper 
AcanthochKra carunculata, Lath., Red Wattle-bird 
Zosterops ccerulescens, Lath., Silver-eye 
*Menura victorine, Gld., Lyre-bird 
Anthus australis, Vig. and Hors., Ground Lark 
Pardalolus punctatus, Temm., Spotted Pardalote 
Zonoeginthus bellus, Lath., Fire-tailed Finch 
/Egintha temporalis, Lath., Red-browed Finch or VVaxbill 
Ptilotis leucotis. Lath., White-eared Honey-eater 
Cuculua pallidus, Lath., Pallid Cuckoo 

ilabelliformis. Lath., F'an-tailed Cuckoo 
Chalcococcyx plagosus, Lath., Bronze Cuckoo 
Cacatua galerita, Lath., Sulphur-crested Cockatoo 
Callocephalon galeatum. Lath., CJang-Gang Cockatoo 
Platycercus elegans, Gmel., Pennant Parrakeet 

eximius, Shaw, Rosella 
Aprosmictus cyanopygius, Vieill., King Lory. 



New South Wales Forestry Branch. — The recently issued 
report of this Department for the period ended 30th June, 1905, 
provides some interesting facts which should help to stimulate 
the authorities with regard to making the best use of the forest 
resources of Victoria. The revenue of the Branch for the six 
months of 1905 exceeded the expenditure by nearly ^10,000 ! 
The timber exported was valued at ^174,000, and amounted to 
about 25,000,000 super, feet — New Zealand, India, the United 
Kingdom, Cape Colony, and Germany being the best customers. 
Such a result speaks volumes for the way in which the timber 
industry of New South Wales must be managed. The value of 
the report is greatly enhanced by some splendid plates of the 
principal timber trees and an appendix on the suitability of New 
South Wales timbers for railway construction. An additional 
feature is a map showing the State divided into four timber zones 
— coastal, brush, highland, and interior — which are again divided 
into twenty-one sub-zones, with a reference table giving the 
principal timbers occurring in each of the sub-zones, so that it 
can be seen at a glance where certain timbers can be obtained. 
Taken altogether the report shows that in forestry New South 
Wales is far ahead of its southern neighbour, notwithstanding its 
apparently limited area of forest country. In connection with 
this, attention may be called to another extremely interesting 
publication, " Notes on the Commercial Timbers of New South 
Wales," by Mr. J. H. Maiden, F.L.S., Government Botanist 
(1904, IS.), in which a great deal of valuable information, much of 
which is applicable to Victorian timber trees, is given. This is 
also well illustrated with plates of some of the more useful of the 
indigenous timber trees. 



the victorian naturalist. 175 

Note on the Occurrence of Marsupial Remains in the 
Sand-dunes of Torquay. — Whilst searching amongst the sand- 
dunes between Spring Creek and Bird Rock, some short while 
ago, some bones of marsupials came to light Amongst these 
remains were numerous bones of the common rabbit, and the 
left mandibular ramus of a Gunn's Bandicoot, Perameles gunnii. 
This latter showed by its condition and association with the 
rabbit bones near the surface, that no great period had elapsed 
since it was covered by the sand. The species is still to be 
found in the coastal districts of Victoria. The remainder of the 
bones are all referable to the common Wombat, Phascolomys 
mitchelli. They represent the greater part of the trunk and 
limb bones Some of the vertebral bones are cemented in a 
continuous series by the incrusting dune sand. The surface of 
these bones shows a large amount of corrosion, and this, together 
with their partial calcareous incrustation, would lead one to 
conclude that these remains are probably contemporaneous with 
the weird incrusted fossil tree-stems which are so abundant on 
this part of the coast. — F. Chapman, A.L.S. 

The Eves of Animals. — Some very interesting statements 
were made at a lecture recently delivered in London before the 
Institute of Ophthalmic Opticians by Dr. G. Lindsay-Johnson. 
The lecturer said that he had been induced to take up the study 
of the eyes of animals on account of the conflicting statements in 
text-books as to the existence of the macula lutea in animals. 
To settle the point he examined the eyes of the monkeys and 
other animals at Jamrach's menagerie, and had not gone very far 
in his studies before he realized that the eye of every animal is a 
kind of trade mark, so distinct that, as is now known, the order, 
genus, and family of any animal can be told by examining its 
eye. This discovery added a method of identification to those 
already known, and, moreover, applies equally to birds, fishes, 
and mammals. He found by ophthalmoscopic examination that 
certain animals had been wrongly classified — the rodents, for 
instance — and on communicating with Haeckel of Jena his con- 
clusions were confirmed from totally different sources. Another 
curious discovery was that only man and monkeys had parallel 
vision, and as animals descend in the usual scale of arrangement 
the outward squint of the eye increases. Tiic lecturer said that 
his researches had confirmed the truth of the theory of evolution, 
one singular fact being the great similarity of the fundus of the 
eye in a Nubian youth and in a chimpanzee. He considered 
reptiles the ancestors of the mammals, and hence of the human 
race, while rodents are the lowest known type of all the families 
of mammals. — Condensed from a report in the Chemist and 
Druggist (London), 14th October, 1905. 



176 THK VICTOHIAN NATURALIST. 

Birds of British India. — We have received from the author, 
Mr. E. R. Skinner, St. Mary Cray, Kent, England, " A List of the 
Birds of British India," published in pamphlet form (44 pages, 7 
X 4^ in.) at IS. id., post free. The list enumerates some 1,687 
species, or over 900 more than the vernacular list of the Austral- 
asian Association (1886). The vernacular name of each bird is 
given, and, as may be imagined, so many species provide some 
rather complicated names — e.g., Black-breasted Yellow-backed 
Sun-bird ; but names indicative of local origin are very few. The 
systematic arrangement is somewhat different to our Australasian 
list, which is based on the British Museum Catalogue. The list 
under notice commences with the Passeres, which is the largest 
order, and claims more than half the total species. This order 
contains some very large families and sub-families ; thus the 
Brachypodinse — bulbuls — contains 70 species, many of which 
have four-worded vernacular names. Another large family 
is the Sylviidaj — warblers ; in this 90 species are listed, some with 
equally long common names — e.g., White-throated Flycatcher- 
Warbler. Of flycatchers there are 51 species, and of finches 40. 
India is well known as the stronghold of the Phasianidae 
(pheasants), 75 being enumerated, 14 of which are silver 
pheasants. The parrot family, Psittaci, is comparatively small, 
only 18 species occurring in India. In a hurried glance through 
the list one Australian species was noticed — No. 1,420, Esacus 
magnirostris, Australian Stone-Plover. The list is based on 
Messrs. Blanford and Oates's work on the birds of India, and has 
evidently been prepared in a very careful manner. It may be 
mentioned that the familiar bird of our streets is recorded as the 
" Black-headed Myna," and while the only species of its genus 
(Temenuchus), there are twenty other mynas. 

The Hutton Memorial Research Fund. — It has been deter- 
mined by the scientific societies of New Zealand to establish a fund 
in memory of the late Captain F. W. Hutton, F.R.S., president 
of the New Zealand Institute, for the purpose of encouraging 
original research in natural science in New Zealand. Than 
Captain Hutton perhaps no man has done more to increase our 
knowledge of the geology, zoology, and botany of New Zealand, 
and an appreciative notice of his work appeared in The Emu 
for January last. Dr. Chilton, Canterbury College, Christchurch, 
has undertaken to act as hon. treasurer of the fund, and 
it is requested that subscriptions be sent to him as early as 
possible. 



Cbe Ulctorian naturalist 



Vol. XXIL— No. 11. MARCH 8, 1906. No. 267 



FIELD NATURALISTS' CLUB OF VICTORIA. 
The ordinary monthly meeting of the Club was held in the 
Royal Society's Hall on Monday evening, 12th February, 1906. 

The president, Mr. F. G. A. Barnard, occupied the chair, and 
about 80 members and visitors were present. 

REPORTS. 

A report of the excursion to Beaumaris on Saturday, 3rd 
February, was given by the leader, Mr. J- Shephard, who stated 
that fifteen members and friends were present. The party were 
fortunate in arriving at low tide. Shells were fairly numerous, 
and a number of calcareous sponges were found. From some 
sea-weed collected, Mr. Stickland had been fortunate in finding 
a number of diatoms. Altogether an interesting and profitable 
afternoon was spent by those present. 

A report of the junior excursion to Fairfield on Saturday, 3rd 
February, was given by the leader, Mr. J. A. Leach, B.Sc, who said 
that about twenty-five juniors were present. The object of the 
excursion was set down as pond-life, but, owing to the ponds 
having dried up, the afternoon was principally spent in examining 
the cuttings of the Outer Circle railway line, where some interest- 
ing features in the geology and geography of the district were 
pointed out and notes taken for future reference. 

The hon. librarian reported the receipt of the following dona- 
tions to the library : — Journal of Agrictdlure of Victoria, Decem- 
ber, 1905, from Department of Agriculture, Melbourne; The Emu, 
vol. v., part 3, January, 1906, from the Australasian Ornitholo- 
gists' Union ; Geelong Naturalist, vol. ii., No. 2; from the Geelong 
Field Naturalists' Club ; Agricultural Gazette of New South Wales, 
December, 1905, January and February, 1906, from the Secretary 
for Agriculture, Sydney ; " Forest Flora of New South Wales," 
vol. n., part 8, by J. H. Maiden, F.L.S., Government Botanist, 
from the author ; " Proceedings Linnean Society of New South 
Wales," vol. xxx., part 2, from the society ; " Annual Report of 
the Australian Museum, Sydney, 1905," from the trustees ; 
" Transactions of Royal Society of South Australia," vol. xxix., 
from the society; Nature Notes, November and December, 1905, 
January, 1906, from the Selborne Society, London ; and Nature 
Study, November and December, 1905, from the publisher. 

ELECTION OF MEMBERS. 

On a ballot being taken, Miss Barnett, Post-Office, Abbotsford, 
and Mr. A. A. Henderson, B.Sc, Mines Department, Melbourne, 



178 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST, 



were elected ordinary members ; Miss Keppel, Marysville, as a 
country member ; Master R. Brettschneider as an associate ; and 
Miss H. Ramsay and Master T. Riordan were elected junior 
members of the Club. 

GENERAL BUSINESS. 

Mr. A. D. Hardy, F.L.S., stated that a rumour was current that 
it was the intention of the Government to remove the botanical 
collection from the National Herbarium to the University for 
teaching purposes. He feared, if such were the case, that the 
collection, which contained many rare and valuable plants, would 
be in great danger of being destroyed through rough handling by 
the students. 

Mr. J. A. Leach, B.Sc, said that, from his experience as a 
student of the Melbourne University, he found that very great 
care was taken of specimens used for teaching purposes. 

On the motion of Messrs. Hardy and VV. Siickland, the 
honorary secretary was requested to write to the Minister of 
Agriculture to ascertain if it were true that the collection was to 
be removed to the University. 

Mr. A. H. Mattingley said that it was desirable that the 
Government be approached with a view to having the Waranga 
Basin permanently reserved as a breeding-place and an asylum 
for waterfowl, and pointed out that this sheet of water was being 
frequented largely by duck and other water-birds. 

On the motion of Messrs. Mattingley and Robt. Hall, F.L.S., 
the honorary secretary was directed to forward a letter to the 
Minister of Public Works requesting that the area be proclaimed a 
permanent reserve for waterfowl. 

Wilson's promontory. 

Mr. A. D. Hardy, F.L.S., as leader of the recent excursion, 
gave a general account of the proceedings of the party, and then 
a more detailed report on the botany of the Promontory. During 
the outing some i8o species of plants were observed in 
bloom, the Composites being the prevailing order. He also gave 
some information as to the suitability of the country for the 
proposed asylum for indigenous animals, and put forward 
suggestions whereby a revenue might be eventually obtained from 
the park. 

Mr J. A. Kershaw, F.E.S., gave an interesting report on the 
zoology of the trip, in which he called attention to the more notice- 
able species seen, and said that, though no species of absolute 
novelty or even great rarity was obtained, it is possible that a 
party with more time at its disposal could add many more 
species to the lists presented. 

Mr. T. S. Hall, M.A., then briefly explained a number of slides 
illustrating some of the more interesting portions of the 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 179 



Promontory, and said that the geological portion of the report, 
together with a list of the mollusca, was in the hands of Mr. G. 
B. Pritchard, who was unavoidably absent. 

EXHIBITS. 

By Master Frank Cudmore. — Fossil crab, from Beaumaris. 

By Mr. J. E. Dixon. — Twenty-seven species of Coleoptera 
recently collected. 

By Mr. J. F. Haase. — Orchid in bloom, Dijiodium ptmctatum, 
from Belgrave. 

By Mr. T. S. Hall, M.A. — Lower jaw of young seal; tour- 
maline, from Oberon Bay. 

By Mr. C- French, jun. — Rare Coleoptera, collected during 
month of January last — Cardiothorax anreios (new to science), 
Tragocerus lepidopterus, from Alps, Victoria ; Stigmodera 
menalias, from Dandenong Ranges ; ^Esiotyche favosa, from 
South Gippsland. 

By Mr. J. A. Kershaw, F.E.S., for National Museum. — 
Collection of Coleoptera from Launching Place, collected by Mr. 
G. Coghill ; also entomological specimens collected during 
Wilson's Promontory excursion. 

By Mr. H. Jeffery. — Stone axe. 

By Mr. A. Mattingley. — Photograph of nest, young, and adult 
of Coachwhip-bird, Psoyhodes crepitans. 

By Mr. F. Pitcher, for the Director. — Blooms of two 
Australian Flame Trees now flowering in Melbourne Botanic 
Gardens — Stercidia acerijolia (New South Wales and Queens- 
land), S. tricosiphon (Queensland and North Australia). 

By Mr. F. M. Reader, — Dried specimens of unrecorded 
varieties of Victorian plants. 

After the usual conversazione the meeting terminated. 



EXCURSION TO WILSON'S PROMONTORY. 
In response to the invitation of the committee of the Field 
Naturalists' Club of Victoria, quite i,ooo ladies and gentlemen 
were present at the Masonic Hall, Collins-street, on Thursday 
evening, 8th February, when a popular description was given, 
with lantern illustrations, of the country at Wilson's Promontory 
visited during the Cliristmas excursion of the Club. 

The president, Mr. F. G. A. Barnard, occupied the chair, and, 
in introducing the lecturer of the evening, Mr. T. S. Hall, M.A., 
said that the reservation at Wilson's Promontory should not be 
considered merely as a National Park for Melbourne, or 
even for Victoria, but must be regarded as an AustraHan 
sanctuary for representatives of the larger forms of its 
unique fauna, where they can be studied in a state of nature 
by naturalists of other countries, and instanced the success which 
had attended the preservation of the North American bisons 



180 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

from extinction by the establishment of the great Yellowstone 
Park in the United States. He hoped that under certain re- 
strictions it might even become a tourist resort, for many of our 
own people had never seen a kangaroo or an emu outside the 
limits of a zoological garden. 

Mr. T. S. Hall first of all traced the path of the excursion 
party on a map displayed on the screen (see Victorian Naturalist, 
vol. xxii., p. 44), and then described the views, which had been 
selected from a large series taken by members of the party. 
These numbered about 120, and well illustrated the varied 
characteristics of the Promontory, such as the sand dunes of the 
northern portion, the tea-tree flats along the Derby River, the 
bold granite masses of Mounts Oberon, Norgate, &c., the sandy 
beaches of Oberon Bay, hemmed in with rugged cliffs on 
either side, and the grassy table-land lying between it and 
Waterloo Bay on the east coast. This portion he considered the 
only fair land on the Promontory, but of too small an extent to 
be worth while throwing open for settlement, and even then 
would always be inaccessible for wheeled vehicles. On the whole 
the country was eminently suited for the purposes desired by the 
Club, and in course of time, under proper control, could be made 
a most valuable asylum for examples of our rapidly diminishing 
indigenous animals. Owing to want of time, the party could 
not visit the most southern portion of the Promontory, but, 
through the kindness of Dr. Fred. Bird, a number of views of 
Roaring Meg Creek, not far from the lighthouse, were shown, 
which indicated a wealth of vegetation along the stream resembling 
that of our finest fern-gullies. Sealers' Cove and the coast-line 
further north was also unvisited, and, as this district is known to 
contain the best timbered portions, no doubt many more 
picturesque scenes could haye been obtained had time allowed. 
The beauty of many of the pictures appealed to the tastes of the 
audience, and the lecturer was frequently interrupted by ex- 
pressions of approval. 

A vote of thanks to the lecturer concluded the proceedings. 



A BOTANICAL COLLECTOR IN THE MALLEE. 
By C. S. Sutton, M.B. 
{Read before the Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria, 15th Jan., 1906.) 
Before dealing with the flora of north-west Victoria in general, 
and with that of the district lying to the south and east of Lake 
Hindmarsh in particular, it is perhaps advisable to briefly 
enumerate, for the benefit of those who have had no actual 
experience of the Mallee, some of its leading features. 

The north-west region is described in the " Key to the 
System of Victorian Plants " as extending from the sources of 
the watercourses in the north-west to the Murray River. This 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 181 

definition leaves us in some doubt as to its eastern boundary. 
Seeing that much of the country lying to the east of the Loddon, 
Campaspe, and Goulburn, is so similar to the Mallee country, it 
might reasonably be said that the north-west region extends even 
to the Lower Ovens. Be this as it may, the great bulk of the 
north-west is covered by the Mallee, and this very characteristic 
scrub is more or less precisely contained, in as far as this State is 
concerned, between the Loddon and the South Australian 
border, and between the Murray and a line running from Mount 
Egbert, near Korong Vale, through Mount Arapiles. It occupies, 
in fact, part of that great estuary into which in the dim past the 
Darling, the Murrumbidgee, and the Murray entered as indepen- 
dent streams. At no point within its area does the height above 
sea-level rise to as much as 500 feet, the average being hardly 
more than half of this, and Sea Lake, though nearly 200 miles 
from the sea, is only 176 feet above it. The surface of the 
country consists of belts of more or less good land, mainly of a 
light and porous character, separated by low sand-hills running 
generally in a south-east to north-west direction ; the whole over- 
lying beds of limestone and occasionally quartzites and ironstones, 
which follow the contour of the country, and are nowhere very 
far from the surface. These beds are ascribed by Professor 
Gregory to the evaporation of subterranean waters containing 
bicarbonate of lime, alkalis, and iron salts, which are left behind 
as the water is drawn through the sand by the great heat of the 
sun. 

Considering the flatness of the country, the small rainfall, and 
the nature of the soil, it is not to be wondered at that the water- 
courses have no visible outlet to the sea, all of them ending in 
lakes or dying away in the sand in their unsuccessful efforts to 
reach the Murray. The general appearance of the country is not 
so monotonous as one would expect. The low undulations, 
clothed mainly with Eucalyptus gracilis and E. incrassata, with 
clean, bright foliage and abundant blossom, are relieved and 
diversified by salt flats covered with saltbushes and bordered by 
patches of blazing Mesembrianthemum and by the frequent ridges 
and sand-hills, where the pines are most often in evidence. 
These handsome trees, of which most of the oldest specimens 
were killed in the latest drought, give sometimes quite a park- 
like aspect to the scene. Often, too, the sand-ridges, being more 
or less bare of all else but coarse grass and occasional small 
plants and shrubs, give the impression that the sea is close at 
hand, and time and again one is found straining one's ears for the 
sound of the surf, which it is difficult to think is not beating on 
their further side. 

The flora of the north-west, which I was able to study on the 
spot for the first time during a stay at Jeparit in the latter 
half of October, is perhaps more interesting than that occurring 



182 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

in any other part of the State. Its interest, apart from the beauty 
of many of its species, mainly arises from the fact that in it are so 
many forms which are restricted to the Mallee — many, indeed, 
being found only in very circumscribed areas therein — and also 
as the direct consequence of this restriction that many of these 
forms are being wiped out of existence as the country is brought 
under cultivation. In comparing the Mallee flora with that of 
Victoria as a whole, several points are quickly noticeable. In 
the first place, it is extremely rich in salsolaceous plants, all but 
three of the total species being found in it, and nearly 70 per 
cent, being restricted to it. Next, nearly one-half of all the 
Composites is confined to the north-west, and the number of 
very small forms is much greater there than elsewhere. In 
Zygophyllaceae it numbers 80 per cent., in Crucifers 60 per cent., 
in Santalaceje 33 per cent, of the total as its very own, and all 
but one of the Amarantacese are found there. 

Leguminous plants are well represented, more particularly by 
Swainsonias, Cassias, and Acacias, 20 of the latter out of 67 
being peculiar to the region. In the Myrtacese one is struck by 
the prevalence of Exhcalyptus gracilis and E. inci'assata, which, 
with E. oleosa, E. uncinata, and E. behriana form the Mallee 
scrub, and by the comparative scarcity of the taller species, 
though E. rostrata, E. capitellata, E. leucoxylon, and others are 
occasionally seen. 

Contrary to one's expectations, proteaceous plants, which 
would seem to be peculiarly fitted for such a dry, hot country, are 
not very numerous, and about 70 per cent, of the Victorian 
representatives of this order are unknown to the north-west. 
Only Grevillea aquifolium, G. rosmarinifolium, and Hakea vittata 
were collected in fiower, Grevillea huegelii in bud, Banksia 
ornata and Hakea, sp., in fruit. Umbellifers, except in genus 
Hydrocotyle, are infrequent. In Rhamnacese there are many 
Cryptandras, but only one Pomaderris occurs. For the rest, 
Goodeniaccce and Boraginacea are well represented, Rutaceae and 
Labiatse only poorly \ one Epacrid alone is peculiar to this flora, 
but in Myoporinse the genus Eremophila almost entirely belongs 
to it. Grasses are present in great variety, Cyperaceae chiefly 
seen in Cyperus and Scirpus, and ferns are practically absent. 

As a result of the existing conditions — viz., a sandy soil 
containing a large proportion of soluble salts, a small rainfall, 
averaging 14 inches (only slightly exceeding the maximum of 
300 mm. set down by Schimper for a desert formation), the 
Irequent droughts, the high temperature, dry atmosphere, and 
intense illumination — the vegetation is markedly xerophilous. 
This is seen in the small and proportionately thick leaves or their 
entire absence (reduction of transpiration surface), in their often 
leathery (sclerophyllous) or succulent (chylophyllous) nature, in 
the dry and hard axes, and in the presence of thorns, hairs, or 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 183 

tomentum. In addition, families which prevail in deserts else- 
where, such as Salsolaceaj (mainly halophytes), Zygophyllaceae, 
Leguminosse, Compositse, Euphorbiaceae, Amarantaceae, Cruciferse, 
Malvaceae, &c. (all containing large numbers of halophytes), 
make up the great bulk of the flora. 

Although the sand-hills, the salt-pans, the scrub itself, and the 
shores of the lake all furnished me with species I did not 
find elsewhere, the locality which was perhaps richest in 
flowering plants was a red gravel ridge some miles out on 
the Rainbow road. Here the banks on each side of the 
road were veritable flower gardens. The two varieties of 
Damjnera rosmarinifolia were growing profusely, the blue, 
with its fine masses of colour, rivalling even the garden 
Lobelias ; shapely bushes of Logania linifolia scented the 
air ; Calycothrix tetragona and Tliryptomene ciliata, with more 
blossom than foliage, varied from almost pure white to a 
delicate pink ; Lasiopetalum baueri and L. behrii intermingled 
their stems, and Boronia coerulescens, Erioste)no7i jningens, 
Gryptandra sicbochreata and C. leucophracta rioted luxuriantly. 
The latter showed in two forms, one a trailing variety {micro- 
cephala) with very small headlets of flower. Others present were 
Grevillea aqtii/oliwm, G. rosniarinifolium, and Frostanihera 
coccinea, forming trim little bushes of bright green aromatic 
foliage, against which the vivid scarlet blossoms showed to 
advantage. 

Just away from the road was Bceckea crassifolia nearly past 
its flowering, so that it was difficult to find good specimens. A 
little further from the road, in sandy soil, Eriostemon sedijtorus 
was in full bloom with Beyeria opaca, and a well-grown example 
of Suntaluni acuminatam loaded with ripe fruit and a solitary 
plant of Styphelia cordifolia in bud were chanced upon. Return- 
ing to the ridge, Eutaxia empetrijolia was noticed, a variety of 
which of larger growth and with yellow flowers was got later. 
IVestringia rigida, with its lax variety, which is so different from 
the unbending form that it looks a distinct species, was plentiful, 
as was also Dodonma viscosa with its seed-cases showing bright 
colour. 

Continuing along the Rainbow road, plants of Halgania cyanea 
and //. lavandulacea commenced to appear, and were afterwards 
frequently seen. In drying specimens of " sticky " plants like 
the Halganias, Beyerias, Dodona^as, Helichrysums, &c., I might 
here say that the use of a smooth brown paper of hard texture is 
much more satisfactory than the ordinary blotting paper, and 
with its aid quite respectable specimens of even the most sticky 
kinds of plant may with a little trouble be obtained. 

At the sides of the road small bushes of Dodomra btirsarijolia 
were met. Eremophila brownii had passed its best days, but 
Prostanthera chlorantha, whose grayish foliage and blue-green 



184 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

flowers make a rather inconspicuous and unshapely plant, 
Pimelea elacliantha, P. niic7ocephala, and Goodenia varia, 
another sticky plant of trailing habit, mostly seeking support 
from the Mallee clumps, were all in fine flowering condition. 

Just before reaching the vermin-proof fence which crosses the 
country from east to west at PuUut railway station, Aster 
muelleri (sticky) and A. decurrens were obtained, and beyond the 
fence the interesting little labiate Teucrmm sessiliflorum, owning 
a very agreeable musk-like odour, was growing abundantly on the 
roadside. 

Near to Rainbow were Angianthvs tomentosus, with a pleasant 
lemon-like aroma ; fine specimens of Uelipter^im jesseni (seen 
frequently previously), with pretty old gold flowers ; and H. 
corymhijioruvi, seeming to have a predilection for cultivated 
ground. 

Returning to Jeparit by a road skirting Lake Hindmarsh, less 
success was met with, but a fine shrub of Uakea vittata, several 
of Acacia salicina, with orange-coloured flowers, and Lavatera 
plebeja were seen, and a salt flat almost covered with Kochia 
villosa provided my portfolio with specimens of Bassia bicornis, 
Calocephalus sonderi, Myosurus mi')iimus, Playianthus spicatus, 
P. microphallus, Brachycome jiachyjjtera, and Swainsonia 
procu7nbens. Frankenia Icevis was present in form as we know 
it near Melbourne, but on another salt flat to the west of Jeparit 
it was found growing in low bushy plants of pale grey-green 
colour, with very minute white flowers. Just away from this 
other salt-pan was Aster ranndosus, wiUi a very distinct pig-sty 
odour, and very different from the species as we know it in the 
south, along with its congeners, A microphyllus and A. lepi- 
dophyllus ; also Humea sqiiamata, with buds yet unopened ; 
Helichrysum decurrens, Aster pimelioides, A. exul, Zygophyllum 
billardieri, and at some little distance, on rising ground, Z. 
Jruticulosum. This takes the shape of numerous smallish 
bushes of light green succulent foliage and bright yellow flowers. 
Its appearance would lead one to suppose that it would make a 
useful fodder plant in this dry district, but no stock will touch it, 
and even the rabbit leaves it severely alone. 

Close to Lake Hindmarsh were fine lush bushes of Solanum 
simile, Muehlenbeckia cimninghami, and Authocercis myosotidea, 
and huge examples, quite two feet high, of Ajuga australis, the 
introduced tree tobacco, Nicotiana glauca, an ugly straggling 
shrub, and nearing the water many plants of our only poppy, 
the charming little brick-red Papaver aculeatum. 

Just near where the VVimmera empties into the fine expanse of 
Lake Hindmarsh an extensive area is covered with shapely 
shrubs oi Acacia brachybotrya, growing in the loose sand. This 
species is so abundant in blossom, which is such a happy contrast 
to the younger grey-green leaves, and is so prodigal of its odours, 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 185 

that it had little difficulty in displacing its predecessor of the 
genus — perhaps because it was not also in evidence — from pride 
of place in my estimation. Right near the edge of the water, in 
close association and almost buried in the sand, were Mimulus 
repens and a minute Heleocharis, probably acicitlaris. 

In one of my excursions I made a fruitless search for 
the rich patch near Antwerp from which Mr. St. Eloy D'Alton 
gathered the fine collection he so kindly sent to our show a 
couple of years ago. I was, however, rewarded, in prospecting a 
sand-ridge running alongside the road, by finding quite a number 
of those very interesting small Composites so characteristic of the 
Mallee. In the moister parts, near the base of the ridge, were 
Angianthus strictus and the not very different Myrioceplialus 
rhizocephalus and Isoetojysis graminifolia. On the ridge, Podo- 
theca angustifolia, its curiously elongated headlets constricted 
near the summits and barely showing their few and inconspicuous 
florets, was pretty common. This and Toxanthus niiieileri, 
looking more like the wraith of itself than a real plant, and which 
would appear to be somewhat rare, as I only gathered three or 
four specimens and only in this place, had minute grains of sand 
closely adherent to their every part. Gnaphalodes idiginosa was 
in close communities, sometimes consisting of a mere headlet, 
sometimes of several, on slender straggling branches with 
withered leaves, radiating from the very short stem. The 
headlets, with their pale slate-green leaf bracts, white tomentum, 
and minute straw-coloured florets, made a very attractive picture 
against the clean white sand. Near by a few specimens of the 
very small brownish Helipterum exiguum and a couple only of 
Calotis hispidula were gathered, but Gnephosis skirrophora and 
the slender Millotia tenuijolia were in greater numbers. 

A sand-hill in another locality presented quite different 
features. All these small Composites were conspicuous by their 
absence, and instead I found clumps of Mallee, bushes of Banksia 
ornata, with black, ugly cones, and low bushes with contorted 
branches of the sub-spinescens variety of Aotis villosa. The 
grasses were solely represented by Triodia irritans, and right 
in the tussocks, illustrating the proverb about birds of a 
feather, was growing Erioatemon pungens. In fact, each tussock 
seemed to have its pretty little protege, and it was only by 
discreetly stamping on the mass that one could gather a specimen 
without getting wounded in the process. Alongside, and seem- 
ingly also under the protection of the Porcupine Grass, was 
usually to be seen the little Crucifer, Sisijmbrhim cardaminoides. 
Loudonia behrii, in big clumps, crowned with beautiful fluttering 
yellow pennons, and a species of Stackhousia with yellow flowers, 
either ^av« or viminea, and growing also in tussocky form, helped 
to give colour to a somewhat harsh landscape. Other plants 
noticed were PultencHa laxijiora (the only species met with), 



186 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

Leptospermum myrsinoides, and, which were quite in keeping 
with the scene, Daviesia tdicina, Acacia spinescens, Xerotes 
leiccocephala, and X. glauca. 

Of the other plants met with, it will be sufficient to mention that 
all the Hibbertias known to the north-west were in flower. An 
introduced poppy, P. incisa, was well established in the gardens 
and in some of the crops, Billardiera cymosa was just beginning 
to hang out its bells, and Bertya oleifolia was found in bud. 
Acacia rigens, A. acinacea, A. microcarpa, A. montana var. 
d'altoni, A. tineura, and A. stenophylla were all nearly past their 
flowering time. 

Other species, which are more or less confined to the district, 
were Dillwynia jjatula, Haloragis ceratoplujlla in bud, 
Leptomeria aphylla in fruit, the small Didiscus cyanopetalus, 
growing on the river flats, Lepjtorrhynchos pulchellas, L. waitzia, 
Helijiterum pygmceum, Goodenia cycloptera in seed, Teucrinm 
racemosum, and a plant of Styphelia sonderi with belated flower. 

On my way to Jeparit I called on Mr. D'Alton at Dimboola, 
and was fortunate enough, during my stay, to spend three long 
evenings with him, and learn many interesting facts about the 
plants of the north-west region. Mr. D'Alton shares with Mr. 
Reader, of Casterton, and Mr. H. B. Williamson, formerly of 
Hawkesdale, and now of Geelong, the distinction of possessing 
perhaps the widest knowledge of the north-western flora. His 
knowledge is all the more intimate, seeing that his occupation of 
engineer to the Lowan Shire has led him into the very recesses of 
the Mallee, and all his life he has been a lover of plant-life. He 
expressed his intention of writing a paper in which he will set 
down what he knows about the rarer species, many of which he 
was the first to collect, and it is greatly to be desired that he will 
very soon be induced to give to the journal what cannot fail to 
be an extremely interesting and valuable contribution. 

In the following list of the plants observed or collected * in- 
dicates the species confined to the N.W., and t those observed 
in fruit only : — 

CruciferK — 
*Sisymbrium nasturtioides, F. v. M. 
caidaminoides, F. v. M. 
*tStenopetalum sphrerocarpum, F. 
tCapsella elliptica, Meyer [v. M. 
Lepidium ruderale (two forms) 
Violacea; — 
tHybanthus floribundus, F. v. M. 
Pittosporese — 
tBursaria spinosa, Cavan. 

Billardiera cymosa, F. v. M. 
Rutacese — 

Boronia coerulescens, F. v. M. 
Eriostemon pungens, Lind. 
* capitatus, F. v. M. 

sediflorus, F. v. M. 



Ranunculaceoe — 
tClematis microphylla, Cand. 
tMyosurus minimus, L. 
Dilleniacece — 

Hibbertia densiflora, F. v. M. 
striata, R. Br. 
fasciculata, R. Br. 
virgala, R. Br. 
Lauraceffi — 

Cassytha glabella, R. Br. 
Papaveracese — 

Papaver aculeatum, Tliun. 
incisa (introduced) 
Cruciferte — 

Nasturtium aquaticum, Bock, (in- 
troduced) 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



187 



Rutacere — 

*Eriostemon stenophyllus, F. v. M. 
Zygophyllere — 

Zygophyllum billardieri, Cand. 

* fruticulosum, Cand. 
Geraniacea.— 

Geranium pilosum 
Oxalis corniculata, L. 
Malvaceae — 

Lavatera plebeja, Sims 
Plagianthus spicatus, Benth. 

* microphyllus, F. v. M. 
Sterculiacenc — 

*Lasiopetalum behrii, F. v. M. 
baueri, F. v. M. 
EuphoibiaceK — 

Poranthera microphylla, Brong. 
Beyeria opaca, F. v. M. 
Bertya oleifolia, Planch. 
Casuarinea; — 

Casuarina distyla, Vent. 
Sapindacete — 
tDodon^a viscosa, L. 

* bursarifolia, Behr. & F. v. M. 
StackhousieK — 

Stackhousia viminea, Smith 
linarifolia, Cunn. 
FrankeniaceK — 

Frankenia loevis, L. (two forms) 
Portulacete — 

Claytonia calyptrata, F. v. M. 
pygmjea, F. v. M. 
Caryophylleffi — 

Spergularia rubra, Cambess. 
Amarantacere — 
*Ptilotus exahatus, Nees 

spathulatus, Poirel. 
Salsolaceiie — 

Rhagodia nutans, R. Br. 
Chenopodium microphyllum, F. 
Kochia villosa, Lind. [v. M. 

EnchylKna tomentosa, R. Br. 
Salicornia arbuscula, R. Br. 
Ficoideae — 

Mesembrianthemum lequilaterale, 
Haw. 
Polygonacece — 

Muehlenbeckia cunninghamii, F. 
Leguminosre — [v. M. 

Viminaria denudata, Smith 
Daviesia ulicina, Sm. [cens 

Aotus villosa, Sm., var. subspines- 
Pultena?a laxiflora, Benth. 
Eutaxia empetrifolia, Schlecht. 
(two forms) 
*Dillwynia patula, F. v. M. 
ericifolia, Sm. 
Swainsonia procumbens, F. v. M. 



Leguminosx — 

Kennedya prostrata, R. Br. 
Cassia eremophila, Cunn. 

* sturtii, R. Br. 
*Acacia spinescens, Benth. 

* rigens, Cunn. 
acinacea, Lind. 

* microcarpa, F. v. M. 

* salicma, Lind. 

* montana, Benth., var. 

d'altoni 

* brachybotrya, Benth. 

* trineura, F. v. M. 

* sclerophylla, Lind. 
Rosacete — 

AcKna ovina, Cunn. 
Crassulacete — 

Tillea, sp. 
Haloragete — 
*Loudonia behrii, Schlecht. 
Haloragis ceratophylla, Zahl. 
Myriophyllum variifolium, J. Hook. 
MyrtaceK — 

Calycothrix tetragona. Lab. 
Thryptomene ciliata, F. v. M. 
*B3eckea crassifolia, Lind. 
Leptospermum myrsinoides, Schl. 
Melaleuca parviflora, Lind. 
*t uncinata, R. Br. 

*Eucalyptus gracilis, F, v. M. 
leucoxylon, F. v. M. 

* incrassata. Lab. 

t rostrata, Schlecht. 

Rhamnacece — ■ 
*Cryptandra leucophracta, Schlecht. 

* leucophracta, var. microce- 

phala 

* subochreata, F. v. M. 
Umbelliferte — 

*Hydrocotyle medicaginoides, Turc. 
*Didiscus cyanopetalus, F. v. M. 
Daucus brachiatus, Sieber 
Santalacea' — 

*tSantalum acuminatum, Cand. 
fLeptomeria aphylla, R. Br. 
Proteaceas — 

Grevillea aquifolium, Lind. 
rosmarinifolia, Cunn. 

* huegelii, Meiss. 
Hakea rostrata, F. v. M. 

t sp. 

Banksia ornata, F. v. M. 
ThymeleK — 

Pimelea humilis, R. Br. 

* microcephala, R. Br. 
elachantha, F. v. M. 
glauca, R. Br. 
octophylla, R. Br. 



188 



THK VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



Rubiaceae — 

Asperula oligantha, F. v. M. 
Galium umbrosum, Solander 
Compositte — 

Lagenophoraemphysopus,T. Hook. 
Brachycome diversifolia, Fischer 
*t pachyptera, Turc. 

graminea, F. v. M. 
ciliaris, Less, 
calocarpa, F. v. M. 
Minuria leptophylla, Cand. 
*Calotis hispidula, F. v. M. 
Aster ramulosus, Lab 

microphyllus, Persoon 
lepidophyllus, Persoon 

* pimeleoides, Cunn. 
muelleri, Sonder 

* decurrens, Cunn. 
exul, Lind. 
huegelii, F, v. M. 

Vittadinia australis, A. Rich. 
Gnaphalium luteoalbum, L. 
Podotheca angustifolia. Less. 
*Ixiola;na tomentosa, Send. 
Leptorrhynchos squamatus, Less, 
pulchellus, F. V. M. 

* waitzia, Sond. 
Helipterum corymbifolium, Schl. 

* pygmreum, Benth. 
exiguum, F. v. M. 

* jesseni, F. v. M. 
Helichrysum leucopsidium, Cand. 

lucidum, Henck. 
apiculatum, Cand. 
*Humea squamata, F. v. M. 

Millotia tenuifolia, Cass. 
*Toxanthus muelleri, Benth. 
Myriocephalus rhizocephalus, 
Benth. 
*Angianthus tomentosus, Wend, 
strictus, Benth. 
Carduus pycnocephalus, Jacq. (in- 
troduced) 
Centaurea melitensis, L. (intro- 
duced) 
*Gnephosis skirrophora, Benth. 
*Calocephalus sonderi, F. v. M. 
Gnaphalodes uliginosa. Gray 
Senecio lautus, Soland. 

brachyglossus, F. v. M. 
Erechtites arguta, Candolle 
Microseris fosteri, J. Hook. 
CampanulaceK — 

Wahlenbergia gracilis, Cand. 
Goodeniaceae — 

Dampiera rosmarinifolia, Schl. (two 

forms) 
Goodenia geniculata, R. Br. 



Goodeniaceje — 

*tGoodenia cycloptera, R. Br. 

* varia, R. Br. 
pinnatifida, Schlecht. 

Loganiaceae — 

*Logania linifolia, Schlecht. 
Plantaginere — 

Plantago varia, R. Br. 
ConvolvulaceLE— 

Convolvulus erubescens, Sims 
Solanaces — 
*Solanum simile, F. v. M. 
Nicotiana suaveolens, Lehm. 

glauca, Graham (introduced) 
*Anthocercis myosotidea, F. v. M. 
Scrophularinere — 

Mimulus repens, R. Br. 
Asperifolia — 
*Halgania cyanea, Lind. 

* lavandulacea, Endlich. 
LabiatK — 

Prostanthera coccinea, F. v. M. 

* chlorantha, F. v. M. 
Westringia rigida, R. Br. (two 

forms) 
Ajuga australis, R. Br. 
*Teucrium racemosum, R. Br. 

* sessiliflorum, Benth. 
Myoporinse — 

*Eremophila brownii, F. v. M. 
gibbosifolia, F. v. M. 
Epacridere — 

Styphelia sonderi, F. v. M. 

* cordifolia, F. v. M. 
tBrachyloma ericoides, Sond. 

Coniferse — 

Callitris verrucosa, R. Br. 
cupressiformis, Vent. 
Orchidece — 

Thelymitra longifolia, Forster 
Prasophyllum fuscum, R. Br. 
Liliacese — 

Dianella revoluta, R. Br. 
Burchardia umbellata, R. Br. 
Bulbine semibarbata. Haw. 
Thysanotus patersoni, R. Br. 
Arthropodium minus, R. Br. 
Xerotes leucocephala, R. Br. 
glauca, R. Br. 
thunbergii, F. v. M. 
Cyperaceffi — 
*Heleocharis acicularis, R. Br. 
Scirpus pungens, Vahl. 
maritimus, L. 
GramineK — 

Stipa crinita. Gaud. 
Danthonia penicillata, F. v. M. 
*Triodia irritans, R. Br. 



Cbe Uictorian naturalist 



Vol. XXII. —No. 12. APRIL 5, 1906. No. 268 



FIELD NATURALISTS' CLUB OF VICTORIA. 

The ordinary monthly meeting of the Club was held in the 
Royal Society's Hall on Monday evening, 12th Mrch, 1906. 

The president, Mr. F. G. A. Barnard, occupied the chair, and 
about 85 members and visitors were present. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

The hon. secretary read a letter from the hon. the Minister of 
Agriculture, stating that there was no foundation for the rumour 
that the Government proposed to remove the National Herbarium 
to the Melbourne University. 

A letter was read from the Department of Public Works, stating 
that the Waranga Basin had been proclaimed as a permanent 
reserve for the protection of wild-fowl. 

REPORTS. 

A report of the excursion to the Botanical Gardens on Saturday, 
24th February, was given by the leader, Mr. F. Pitcher, who reported 
that the attendance was rather small. The afternoon was chiefly 
devoted to the examination of the flora of the southern portion of 
the Gardens, when the distinguishing characteristics of several of 
the fine oaks were pointed out. A pretty sight was presented by 
the numerous shades on the trunks of the eucalypts, due to the 
outer bark having dried and peeled off, owing to the long spell of 
dry weather, thus revealing the many beautiful tints of the inner 
bark. The palms were found with their floral envelopes 
developed and in the fruiting stage. The non-edible bananas, 
which were noticed in flower at the junior excursion last 
November, were now seen in fruit. 

A report of the junior excursion to Port Melbourne beach on 
Saturday, 3rd March, was given by the leader, Mr. T. S. Hall, 
M.A., who reported that about 30 junior and 12 senior members 
were present. The ground covered was the same as that gone 
over during the juniof excursion in March last. The most 
notable find of the afternoon was a dead specimen of the King 
or Crested Penguin in fairly fresh condition. 

ELECTION OF MEMBERS. 

On a ballot being taken. Miss E. Waugh, Lyndhurst-crescent, 
Hawthorn ; Mr. Henry B. Coles, Mercantile Chambers, Collins- 



190 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

Street ; and Mr. S. J. A. Fripp, 120 Wattletree-road, Malvern, 
were elected ordinary members ; Miss Elsie Stewart, Masters F. 
Seelenmeyer and S. Johnston were elected junior members of the 
Club. 

GENERAL BUSINESS. 

The president took the opportunity of introducing to the meet- 
ing Professor J. A. Ewart, D.Sc, the recently appointed Professor 
of Botany in the Melbourne University, and expressed the hope 
that he would prove a zealous guardian of the valuable collections 
contained in the National Herbarium. 

Professor Ewart thanked the members for the kind reception 
given him, and trusted that he would be able to fulfil all that was 
expected of him. He was in the difficult position of being 
among strange faces, and surrounded by a strange flora, but he 
felt that he could confidently look to the members of the Field 
Naturalists' Club for their assistance and hearty co-operation in 
matters relating to the local flora, and he would be very glad to 
assist the Club in the furtherance of the knowledge of Australian 
botany. 

PAPERS READ. 

1. By Mr. F. Chapman, A.L.S., entitled " On an Abnormal 
Leaf of Gangamopteris spatulata, M'Coy." 

The author drew attention to an impression of a leaf found at 
Bacchus Marsh by the Rev. A. W. Cresswell, M.A., some years 
ago, which in many respects resembled a leaf of Glossopteris, 
though this genus, usually found associated with Gangamopteris, 
has not been found in the Bacchus Marsh beds. A careful 
consideration of the specimen showed, however, that it must be 
regarded as an abnormal leaf of Gangamopteris spatulata, 
M'Coy. The paper was illustrated by lantern slides, 

2. By Mr. E. O. Thiele, entitled " Notes on the Upper Mac- 
allister Valley, North Gippsland." 

The author gave an interesting account of an exploration of 
the Upper Macallister Valley made in January last, and by means 
of a fine series of lantern slides graphically described the diffi- 
culties of the trip, which was through some of the roughest and 
wildest country in Victoria, many miles from any habitation, and 
for the most part at an elevation of about three thousand feet 
above sea level. 

Mr. A. E. Kitson, F.G.S., congratulated the author on the 
good work he had done in the district, and supported his view 
that the valleys of the Barkly, Macallister, and other streams in 
the district probably occupied fault lines. 

(Continued on page 224. J 



THK VICTORIAN NATUKALIST. 



191 



EXCURSION TO WILSON'S PROMONTORY. 
General.— By A. D. Hardy, F.L.S. 
The last annual report of the Club contained the statement 
(Fict. Nat, xxii., p. 41) that the greater part of Wilson's 
Promontory had at last been permanently reserved for the 
l)urposes of a National Park, mainly as a refuge for those 
members of our Australian fauna which are so rapidly disappear- 
ing before the march of civilization, and later, when framing the 
annual list of excursions, the committee felt it incumbent upon 
them to arrange a visit to the Park as the extended ex- 
cursion, which has become customary at Christmas time, so that 
the Club might be in a position to speak with authority on the 
present condition of its fauna and flora and future possibilities. 

The history of the movement leading up to the permanent 
reservation has been well detailed by Mr. T. S. Hall, M,A., in 
our journal some time ago (Vict. Nat., xxl, p. 128), and needs 
no further mention now. Much disappointment was, however, 
felt when from the Gazette notice it was found that nowhere had 
the Park^ny sea-frontage, though some sixty miles of coast line 
was available. In other words, that a strip of land half a mile in 
width, temporarily reserved only, extended all round the Park, 
completely cutting it off from the sea. 

Also included in the excluded portion is the Seaforth town- 
ship site, situated at the north-eastern extremity of the Promon- 
tory, which is locally known as the Singapore Peninsula. This 
includes Mounts Singapore and Hunter, the peninsula and mount 
being named after the barque Singapore, wrecked there many 
years ago. 

Before giving any details of the journey made by the Club 
party, I will briefly refer to the physiography and general 
characteristics of the Promontory, and in considering these it will 
be helpful to refer to the map published in the Naturalist for 
July last {Vict. Nat., xxii., p. 44), in which are indicated the 
positions of the principal physical features. 

Wilson's Promontory forms part of what appears to be the 
remains of an old land-bridge between Australia and Tasmania, 
and at no distant date was probably an island. Now it is_ a 
rugged and irregular mass of granite, connected with the main- 
land by a narrow isthmus of sand dunes, &c., about fourteen miles 
long by four wide. (See the geological and ethnological reports.) 

Wind and wave have piled the sand in dunes along the coast 
in such a way that the water which falls from the granite hills in 
innumerable small streams is dammed back and imprisoned to 
form extensive and often densely vegetated morasses or swamps. 
Through these the water finds its way, often by much meandering, 
until it breaks through the sand dunes and escapes to the sea; its 



192 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



course through the dunes being as a rule well defined, and the 
channels in places of considerable depth. Such are the morasses 
of the Derby River, Tidal River, and that on the south side of 
the Oberon Ridge. (See botanical report.) 

The highest point of the Promontory is probably Mt. Latrobe,. 
with a recorded height of 2,434 feet. Other prominent heights 
are Mt. Wilson (2,350), Mt. Vereker (2,092), Mt Oberon (1,965), 
Mt. Leonard (1,860), Mt. Norgate (1,390), Mt. Hunter (1,136}, 
Bishop Rock (1,057), Mt. Boulder (1,010), &c. These peaks, 
some of which are masses of bare granite boulders, are the 
culminations of ranges which in many cases bear a fair growth of 
eucalyptus trees, but the timber is poor and of no commercial 
value. 

The gullies of the west side are poorly vegetated. The botanical 
members of our party made several side excursions in search of 
anything like the typical gully vegetation of Gippsland or the 
Otway Forest, but without success. With the exception of 
Roaring Meg and a few other small streams in the far south, 
luxuriant gullies appear to be confined to the eastern side of the 
Promontory. 

In a few places there is good grass land, notably at the Derby 
River and easterly from Oberon Bay ; the parts suitable for 
kangaroo and emu amount to about 2,000 acres. The total 
amount of grazing land of good and medium quality, such as 
would support kangaroos, emus, and wallabies of several sorts, 
would be perhaps 10,000 acres, but much of this country is of a 
quality unsuitable for stock and useless from a commercial point 
of view because of the difficulties in the way of access. 

Some of the sand dunes bear low " heathy " scrub, but others 
support small trees of eucalyputus, sheoak, and banksia, with 
grass-trees of over ten feet in height. Tea-tree predominates on 
the sand dunes of the coastal belt at low elevations, but where 
the dunes are high, this gives way to low " heathy " scrub. 

The shore is much incised in places with rocky tongues run- 
ning far out to sea, some of which give shelter to sandy beaches 
at the mouths of the valleys. The sand of many of the beaches, 
such as those of Waterloo Bay, Oberon Bay, Leonard Bay, Sic, 
has that peculiar quality which gives a metallic screeching sound 
when it is struck or scratched with a stick or disturbed by the 
feet when walking, and is known as " musical sand." This 
peculiarity is to be found, however, on other parts of the Victorian 
coast. The sandy beaches terminate usually at either end against 
rocky projections of high ridges. The shore of Corner Basin, 
however, is more regular and of a totally different character ; the 
sands and mud of this shallow sea forming an extensive mud flat 
round the margin, which is vegetated with Spurious Mangrove (see 
botanical report), and has isolated granite rocks in places. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 193 



There is no settlement on the Promontory excepting the Hght- 
house quarters at the south-eastern corner, and around a sawmill, 
which is cutting into the fine gullies on the eastern side at Sealers' 
Cove ; the township site of Seaforth, excluded from the Park, 
surveyed at the northern end of the Promontory, never having 
been utilized. 

The only good track in the reserve at present is that of the 
Post and Telegraph Department. This connects Foster by way 
of the isthmus with the lighthouse, passing through Yanakie, 
across the Derby River, over timbered hills and heathy sand 
dunes, across the Tidal River and morass, over the Oberon ridge 
by the easterly of the two " bad saddles," skirting the summit of 
Mt. Oberon on the way, then hugging the low saddle to the east 
of the Oberon-Norgate Valley, and escaping the morass except 
a portion which is " logged," it ascends a ridge near Martin's 
Hill, and descends on the southern side to cross Roaring Meg 
Creek and trend south-easterly to South-east Point. 

Along this route are at least two suitable camping grounds. 
One is on the south bank of the Derby River, reached by crossing 
the river by the footbridge, and dropping down behind the sand 
hummocks, where the telegraph line repairers' hut is enclosed in 
a small horse paddock. The other is behind the sand hummocks 
of Oberon Bay, on Eraser's Creek. At both places good water 
and grass for pack horses is plentiful. Other camping grounds 
exist, but for want of cut tracks are not accessible. Such are 
the mountain-locked enclosures at Sealers' Cove, Refuge Cove, 
&c., which can be reached more conveniendy by boat from 
Welshpool or Port Albert, but are otherwise isolated from the 
rest of the Park. 

Our party commenced the journey from Foster, on the South- 
Eastern railway line, distant 107 miles from Melbourne, where 
supplies of fresh bread and meat were obtained, and sent by 
pack horse vid the Yanakie isthmus. We walked to " Foster 
Landing " on Stockyard Creek, a distance of about two and a 
half miles. This landing was once of greater importance than at 
present, the railway extension to Welshpool and Port Albert 
having left it in the lurch. There we boarded Mr. Taylor's well- 
equipped yacht Albatross, and passed between the mangrove- 
covered mud banks out into Corner Basin, which we crossed, 
and cast anchor at the unimproved " landing," as near the dry 
land as the gradually sloping mud flat would allow. By wading 
we removed our baggage, &c., to a place of safety, and were soon 
joined by Mr. W. Barker, who, with his assistant, Mr. Bena 
Claverino, brought our five pack horses round from Foster vid 
Yanakie. Crossing a low sandhill, vegetated with eucalyptus, 
honeysuckle, grass-tree, &c., at the foot of the Vereker Range, we 
struck across the open heathy country and swamp lands to the 



194 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

telegraph line track, and by this continued southerly, up and 
down sand hummocks — vegetated in places, while to others the 
fine sand drifting before the wind gave the appearance of smoking 
volcanoes — to the Derby River camp. Owing to the courtesy of 
the Post and Telegraph Department, we were enabled to use the 
repairers' hut as a storehouse for provisions, and pitch our tents 
in the fenced grassy enclosure on the river bank. Having 
explored the Derby River flats, the sand hummocks, and the 
coast of this part, we moved southerly across the timbered hills, 
heathy undulations, and Tidal River swamp to the Mt. Oberon 
ridge. The main party crossed this ridge by what is known as 
the " Bad Saddle," and had a steep climb before the beauty of 
Oberon Bay lay spread beneath them to the south. Meanwhile 
the botanical members had spent much time about the Tidal 
River and swamp, and had climbed round the summit of Mt. 
Oberon by a saddle on the eastern side, and descended into the 
valley about the head of Growler's Creek. Notwithstanding the 
simple " lay of the country," the obstacles to progress presented 
by jungles and swamps were of too formidable a nature to be 
overcome, and a detour by the south too long. They slept on 
the mountain side, and rejoined the main party in camp at 
Oberon Bay, after having been without food for nearly twenty-four 
hours, though with many additions to the plant collection. At 
the Oberon Bay camp much energy was displayed by the pho- 
tographers, who climbed the surrounding bouldered hills to obtain 
views. After examining the shoreward end of this wide valley, 
we crossed the Promontory to Waterloo Bay, examining as we 
went the grassy sand dunes, which extend far inland, and crossing 
the low saddle which bridges the valley from Mt. Wilson Range 
to Martin's Hill, The trip from Oberon Bay camp to Waterloo 
Bay and return can be done in a day, and pack horses can, but 
with some difficulty in absence of a cut track, be got over most of 
the marshy ground on the east side to within a mile of the 
shore. 

Long before the collectors and photographers were satisfied, 
our time limit had expired, and we returned vid the Derby River 
to the landing at South Corner by almost the same route, but by 
small deviations examining fresh country. There tiie Albatross 
lay heeled over in the mud, to be righted by the incoming tide, 
which done, we waded to her, and with a favourable wind were 
at Foster Landing in less than three hours. 

Our work occupied eight days, and our tracks totalled 
altogether some fifty miles. The expenses of the trip were by 
economy kept within an average of ^£4 los. per member, which 
is about I OS. more than that for a similar term in the Otway the 
previous Christmas, but taking into consideration the difficulties 
in the way of provisioning and transport the expenses may be 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 195 

considered as very moderate. The original arrangement of lo 
lbs. per member for personal effects outside blankets, &c., was 
abandoned for what amounted to much the same thing, 30 lbs., 
including everything but tents and provisions, and this was found 
to be ample. The whole of our tents, provisions, collecting 
apparatus, bedding, &c., carried by the five pack horses, reached 
nearly half a ton. 

The party comprised six members of the F.N.C. and some of 
their friends. The members were the following : — Mrs. A. D. 
Hardy, and Messrs. T. S. Hall, M.A., J. A. Kershaw, F.E.S., 
J. A. Leach, B.Sc, G. B. Pritchard, F.G.S., and A. D. Hardy, 
F.L.S. (leader). 

Reports on sectional work will be furnished as follows : — 
Zoology (exclusive of mollusca), J. A. Kershaw ; geology and 
mollusca, G. B. Pritchard ; ethnology, A. S. Kenyon, C.E. (Mr. 
Kenyon also re-marked the northern end of the western 
boundary of the Park, in order that posts might be erected by 
the Ports and Harbours authorities as a guide to sportsmen and 
others) ; and botany, A. D. Hardy. 

The photographs with which to-night's reports are illustrated 
are from the cameras of Mrs. A. D. Hardy and Messrs. T. S. 
Hall, G. R. Macey, and Thomas. 

Our inquiries have resulted in the following information, briefly 
summarized, as full detailed reports will be given separately : — 

The only objectionable animals in the Park are wild dogs and 
snakes. Rabbits, we were glad to find, had not reached the 
Promontory. The dogs are not true Dingoes, but have escaped 
from fishermen, hunting parties, and selectors, and have interbr d 
with the Dingo to such an extent as to have almost effaced the 
latter. The snakes are Copperheads chiefly, if what we saw are 
an index of the whole. Of large animals there is a diminishing 
quantity of Black-tailed Wallaby and Koala, or Monkey-Bear. 
These, and especially the former, are being destroyed by the 
dogs. Authorized by the Minister of Lands, we laid over loo 
strychnine baits to lessen the number of this pest, but as this 
was always done when breaking up camp or on the homeward 
march, we do not know with what result. We saw nothing and 
could hear nothing of the Kangaroo, Lyre-bird, or Platypus, but 
the Porcupine, Echidna acrdeuta, Shaw, is not infrequent, and 
Grey and Ring-tailed Opossums are to be found. Of birds. Peli- 
cans and Black Swan find a home on Corner Basin, and Black 
Duck are plentiful on the rivers, while perching birds are numerous. 

We found the Promontory lands to be well adapted for the 
purpose for which the Park has been reserved, provided the half- 
mile strip ot foreshore be included, for without this strip the 
country will be almost valueless for natural history purposes. By 
the e.xclusion of the strip, not only is the picturesque coastal 
scenery omitted, but all the interesting marine and shore life is 



196 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

shut out. We know of no other case in which such an anomaly 
exists. A park with a natural sea-frontage of about 60 miles, but 
held back from the shore, and having no access to the sea what- 
ever ! It is to be hoped that the Government will see its way to 
make the strip referred to part of the Park, as being essential to 
its welfare. The Seaforth township site should also be added, for 
the same reason. Although in existence as a site for the past 15 
years, and surveyed in 1892, there is not a single resident. The 
township, except for the Gazette notice and the overgrown survey 
marks, is a myth. 

Granted this modification of boundary, then the work of 
preparing the Park for future use could be begun. First would 
necessarily come the poisoning of the wild dogs and the erection 
of a dog, fox, and rabbit proof fence across the isthmus. The 
introduction of kangaroos, emus, other species of wallabies 
than exist at present, and smaller marsupials would follow. 
Lyre-birds from Gippsland could be transferred to the gullies of 
the eastern side at Sealers' Cove, Refuge Cove, &c., and at 
Roaring Meg Creek in the south, while the Platypus could be 
acclimatized in many of the streams. There is in all about 
10,000 acres of good and poor grazing land, which would suit 
kangaroos and emus in parts and wallabies throughout. 

The sawmill which, at Sealers' Cove, is opening up and 
destroying the best gullies and "Lyre-bird" country of the Park, 
should be stopped before further irreparable damage is done. It 
is reported that another mill is at work south of Mt. Norgate, but 
the report has not been confirmed. 

There are many kangaroos, wallabies, and a few emus on 
Snake or Latrobe Island, which could be conveniently transferred 
to the Park, while from many parts of the State could be procured 
native fauna suitable for the populating of this large area. The 
trustees and directors of the various State Zoological Gardens 
will doubtless assist in providing such native animals as they 
have in captivity but are now scarce or hard to procure. In 
many cases the security and peace of the Park will result in over- 
breeding, but the surplus could be easily disposed of in the 
re-stocking of zoological gardens, &c., and, when the source of 
supply became known, it is probable that applications from 
zoological and acclimatization societies abroad would be made for 
Australian native animals, especially marsupials, and from the 
surplus these could be supplied as exchanges, the return for which 
would benefit our own societies, or for cash, which would aid the 
revenue and lessen the cost of upkeep of the Park. 

However, before any practical steps can be taken, the half- 
mile strip of foreshore and the Singapore Peninsula excision 
should be added, saw-milling stopped, and trustees appointed. 
To the trustees could confidently be left the appointment of ex- 
perienced rangers, erection of staging at the south corner of Corner 



THK VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



197 



Basin, the cutting of bridle or pack tracks to give access by land 
to Sealers' Cove, &c., and other necessary and more or less urgent 
works. To complete the examination of the Promontory it 
would be necessary to make a complementary excursion, ap- 
proaching by sea, and landing on Singapore Peninsula, in Corner 
Basin, and in Bass Strait, Refuge Cove, Sealers' Cove, and at the 
lighthouse. This would complete the survey for most purposes, 
and the progress of the Park after the commencement of oper- 
ations could be more easily gauged. There is little fear of the 
"coast disease," as, though we saw stock there suffering from 
the effects of it, and " coasty " wallabies have been seen nearer 
Yanakie station, no animals, other than introduced stock, have 
been troubled with it south of the isthmus. One of the best tests 
of the health of animals is the condition of skin and fur and the 
market demand for the same. The demand for skins of wallaby 
and koala from the Promontory has been so great in the past 
that over 2,000 of each have been removed in one year. 

The illustrations which accompany this report have been 
chosen from a large series as characteristic of the features of the 
National Park. They embrace the approach to the Park, 
showing the Derby River flats, one of the granite-capped hills, a 
scene in the grass-tree country, and a view in the banksia forest. 
Coastal views have not been selected, as such are not really in the 
Park reservation. 

General Zoology (except Mollusca).— By J. A. Kershaw, 

F.E.S. 

The zoological results of this excursion were not, as a whole, 
important from a collector's point of view. Nothing new, or even 
very rare, was noted. The class of country traversed was, 
generally speaking, not such that one would expect to find very 
prolific in animal life, and it was not always possible to devote 
much time to searching the more favourable-looking spots which 
we passed through. Our time was limited, and much of the 
collecting had to be accomplished while journeying from one 
place to another. It must be remembered that our attention was 
practically confined to the western side of the Promontory as far 
south as Oberon Bay, and while much more might have been 
accomplished had time permitted us to have more thoroughly 
worked some of the better-timbered spots, and along some of the 
creeks and valleys, the country was not, on the whole, the most 
favourable to enable one to obtain the best idea of the fauna of 
the Promontory. From information obtained from our guides, 
who know the country well, and have spent months there shoot- 
ing and trapping, we learned that a greater abundance of animal 
life would probably be found in the more heavily timbered 
ranges along the eastern side. The difficulty, however, of 



198 THE VICTOaiAN NATURALIST. 

travelling through these ranges, covered in parts with dense and 
almost impenetrable scrub and undergrowth, would have been 
very great, and under our circumstances was altogether out of the 
question. Again, from what could be learned of the country to 
the south of Oberon Bay, the prospects seemed still more favour- 
able. Here the character of the country seems to change, the 
vegetation becomes richer and more varied, with well timbered 
guUies, which remind one more of many parts of Gippsland, and 
would no doubt well repay careful search. To have pro[jerly 
investigated these parts, however, would have necessitated a much 
longer time being spent than was at our disposal. As one of the 
chief objects of the Club, in urging the permanent reservation of 
the Promontory, was to preserve the native fauna, it was wisely 
decided that no shooting would be permitted during the trip. 
The list of birds appended therefore only includes such as could 
be identified on the spot. It can readily be understood that 
many species cannot be correctly identified without a much 
closer examination — in fact, without shooting a specimen — but I do 
not think that very many additional species would have been 
added to our list had this restriction not been decided upon. 

Mammals. — The mammals met with during our stay were 
extremely few. Dingoes, or as they are more commonly known, 
wild dogs, are plentifully distributed all over the promontory. 
Several were seen, and their tracks were to be met with in every 
direction. These were particularly noticeable on the beach, which 
they evidently visit regularly in search offish, &c., which may be 
washed up. By reason ot their numbers they must be responsible 
for the destruction of great numbers of the indigenous animals, 
and particularly wallabies, the bones of which, together with 
those of Native Bears and an occasional Blue-tongue Lizard, were 
frequently met with. The wallabies, particularly, must have had 
a hard struggle to exist in the presence of such an enemy, and it 
would seem to be folly to attempt to preserve our indigenous 
fauna here until something is done to reduce or altogether 
exterminate this pest from the Promontory. Owing to inter- 
breeding with the domestic dog, a typical Dingo is now a rarity, 
if one is really to be found. They vary in colour from reddish- 
brown to black, but it is said to be difficult to obtain a good skin 
owifig to the prevalence of mange. Foxes and hares have 
obtained a footing here, the former of which is becoming fairly 
numerous among the sand dunes along parts of the coast. 
Rabbits have not yet found their way here, though it can only be a 
matter of a short time before they will be firmly established unless 
precautions are soon taken to prevent them. The body of a Fur 
Seal, Euotaria cinerea, was found on the beach near the Derby, 
which bore evidence of having provided a recent meal for the 
Dingoes, while it served to provide us with a nice series of one of 
the carrion beetles, Su2orinus Icetus. Portions of the skull and 



THB VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 199 

skeleton were also found on the sand dunes in company with the 
bones of fish, wallabies, and a species of bush rat, the accumu- 
lations of one of the many old camping plac.s of the blacks. Of 
marsupials, wallabies are numerous, and several were seen. 
These proved to be the common Black-tailed Wallaby, Macropus 
ualahatus. Kangaroos do not seem to exist on the promontory, 
tliough they, as well as the Emu, would do well here. The 
Native Bear or Koala, Phmcolarclos cinereus, were very plentiful, 
their characteristic grunt being heard every evening. A fine 
example seen at Whisky Creek had a very conspicuous dark line 
running down the centre of its back — a rather unusual feature. 
Hundreds of these most interesting creatures have been shot in 
the past by hunters for their skins. As an instance of their 
wholesale slaughter, our guides informed us that they made as 
much as ;;{^io per week during about a month's shooting. Both 
the Common and the Ring-tailed Phalangers or Opossums were 
fairly plentiful. None of the smaller marsupials were seen, but 
many, such as the large and small Flying Phalangers, Native Cats, 
Phascologales, Dromicia, &c., are sure to exist here. 

Birds. — Mrs. Hardy has kindly furnished me with the following 
notes on the birds, together with a list of the species noticed 
during the trip, and to which I have added a few additional 
species : — • 

" Whilst crossing Corner Basin hundreds of Black Swan, 
Chenopis at?-ata, were seen. Some of them were scarcely more 
than flappers, and one or two of the older birds appeared to have 
been wounded, as their flight was laboured, and they were unable 
to keep up with the main body. Further in, towards the shore, 
a large flock of Pelicans, Pelecanm conspiciUatus, were observed, 
and White-breasted Cormorants, Phalacrocorax gouldi, were 
numerous. 

" On the flats about the Derby River, Black Ducks, Anis 
siiperclliosa, were plentiful, and amongst the sedges along the 
river banks that restless little bird, the Reed-Warbler, Acro- 
ceph'ihts australis, was flitting in and out, attracting attention by 
its cheerful song. Pennant Parrakeets, Platijcercus elegans, were 
frequently noticed feeding in the Leptospermum and Exocarpus 
bushes ; while cockatoos were numerously re|jresented by the 
Black, Calyptorliijnchus funereus, and the White Cockatoo, 
Caaatua galerita. 

" Honey-eaters were plentiful in the scrub and amongst the 
eucalypts. I noted four different species in a single myoporum 
tree, evidently feeding on the nectar of the sweet-scented 
blossoms. In this tree, by the way, we found a large nest about 
10 feet from the ground, composed wholly of dead bracken 
fronds, approximately round, unlined, and with the rough opening 



200 



THK VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



situated between the top and the side, the structure appearing to 
have been abandoned before completion. Can any member say 
whether Ring-tailed Opossums ever make nests of bracken fronds, 
and of this shape, as the nest described was not familiar to us ? 
This was near a tea-tree marsh, wheie a pair of White-shafted 
Fantails, Rhipidura albiscapa, were building in an adjacent scrub. 
One nest of a Honey-eater we found cleverly hidden in a stunted 
banksia, which grew almost concealed by a eucalypt shrub, the 
nest being about a foot from the ground, and containing two 
fresh eggs of slightly different size, shape, and marking. The 
bird flew off so swiftly on being disturbed that we were unable to 
identify it. This was well up the N.E. slope of Mt. Oberon. 

" We observed both kinds of Swifts — the ' Spine-tailed ' and 
the 'Australian' — wheeling in all directions. In a banksia grove 
we flushed three Frogmoulhs from a resting-place on the ground, 
where they were sheltered by an overhanging shelf of a charred 
log, and which in the glare of sunlight were almost too stupid to 
fly away — in fact, one allowed us to approach within a few feet 
before resuming its clumsy and noiseless flight. 

" In the grass land Quail were fairly common, usually in flocks 
of about half a dozen, both Stubble and Brown. 

" Grey Jays, Strepera cuneiccnulata, were often seen in the 
vicinity of our camps in fair numbers, and their loud notes were 
some of the first sounds to be heard in the early morning. 

" The Boobook Owl was heard almost every night uttering its 
dismal cry, usually about the trees near our tents — nocturnal 
serenades not altogether appreciated by sleepy naturalists. 

" Towards sunset what sounded like a Bittern's loud booming 
issued from a neighbouring tea-tree swamp, but we never got near 
enough to the locality to identify the bird." 

List of Avifauna. 

Chthonicola 



Circus gouldi, Bon. 
Accipiter cirrhocephalus, Vieill. 
Uroaetus audax, Lath. 
Haliaetus leucogaster, Gmelin 
Ninox boobook, Lath. 
Strepera cuneicaudata, Vieill. 
Grallina picata, Lath. 
Collyriocincla harmonica, Lath. 
Rhipidura albiscapa, GId. 

tricolor, Vieill. 
Micrceca fascinans, Lath. 
Malurus cyaneus, Ellis 
Acrocephalus australis, Gld. 
Geocichla lunulata, Lath. 
Megalurus giamineus, Gld. 
Acanthiza pusilla, Lath. 

chrysorrhoa, Quoy and Gaim. 
Sericornis frontalis, Vig. and Hors. 
Psophodes crepitans, Vig. and Hors. 



ttata, Lath. 
Ephlhiaraira albifrons, Jardine and 

Selby 
Gymnorhina leuconota, Gld. 
Cracticus destructor, Temm. 
Eopsaltiia australis, Lath. 
Pachycephala gutturalis. Lath, 
Zosterops ccerulescens, Lath. 
Acanthorhynchus tenuirostris, Lath. 
Meliphaga phrygia. Lath 
Melithreptus lunulatus, Shaw 
Myzomela sanguinolenta, Lath. 
Acanthochara carunculata. Lath. 

mellivora, Lath. 
Pardalotus punctatus, Temm. 
Hirundo neo.xena, Gld. 
Petrochelidon nigricans, Vieill. 
Anthus australis, Vig. and Hors. 
Chsetura caudacuta, Lath. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 201 



Micropus pacificus, Lath. 
Podargus strigoides, Lath. 
Dacelo gigas, liodd. 
Halcyon sanctus, Vig. and Hors. 
Chalcococcyx piagosus, 1-ath. 
Cuculus pallidus, Lath. 
Trichoglossus novaj-hollandice, Gmel. 
("alyptorhynchus funereus, Shaw 
Cacatua galerita, Lath. 
Platycercus elegans, Gmel. 
Coturnix pectoralis, Gld. 
Synoecus australis, Temm. 
Hasmatopus unicolor, Wagler 



yEgialitis cucullatus, V'ieill. 
Tringoides hypoleucus, Linn. 
Gallinago australis, Lath. 
Gabianus pacificus, Lath. 
Botaurus poeciloptilus, Wagl. 
Phalacrocorax carbo, Linn. 

gouldi, Salvad. 
Sula serrator, G. R. Gray 
Pelecanus conspicillatus, Temm. 
Chenopis atrata. Lath. 
Cereopsis novce-hollandia;, Lath. 
Anas superciliosa, Gmel. 



Additional.— By J. A. Kershaw. 



Hrematopus longirostris, Vieill. 
Lobivanelluslobatus, Lath. (Derby R.) 
Larus nova;-hollandia;, Steph. 
Daption capensis, Linn. 
Puffinus assimilis, Gld. 



Limonites ruficollis, Pallas 
Ptilotis leucotis. Lath. 
Eudyptula minor, Forst. 
Starling (nesting) 
Thalassogeron cautus, Gld. 



I might add that the introduced Starling has found its way on 
to the Promontory. Several were seen on the journey from the 
inlet to the Derby River, and one was noticed carrying food to 
its young in the spout of a dead eucalypt. There are no Lyre- 
birds on the Promontory, and in view of the universal interest 
attached to this peculiarly Australian l)ird, so fast disappearing, 
it is to he hoped that some experiments will be made to prove 
whether they cannot be established here. Judging by the 
character of the country it is doubtful if these birds could thrive 
on the western side north of Oberon Bay. One misses the rich 
deep soil, the plentiful supply of insect life, and particularly the 
myriads of small sand-hoppers, so characteristic of the secluded 
haunts of the Lyre-bird. To the south, however, where richer 
and more secluded fern gullies occur, and most probably along 
parts of the eastern coast, these birds would, no doubt, thrive. 
Emus are absent, but would do well if introduced. On the 
beach at Oberon Bay, while on our way back to the Derby 
River, we noticed a solitary Cape Barren Goose, Cereopsis novce- 
hollandke, quietly resting. It was quite unconcerned at our 
approach, and allowed us to get within six feet of it before it 
deigned to move away a few feet. We stood admiring it for a 
few minutes, when it occurred to our photographer to secure a 
picture. As he slowly approached the bird equally slowly 
sauntered along the water's edge, seeming determined not to give 
the view required, until, patience becoming exhausted, the snap- 
shot was taken, when, tucking its leg up under its feathers, it 
immediately resumed the quiet resting position so long waited 
for. Both species of Oyster-catchers were common. At low tide, 
in company with numbers of sea-gulls, they were noticed digging 
their bills into the sand for the bivalve shells, Meretrix pauci- 



202 



THE VICTOKIAN NATURALIST. 



lamellata, Dunk., which they soon emptied of their contents. Two 
dead specimens of the Shy or White-capped Albatross, T]i,alasso- 
geron cautus, were found on the beach at Oberon Bay, while 
three specimens of the Allied Petrel, Pujfitucs assi?nilis, and two 
Little Penguins, Eudyplula minor, were picked up on other parts 
of the coast. Two broken eggs of the Hooded Dottrel, and a 
fairly perfect one of the Mutton-bird, were found near the Derby 
River. 

Reptiles were poorly represented. The only snakes seen were 
Cop])er-heads, Denisonia sriperba, a species also found in New 
South Wales and Tasmania. On opening one of those killed 
we found in the stomach a small lizard, Liolepisma guichenoti, 
a small frog, and two earthworms. Although I have often 
examined the contents of the stomach of our larger snakes this 
is the first instance in which I have found earthworms. All 
specimens were in good preservation, and had evidently been 
but recently swallowed. About ten species of lizards were noted. 
A specimen of the Stump-tailed Lizard Trachgsaurus nigosus, 
was reported to have been seen on the track at Oberon Bay. 
This is an unusual occurrence so far south, as I have always 
thought it to be confined to the north and north-west parts of 
the State. I did not see the specimen myself, but it was carefully 
described to me by Mr. Leach, who saw it, and is well acquainted 
with the species. The Southern Blue-tongue, Tiliqua nigrolutea, 
was occasionally seen, and the common Egemia whilii was 
plentiiul everywhere. 

Only two or three species of frogs were taken, one of which was 
rescued from the stomach of one of the snakes killed. 



Hinulia quoyi, Dum. and Bibr. 
Liolepisma mustelinum, O'Shaugn. 

trilineatum. Gray 

guichenoti, Dum. and Bibr. 

metallicum, O'Shaugn. 
Siaphos maccoyi, L. and F. 



Snakes— 

Denisonia superba, Gthr. 
Lizards — 

Amphibolurus muricatus, White 

Egernia whitii, Lacep. 

Trachysaurus rugosus. Gray 

Tiliqua nigrolutea, Gray 

Fishes. — No attempt was made to deal with the larger marine 
fishes, as we had no means of preserving them. A number of 
rock-fishes, consisting of Leatherjackets and Parrot Fish, were 
hooked, and several fresh Barracouta were found on the beach. 
Other kinds were noticed both in the sea and at the mouths of 
rivers, but none were secured. The common Toad Fish (Tetrodon 
lianiiltoni), the flesh of which is considered to be poisonous, were 
seen in Stockyard Creek and at the mouth of the Tidal River. 
In the few available rock-pools was found a small Cling Fish 
(Diplocrepis, sp.), and a few young Blennies (Cristicips, sp.) 
The only freshwater fish seen were Galaxias. These were 
numerous in almost every creek visited, and, as far as could be 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 203 

ascertained, all belonged to one species. An attempt was made 
to secure some of the larger specimens with the hook and line, 
but although all sorts of bait was tried we were unsuccessful. 
The butterfly net, however, enabled us to get three or four nice- 
sized specimens. Shoals of the young were seen in a shallow 
creek, and by making a temporary dam across, we were able to 
secure as many as were required. I refrain, for the present, from 
naming the species, as I hope to be able to deal more fully with 
this group at a later date. 

Insects, generally speaking, were not plentiful, nor were any 
rarities secured. Those seen were such as are found at Beaumaris, 
Frankston, and along the Mornuigton Peninsula. The most 
favourable localities visited were the grass-tree flats on the south- 
east corner of the inlet and the valleys between Oberon and 
Waterloo Bays. Lepidoptera, chiefly micros, were most notice- 
able at the former locality, but although several of the well-known 
forms were fairly jjlentiful, the number of species was very limited. 
Among the butterflies, the Common Brown, Heteronympha merope, 
was very numerous on one of the ridges behind our landing-place, 
but, strange to say, we saw very few during the remainder of the 
trip. The Mountain Brown, Tisiphone abeona, as well as the 
Painted Lady, Pyrameis kershawi, and the Australian Admiral, 
F. ilea, were met with every day. Amongst the " blues," 
Neolucia agricola, our Williamstown friend, was fairly common on 
Tongue Point, and still more so at Waterloo Bay. I'his species, 
which is also found in Tasmania and South Australia, seems to 
delight in situations exposed to strong sea winds. Five species 
of " skippers " (Hesperidse) were taken, the rarest being 
Hespei-illa, dispar and Mesodina halyzia. The wood-boring 
larvae of Hepialus ligrdvora were plentiful and in all stages of 
growth, but only one was found to have changed into the 
chrysalis stage. This emerged on the 12th January following. 
The larvae of the well-known moth Mamestra eivingi were extremely 
plentiful, particularly on the beach at Oberon Bay, where they 
were seen in dozens crawling down from the grass tussocks over 
the sand, only to be caught by the incoining tide or eaten by 
the sea-birds. About 80 species of Coleoptera were taken, 
among which were 7 species of Buprestidae, none of which require 
special mention. Among the other orders, 6 species of Cicadas 
were bottled, including several of the brilliant little Cicada 
aurata, which was numerous on the grass flats on the Derby 
River, and kept up their continuous shrill song from daylight till 
dark. 



Coleoptera. 
Notonomufi,chalybeus, Dej. 
Lacopterum loculosum 
Clivina victoria;, SI. 



Cenogmus rotundicollis. Cast. 

waterhousei, Cast. 
Gnathaphanus, sp. ? 
Homoeodytes Scutellaria, Germ. 



204 



THK VICTOKIAN NATUKALISX. 



Staphylinidas, 2 sp. undetermined 
Scaphidium quadripustulatum, Oliv. 
Saprinus la;tus, Erich. 

sp. ? 
Lamprima rutilans, Erich. 
Aulacocycius edentulus, Mad. 
Chiroplatys mceluis, Erich. 
Xylonychus eucalypti, Bdv. 
Isodon australasire, Hope 
Heteronyx piceus, Blanch. 

sp. ? 

sp. ? 
Scitala, sp. ? 
Liparetrus bicolor, Blkb. 
Aphodius, sp. ? 

Onthophagus granulatus, Bohem. 
Diphucephala colaspidiodes, Gyll. 
Polystigma punctata, Don. 
Miechidius latus, Waterh. 
Cryptodus paradoxus, Macl. 
Anopolognathus vetulinus. Gory 

olivieri, Dalm. 
Stigmodera xanthospilosa, Hope 

cyanicoUis, Bdv. 

bicincta 

australasia", Lap. et Gory 
Cisseis nolochalcea, Laf. 
Melobasis purpuraceus, Fabr. 
Monocrepidius punctato-striatus, Can. 
Crepidomenus filiformis, Cand. 
Metriorrhynchus rhipidius, !Macl. 
Selenurus sydneyensis, Blkb. 
Laius mastersi, Macl. 
Carphurus cyanopterus, Bohem. 
Natalis porcata. Fab. 
Phycosecis australis ? 
Sphargeris physoides 
Adelium virescens, Bdv. 

helopioides, Bdv. 

punctipenne, Bdv. 
Nyctobates lotteni ? 
.Saragus emarginatus, Guer. 
Lagria grandis, Gyll. 
Copidita punctatum, Macl. 
Rhniota hcemoptera, Kirby 
.Sclerorrhinus riverina;, Macl. 
Prypnus canaliculatus, Gyll. 
Psalidura, sp. ? 
Aoplocnemis suturalis, Paso. 
Rhinaria, sp. ? 
Coptocercus rubripes, Bdv. 
Hesthesis plorator, Pasc. 
Hebecerus marginicollis, Bdv. 
Disterna lugubiis, Pasc. 
Trichomesia newmani, Pasc. 
Chalcolampra sp. ? 
Edusa, sp. ? 
Halyzia mellyi, Muls. 
Paropsis, sp. ? 



Lepidoptera. 
Tisiphone abeona, Don. 
Pyrameis kershawi, M'Coy 

itea, Fabr. 
Junonia vellida, Fabr. 
Xenica achanta, Don. 
Heteronympha merope, Fabr. 
Neolucia agricola, Westw. 
Zizera labradus, Godt. 
Hesperilla donnysa, Hew. 

flammeata, Butl. 

dispar, Kirby 
Mesodina halyzia, Hew. 
Taractocera papyria, Bdv. 
Agarista lewini, Walk. 
Procris viridipulverulenta, Guer. 

dolens, Walk. 
Hepialus lignivora, Lew. 
Entometa ignobilis, Walk, (larvte) 
Sorocostia albalis, Walk. 

servilis, Meyr. 
Anestia ombrophanes, Meyr. 
Asura lydia, Don. 
Darala ocellata, Walk, (larvre) 
Antherrea eucalypti, Scott (larvae) 
Chloridea armigera, Hubn. 
Caradrina atra, Gn. 
Syntheta nigerrima, Gn. 
Cosmodes elegans, Don. 
Mamestra ewingi, Westw. (larvae) 
Agrotis spina, Gn. 
Phrissogonus denotatus, Walk. 
Euchceca rubrupunctaria, Dbld. 
Hydriomena subochraria, Dbld. 

corrclata, W'alk. 

anthracinata. Gn. 
Epidesmia hypenaria, Guer. 

chilonaria, H.S. 
Xanthorhoe subidaria, Gn. 
Taxeotis delogramnia, Meyr. 
Dichromodes ainaria, Gn. 
Acidaha rubraria, Dbld. 
Scirpophaga patulella. Walk. 
Mecyna polygonalis, Hb. 
Ocrasa albidalis. Walk. 
Talis pleniferella, Walk. 

relalalis, Walk, 
bivitella, Don. 

pedionoma, Meyr. 
Halterophora lativittalis, Walk. 
Scoparia philonephes, Meyr. 
Eucarphia tritalis. Walk. 
Platyptilia emissalis. Walk. 
Dichelia isoscelana, Walk. 
Acropolitis dolosana, Walk. 
Caccecia postvittana. Walk. 

responsana, Walk. 
Tortrix glaphyrana, Meyr. 
Xylorycta luteotactella, Walk. 



THE VICTOKIAN NATUKALISX. 



205 



Tortricopsis euryphanella, Meyr. 
Zonopetala clerota, Walk. 
Heliocausta IriphiXinatella, Walk. 

euselnia, Aieyr. 

hemiteles, Meyr. (karvas) 
Eulechria brachypepla, Meyr. 

xyloplerella, Meyr. 
Philobota herodielia, Feld. 

pretiosella, Walk. 

interlineatella, Walk. 

hypocausla, Meyr. 
Ocystola paulinella, Newm. 
Coesyra parvula, Meyr. 
Xysmatodomaguildingi, Scott (larv;e) 
Lepidoscia arctiella, Walk, (larva;) 
Timsea bivittatella, Walk. 
Hypertropha tortriciformis, Gn. 

(JRTHOPTERA. 

Gryllus australasias, Leach. 
Opsomala sordida 
Gryllotalpa australis, Erich. 
Calolampra notabilis, Walk. 
Syntomaptera tepperi, Kirby 
Oniscosoma granicoUis, Sauss. 
Panesthia iKvicoUis, Sauss. 

Neuropteka. 
Lestes analis, Ramb. 
Plectotarsus giavenhorsti. 

DlPTERA. 

Asilus plicatus 
Dexia (Rutila) buscha ? 
regal is. 

Crustacea.— The beaches of clean white sand, with great 
masses of granite rocks at the bases of the cliffs, were not very 
favourable for collecting marine specimens. About a dozen 
species of marine crustaceans have been noted, and most of 
these, together with the land and freshwater forms, have been 
kindly identified for me by Mr. S. W. Fulton, whose notes are 
attached. The Common Crayfish, Palinuriis lalaadi, and a crab, 
Flatyonychus biqmstulatus, were hooked by some of our party 
while fishing off the rocks. In some instances only dead speci- 
mens could be found. 

During an afternoon spent wading in the Fraser Creek 
searching for small mollusca, &c., some specimens of a burrowing 
crab were taken. These are similar to one dug out of the bank of 
a creek near Shoreham by Mr. Fulton, and which he is so far 
unable to determine. It constructs its burrow in the bank, just 
above the water, the entrance being small, about an inch in 
diameter. The tunnel generally took a downward direction to 
below the level of the water, then inward and upward. 



Hymenoptera. 

Perga dorsalis, Leach 
Pterygophorus cinctas, Klug 
Myrmecia pyriformis 

sanguinea 
Formica coiisobrina 
Bembex furcata ? 
Rhagigaster unicolor 
Thynnus variabilis 

keviceps 

obscurus 
Alurus abdominalis 
Pimpla intricatoria ? 
Mesosternus albopictus. 

Hemiptera, 

Amorbus robiista 
Notius depressus 
Poecilometis strigatus 
Acatalectus, sp. ? 
Mictis profana, Fabr. 
Mononyx aiinulipes ? 

HOMOPPERA. 

Cyclochila australasire 
Cicada multifascia, Walk. 

aurata, Walk. 
Melampsalta eiicaustica, W'alk. 

mterrupta, Waik. 

denisoni, Dist. 
Stenocotis cortical is 
Preciloptera acuta 
Certorius australis, Fairm. 



206 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

Sometimes the hole followed upward and then inward, above 
the water, and in some instances travelled fully i8 inches, at the 
end of which the crab would be found. Their presence was 
usually indicated by a sharp nip on the finger, to which they 
generally adhered, and in this manner were drawn out of their 
holes. During this search a very interesting capture was made, 
in the shape of two very small, flat fresh-water crabs, measuring 
little more than ^-inch across the carapace. These Mr. Fulton 
identified as Hymenosoma lacustris, a species only previously 
taken at Norfolk Island, Lake Pupuke, Auckland, N.Z., and 
Lake Colac and Moorabool River, in Victoria. They were 
found among fine, very short weeds on the edge of a sandy patch, 
in perfectly fresh running water. A number of the curious 
Mangrove Crabs, Heloicius cordi/ormis, were taken at the inlet, 
while waiting for the tide to rise. It was a curious sight to see 
these creatures scurrying along sideways, with their two long 
arms extended in the air, and disappearing one after another into 
the nearest holes. 

I am indebted to Mr. S.W. Fulton for the determination of the 
following crustaceans : — 

Palinurus lalandi, Lanik. (Common Crayfish). 
Cryptodromia wilsoni, Fulton and Grant. 

Young male. — It differs somewhat from the type in that the two last pairs 
ot legs are bilaterally subequal and do not alternate, and the wrists 
are more nodose. 
Lomis hirta, Lamk. 

Very common on Victorian coast about low tide line. 
Paragrapsus quadiidentatus, M. Edw. 

Common on Victorian and Tasmanian coasts between tide lines, also in 
deeper water. 
Paragrapsus gaimardi, M. Edw. 
Common on Victorian coast. 
Platyonychus bipustulaius, M. Edw. 

Large swimming crab, fairly common in Port Phillip and Western Port, 
also New Zealand. 
Pilumnus, sp. ? Young male, allied to P. tomentosus, M. Edw. 
Pseudomiccippe varians, Miers. 

Fairly common m Port Phillip and Western Port. 
Mycteris platycheles, M. Edw. 

Common on Victorian coast. 
Helcecius cordiformis, M. Edw. 

Common on east coast of Australia in mangrove swamps. I have odd 
specimens from Port Phillip and Western Port. 
Paramithrax peronii, M. Edw. 
Ibacus peronii, Leach. 
Engffius cuniculatus ? Erich. Loc, Foster. 

This is allied to the form found at Warburton and specimens received 
from N.E. Tasmania. In the generic definition stress is laid on the 
length of the antenna\ In the above they reach to the cervical 
groove, while in the Tasmanian specimens the antenna.- reach to the 
base of the telson, and in Warburton form to the base of the second 
joint of the pleon. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 




rhvtu. by Q.li. JIACEV. 

Approach to National Park, showing Derby River Flats. 




riwUj. by G. R. MACliV. 



Bishop Rock (from the South-West). 

VIEWS IN NATIONAL PARK 



April, 1906. 




I'hulo. by G. ii. MAcliV. 



In the Grass-tkee Country. 











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Glimpse oi" Banksia Forest, 

WILSON'S PROMONTORY. 




THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 207 

Engjeus? A variety not yet determined. 

Genus. — The specimens taken from the banks of the Fraser Creek have 
not yet been described. I have one specimen, dug out of the bank of 
a creek between Shoreham and Flinders. 
Hymenosoma lacustris, Chilton. 

This is an interestins; lind. So far this fresh-water species has only been 
taken at Norfolk Island ; Lake Pupuke, Auckland, New Zealand ; 
and Lake Colac and the Moorabool River in Victoria. 

Examples of the well-known sand-hoppers (Amphipods), both 
marine and land forms, were collected, the latter being only 
found in a few isolated spots under logs. These have been 
kindly identified for me by Mr. O. A. Sayce, who writes : — 

" Those collected inland are identical with Talitrios sijlvaiicus, 
Hasvvell, common throughout the scrub lands of Victoria, and 
also in Tasmania and New South Wales. Those from the sea- 
shore are referable to Talorchestra pravidactyla, Haswell, so far 
only recorded from Tasmania, but I have specimens of it from ocean 
beaches in various parts of Victoria ; how i-'.x westward it reaches 
I am unable to say. It has not been found in New South Wales." 

The few earthworms taken prove to be indigenous species, 
but have not yet been determined. Land Planarians were very 
scarce, and only three species were taken — viz., Geoplana hoggi, 
&'. munda, and G. mediohneata. 

Among the marine invertebrates, apart from the Mollusca, 
which is being dealt with by Mr. G. B. Pritchard, there was little 
to be found. A few examples of Echinoderms were noted, such 
as Startish, one or two species of Sea-urchins, and some Holo- 
thurians, including a very large species, about 6 inches m length, 
which we frequently found imbedded in the sand at low tide. 
The few Bristle-worms seen were similar to those taken during 
the Shoreham excursion in March, 1902. 

CoNCHOLOGY. — By G. B. Pritchard, F.G.S. 

The first opportunity for collecting shells on the Wilson's 
Promontory trip was at the landing-place at the south-west corner 
of the Corner Basin, but as our arrival was timed for high tide, in 
order to get in as close 'as possible to the shore, the first outlook 
was rather unpromising. Shells appeared very scarce, and only 
a few were obtained, such as Anapella cuneata, Lamarck, Ghioiie 
strigosa, Lamarck, Ostrea ungasi, Sowerby, and Austrocochlea 
conslricta, Lamarck. Before leavmg, the tide began to fall very 
rapidly, owing to the general shallowness, and there were signs of 
improved prospects, but there was no time for further investi- 
gation, as the party was desirous of pushing on. However, on 
the return journey this locality was in the condition of extreme 
low tide, and vast expanses of sandy mud flats were exposed, and 
a good opportunity was thus obtained of noting the usual species. 



208 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



Along the shore margin, and for the most part inside the 
mangroves, numerous small pans occur where brackish water 
shells may be collected, amongst which may be mentioned — 
ibalmator JragiHs, Lamarck {Ampullar ina frai^ilis) ; SaliiuUor 
quoyana, Potiez and Michaud ; Assiminea brazieri, T. Woods ; 
Assiminea tasmanica, T. Woods ; and Ophicardelus, n. sp. 

On the sea side of the mangroves, such genera as Nassa, 
Natica, Thalotia, Columbella, Anapella, Alodiola, and Anatina 
may be found in almost any number. The species from this 
locality may be listed as follows : — 



Anatina tasmanica, Reeve 
Anapella cuneata, Lamarck 
Chione scalarina, Lamarck 

strigosa, Lamarck 
IModiola inconstans, Dunker 
Barnea aiistralasice, Sowerby 
Barbatia trapezia, Deshayes 
Pteria papilionacea, Lamarck 
Chlamys asperrimus, Lamarck 
Donax deltoides, Lamarck 
Lasasa rubra, Montagu 
Thalotia conica, Gray 
Risella melanostoma, Gmelin 
Natica plumbea, Lamarck 
Columbella lincolnensis, Reeve 

angasi, Brazier 
Lotorium subdistortum, Lamarck 
Sistrum adelaidense, Crosse 

Fischer 
Trophon paivre, Crosse 



and 



Nassa pauperata, Lamarck 

burchardi, Dunker 
Austrocochlea constricta, Lamarck 

striolata, Quoy and Gaimard 
Nerita nielanoiragus, E. A. Smith 
Diala lauta, A. Adams 
Bittium insculptum, .Sowerby 
Mangelia tasmanica, T. Woods 
Bulla australis. Gray 
Haminea brevis, Quoy and Gaimard 
Bulinella pygmiea, Adams 
Tornatina hofmani, Angas 
Cerithiopsis crocea, Angas 
Odostomia angasi, Tryou 
Clanculus undatus, Lamarck 
Voluta undulata, Lamarck 
Fasciolaria coronata, Lamarck 
Cominella lineolata, Lamarck 

costata, Quoy and Gaimard 
Turbo undulatus, Martyn 



£n route to the Derby River the swamps and soaks showed an 
abundance of Bulinvs tenuistriatus and Bulinus p7'oductus, and 
the coastal dunes showed quantities of dead shells of Succinea 
australis. Off tlie mouth of the Derby River the reefs of dune 
limestone, only exposed at low tide, showed Purpura succi7icta, 
Martyn, Turbo itndulatus, Martyn, Patella tramoserica, Martyn, 
and Mytilus rostratus, Dunker, very commonly ; also, Haliotis 
ncevosa, Martyn, Lotorium spengleri, Chemnitz, Patella limbata, 
Philippi, and Austrocochlea striolata, Quoy and Gaimard, of less 
frequent occurrence. 

The next locality to receive attention was Tongue Point, but 
the general ruggedness of the coast hereabouts did not render the 
ground a favourable one. A few of the ordmary rock-loving 
species were obtainable, such as — 



Patella limbata, Philippi 

tramoserica, Martyn 
Littorina mauritiana, Lamarck 
Acmcea septiformis, Quoy and Gai- 
mard 
Mytilus rostratus, Dunker 
Lasrea rubra, Montagu 



Modiola ater, Zelebor 

Nerita meianotragus, E. A. Smith 

Austrocochlea striolata, Quoy and 

Gaimard 
Sistrum adelaidense, Crosse and 

Fischer 
Purpura succincta, Martyn 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 209 

None of these being of special interest except Patella limbata, 
which has only been recorded previously for Victoria from Cape 
Otway, though this species is common enough along the north 
coast of Tasmania ; it was therefore of considerable interest to 
find it fairly plentiful along this part of our coast. 

Oberon Bay was our next collecting ground, and one which 
proved highly interesting from many points of view. Hemmed 
in on both sides by a rugged weather-worn granite coast, with a 
very heavy shingle and occasional rock-pools, there is opportunity 
here again of observing the ordinary rock-loving species, but in 
the pools at low tide there is ample opportunity for gathering a 
far richer fauna. The latter reminds one strongly of the reef- 
collecting at Shoreham, Western Port, and one of the most 
striking features even to casual observation is the enormous 
number of Chitons on almost every stone overturned, about 
three dozen to the stone being not infrequent. Then there is 
also the fine broad stretch of sandy beach at the head of the 
bay, and as the bay is very shallow for a long distance from the 
shore, low tide here, with a favourable wind off the land, enables 
one to see to perfection many of the sand-burrowing species in 
their natural surroundings. Meretrix paucilamellata, Dunker, 
is especially abundant at this locality, and Donax deltoides, 
Lamarck, Glycimeris radians, Lamarck, young shells of Natica 
conica, Lamarck, and N. incei, Philippi, Marginellas, and 
Bankivia fasciata, Menke, may also be conveniently studied. The 
beach at and above high tide was very disappointing, especially 
when one saw so much living material in the neighbourhood. 
This may, however, be accounted for by the fact that during the 
whole of our stay the wind was easterly, and a considerable 
amount of fine sand was being moved from the land seawards, 
and a good shelly beach could thus be made to appear very 
barren. It is not unlikely but that there are favourable times 
when this beach would be extremely profitable. 

From Oberon Bay we went across to Waterloo Bay, and it has 
been said that there is a striking contrast in the shells from these 
two localities. I cannot say that this struck me. In Waterloo 
Bay there is deeper water, and not the gentle shelving out so 
noticeable in Oberon Bay, and this would no doubt permit of the 
occurrence of a few species in the former not noticeable in the 
latter. The rock-loving species are identical in both, but I had 
no opportunity of examining any rock-pools on the Waterloo 
Bay side, while the sand-loving species were mainly identical, 
and no species were obtained which have not previously been 
abundantly taken at Anderson's Inlet, Western Port, or Port 
Phillip. In view of the fact that much stress has been laid on 
Wilson's Promontory forming |)art of an old Bassian isthmus, a 
comparative view of all the shells taken from either side will not 
be devoid of interest. 



210 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



Oberon Waterloo 

NAME. Bay. Bay. 

Purpura succincta, Martyn ... ... i ... 2 

Nerita melanotragus, E. A. Smith ... i ... 2 

Patella tramo.serica, Martyn ... ... i ... 2 

limbata, Philippi ... ... i ... — ., 

aculeata, Reeve... ... ... — ... 2 

Siphonaria diemenen.sis, (juoy and Gaimard i ... 2 

Scutus anatinus, Donovan ... ... i ... 2 

Haliotis nsevosa, Martyn ... ... i ... 2 

Austrocochlea striolata, Quoy and Gaimard i 2 

Australium aureum, Jonas ... ... i ... 2 

Hippony.x .australis, Lamarck ... ... — ... 2 

Lotorium spens^leri, Chenmitz ... ... i ... 2 

Voluta undulata, Lamarck ... ... — ... 2 .. 

fusiformis, Svvainson ... ... — ... 2 

Natica conica, Lamarck ... ... i ... 2 

incei, Philippi ... ... ... i ... — 

didyma, Chemnitz ... .. — ... 2 .. 

Calyptrsea calyptrseformis, Lamarck ... — ... 2 

Cassis py rum, Lamarck ... ... i ... 2 

semigranosa, Lamarck ... ... — ... 2 

Bankivia fasciata, Menke ... ... i ... 2 

Cypreea angustata, Gmelin ... ... i ... 2 

Clanculus undatu.s, Lamarck ... ... — ... 2 

plebeius, Philippi ... ... i .. — .. 

Nassa jacksoniana, Quoy and Gaimard ... — ... 2 

Marginella muscaria, Lamarck ... .. i ... 2 

tasmanica, T. Woods ... .. — ... 2 

Scalaria australis, Lamarck ... ... i ... 2 

Turritella gunni, Reeve ... ... — .. 2 

Minolia tasmanica, T. Woods . ... — .. 2 

Subemarginula rugosa, Quoy and Gaimard i ... 2 

Acmasa gealei, Angas ... ... ... i ... 2 

Sistrum adelaidense, Crosse and flscher ... i — .. 

Purpura tritoniformi.s, Blainville ... i ... — .. 

Diloma odontis. Wood ... ... i ... — . 

Mitra pica. Reeve ... ... ... i ... — •• 

Gena nigra, Quoy and Gaimard ... ... i ... — .. 

Conus anemone, Lamarck ... ... i ... — .. 

Siphonalia dilatata, Quoy and Gaimard ... i ... — .. 

Columbella nubeculata. Reeve ... ... i ... — . 

lineolata Tryon ... ... I ... — • 

Bittium granarium, Kiener i ... — . 

ceriihiuni, Quoy and Gaimard ... i ... — . 

Trophon brazieri, T. Woods ... .. i ... — . 

Calliostoma hedleyi, Pritchard and Gatliff i ... — 

Ischnochitou crispus. Reeve ... ... i ... — . 

australi.s, Sowerby ... ... i ... 2 

nova;-hollandiK, Reeve ... i .. — 

Plaxiphora petholata, Sowerby ... ... i ... 2 

Acanthochites, 2 unidentified species ... i ... — 

Emarginula Candida, Adams .. ... i ... — . 

Clancuhis aloysii, T. Woods ... ... — ... 2 



Other 
Occurrences. 



C. Otway 



General 

Port Phillip, 
Port Albert 

C.Schanck, Bar- 
won Heads 



Port PhiUip, 

Western Port 
W^estern Port 
Sorrento 
Port Phillip 



Western Port 
Western Port 
Port Phillip, 
Western Port 

San Remo 

Lome 
Port Phillip 



Port Phillip 
Western Port 
General 
Western Port 
Western Port 
General 
Port Phillip 
Portland, West- 
ern Port 
Port Phillip 
General 
General 
Western Port 
Western Port 
General 



General 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



211 



NAME. 

Cancellaria Irevigata, Sowerby ... 
Murex trifomiis, Reeve 
Fasciolaria coionata, Lamarck ... 
Fusus novre-hollandire, Reeve ... 
Clanculus flagellatus, Philippi ... 
Mytilus rostratus, Menke 
Modiola albicosta, Lamarck 

ater, Zelebor 
Donax deltoides, Lamarck 

Meretrix paucilamellata, Dunker 

kingii, Gray 

plaiiatella, Lamarck 
Mactra poliia, Chemnitz 

rufescens, Lamarck 
RIesodesma elongata, Ueshayes ... 
Glvcimeris radians, Lamarck 

flabellatus, T. Woods 
Barbatia fasciata, Reeve 
Chione cHsjecta, Perry ... 

gallinula, Lamarck 

placid 1, Philippi 
Solen vaginoides, Lamarck 
Corbula scaphoides, Hinds 
Myodora brevis, Sowerby 

ovata, Reeve 
Myochama anomoides, Stutchbury 
Anatina creccina, Reeve 
Gari zonalis. Lamarck ... 
Dosinia ccerulKa, Reeve 
Cardium pulchellum, Gray 

tenuicostatum, Lamarck ... 
Lucina hutloniana; Vanatta 
Crassatellites kingicola, Lamarck 
Trigonia margantacea, Lamarck 
jNIodiolaria barbata, Reeve 
Pecten medius, Lamarck 
Chlamys asperrimus, Lamarck ... 
Ostrea angasi, Sowerby 
Tellina albinella, Lamarck 

deltoidalis, Lamarck 
Area trapezia, Deshayes 

Totals ... 57 64 

The above list shows a total of 94 species, 57 being obtained 
from Oberon Bay and 64 from Waterloo Bay, of which 28 are 
common to both. A general perusal of the list will show that the 
whole of the species belong to the Southern Australian region, 
and as far as the present evidence goes I fail to appreciate any 
perceptible influence from the Bassian isthmus. A glance at 
the list of species obtained from the Corner Basin also fails to 
show any indication of Eastern Australian influence. If the 
continuation of the land from Wilson's Promontory to Tasmania 



Oberon 


Waterloo 


Other 


Bay. 


Bay. 


Occurrences. 


I 
I 

J 


.. — .'.' 


|- Tidal River Bay 




2 ... 


Western Port 


I . 
I 


.. 2 ... 


Western Port 





Tidal River Bay 


I . 


.. 2 




I 


. — ... 


C. Bridgewater, 


I 




Anderson's Inlet 


.. 2 ... 


Port Phillip 


. — . 


.. 2 


San Remo 


I 


.. — ... 


Gellibrand Coast 


I 
I 


2 


Tidal River Bay 


I . 


. 2 




, — . 


2 


Portland 


— .. 


2 ... 


General 


. — ., 


.. 2 ... 


Port Phillip 


■ 


2 


Western Port, 
Otway 


— .. 


.. 2 ... 


Western Port 


— .. 


,. 2 ... 


Port Phillip 


— .. 


. 2 ... 


Western Port 


— ., 


.. 2 ... 


Port Phillip 


— .. 


2 


Port Phillip 


— .. 


. 2 




— .. 


. 2 ... 


Port Phillip 


1 


. — ... 


Western Port 


I 


2 


Tidal River Bay 


— .. 


. 2 ... 


Port Phillip 


— .. 


. 2 ... 


General 


— .. 


. 2 ... 


Western Port 


— .. 


2 


Anderson's Inlet 


— - .. 


. 2 ... 


Western Port 


I 


. — ... 


San Remo 


— .. 


. 2 ... 


General 


^ 


. 2 ... 


General 




. 2 ... 


Western Port 


I 


. — ... 


General 


I 


. — ... 


Genera] 



212 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

ever formed an effective barrier to the blending of eastern and 
soutliern moUuscan forms, the magnitude of the time which has 
elapsed since that barrier was broken down must be duly- 
considered. In this respect evidence of the influence of such a 
barrier miglit perhaps be better sought for in Marine Pleistocene 
or Pliocene deposits of Victoria, Tasmania, and New South 
Wales. Unfortunately we lack the latter, except perhaps in 
Victoria, but no attention at all has been paid to the former from 
this point of view. 

In the neighbourhood of our Oberon Bay camp a few fresh- 
water and terrestrial moUusca were collected, including Uviio novce- 
hollandice and a species of Pomatopyrgus, Laoma pictilis, and a 
small Endodonta. 

Botany.— By A. D. Hardy, F.L.S. 

The vegetation of the National Park, in which for the purpose 
of this report is included the half-mile strip of temporary reserve 
along the coast, is not, from a general point of view, of economic 
importance. The timber, except at Sealers' Cove on the east 
coast, is not of commercial value, while there is not a sufficient 
quantity of grazing land within practicable distance of settlement 
to make the grass of value, except perhaps to an adjacent " run." 
Nevertheless the Park vegetation should admirably serve the 
purpose which the Club has in view, provided it is guarded 
against fire. It will afford shelter and sustenance to such of our 
animals and birds peculiar to Australia as it may be desirable to 
protect and allow to increase. 

Roughly divided with respect to the flora, several classes of 
country exist in the Park. The granite ridges are almost nude 
and barren. A few stunted gums, Eucalyptus amygdalina and 
E. ohliqua, are dotted here and there, and a few scrubby plants 
o{ Hakea nodosa and Acacia myrtifolia are found growing close 
up to the precipitous parts ; just the kind of places in which one 
would look for lizards and " Parsley-fern," Cheilanthes tenuifolia, 
of which latter, however, we did not collect a specimen. 

Of hilly, timbered country, parts of the Leonard and Latrobe 
Ranges are types. Here the eucalyptus trees of the species just 
mentioned, together with some Blue Gums, E. globulus, grow 
plentifully, but to no great height or girth. In such country there 
is not so much shrubby undergrowth as is found on similar soils 
of other parts of the State, but herbaceous plants are fairly 
numerous in some and plentiful in other parts of it. 

On granite sand derived from the mountain rocks hard by, and 
also on dune sand, grow the so-called " honeysuckles,'"' Banksia 
marginata, B. serrata, and B. integrifolia, and, at somewhat 
higher elevations, B. collina. On the low, sandy undulations 
fine groves of Banksia mingle with the larger Grass-tree, Xanthor- 



THE VICTOKIAN NATURALIST. 213 

rhcea australis, but in parts, especially on some patches of 
almost flat ground, the Banksias have a monopoly, and in the 
distance bear a striking resemblance to orchards of old apple 
trees. The Grass-trees, in turn, grow luxuriantly either among 
the Banksias and small eucalypts, or appear as the giants of a 
forest in which dwarf plants of a " heathy " nature form the 
undergrowth. Some specimens of Grass-tree measured gave 
14 feet to the top of the flower-spike. 

It is not so easy to describe a class of country by means of the 
" sheoaks," as Casiiarina qtmdrivalvis, at least, shows here 
marked adaptability. It may be found on the low, well-grassed 
sand ridges, sheltered behind the higher sand hummocks of 
Oberon Bay, on the steep sides of high hummocks near the Derby 
River, and on the wind-swept rocky seaward face of the Promon- 
tory's western hills. On these steep and exposed hillsides there are 
groves of this Casuarina extending over acres of ground, the trees 
so close as to give continuous shade to the pedestrian, who may 
walk with noiseless tread over a brown carpet of the dead and 
matted filiform branchlets which have fallen and accumulated 
through many years. The Erect Sheoak, C. suherosa, was much 
scarcer than either C. q^iadrivalvis or C. dislyla. 

The last-mentioned species we found to be typical of another 
sort of country differing widely from those previously mentioned, 
and from its associations reminding one of the flora at Sandringham. 
There are, however, some diflerences, the principal being the 
greater elevation of the Promontory heath-lands, and with that 
elevation a loss of the "tea-trees" — Leplos2)ermum Icevigafi'm, 
L. scoparium, L. myrsinoides, Ricinocarpus pinifolnis, &c., and 
the substitution of Platylohktni triangulare for the commoner P. 
oblusanyulum, the former having been thought by Baron von 
Mueller to have come across from Tasmania. But the associa- 
tion of the Casuarina named with stunted Banksia marginatcu 
Isopogon ceratophylhis, Epacris impressa (red and white), 
Styphelia, virgata, Hibbertia, sp., Candollea serridata, Gorrea 
speciosa, the " Native Fuchsia," the orchid Glossodia major, 
and, omitting many others, the Bluebell, Wahlenbergia gracilis, 
warrants the application of the term " Sandringham flora " 
to the heath-loving group here as well as in the Otway 
Ranges and parts of the Yarra valley, &c., and so enable 
the student to recall a type of vegetation to be seen close 
to Melbourne. This Sandringham flora may be found in several 
parts of the Park, notably between the Derby and Tidal Rivers 
along the old telegraph route, and on the seaward slopes, where 
the sand hummocks have piled high over granitic rocks. 

There are left the inland tea-tree thickets, marsh lands, grass 
land, river belts, and shore and gully vegetation. The tea-tree 
thickets, comprising chiefly Leptospermiun lanigerum, L. sco- 



214 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

parium, Melaleuca ericifolia, M. squarrosa, &c., occupy portions 
of the water spaces, and extend far over the dry land, which, 
though dry in summer season, is subject to inundation. In 
places it is dense and continuous, but in others it is broken 
up into patches, some of which are circular in outline, the 
spaces between being occupied by lowly semi-aquatic plants. 
Deeper in the marshes the fringing tea-tree gives way to tall, 
close-growing plants of grass-like aspect, and some of which have, 
by the end of the year, become topped with rich brown flowerings 
or fruits. In this group we most frequently found Schos'ims 
brevifoliiis, Restio tetraphyllus, Leptocmyus brownii, Lepidos- 
permum exaltatum, Lepidosperma coacavum, Gahnia trijida, 
with the Swamp-oak, Viminaria denudata, &c., while here and 
there a small swamp eucalyptus broke the monotony of what, as 
a bird's-eye view, might seem like a plain of waving Prairie-grass. 
The tea-tree which persists in these marsh lands, while not exceed- 
ing the surrounding plants in height, is Melaleiica squarrosa. In 
the case of the Oberon Valley morass the marsh land reaches the 
foot of the eucalyptus-clad foothills of the higher ridge, where it 
is fringed with a narrow belt of Grass-tree. 

Out of these morasses, in which the courses of the streams are 
often difficult of definition, the rivers and creeks meander to the 
sea. Where the streams deepen and get clear of the swamps the 
usual river vegetation asserts itself, and we find Limnanthemuni 
exaltahitn, Typha angustifolia, 7'rifflochin procera, Ileleocharis 
sphacelata, Arundo jihragmites, &c., &:c. 

On the banks of the Derby River I adigqfera australis, 
which is common on sandy soil throughout the Park, creeps 
down from the sand hummocks and mingles with the plants 
which grow up from the water, accompanied by the pest Accena 
sanguisorbce. A little further from the water's edge, and 
sheltering among the Leptospermum scrub, the Native Cherry, 
Exocarpus sti'ieta, grows plentifully, and at Christmas was laden 
with its singular so-called fruit. 

The coastal vegetation is much the same as in other parts of 
of south-eastern Australia. There are the salsolaceous pioneers 
of the sand hummocks, seedlings of which were taken from below 
high tide mark, the grass, Spinifex hii-snta, backed up by the 
scrubby and robust Gorrea alba, Styjihelia richea, and Leptos- 
permum kevigahiin. The Styphelia was bearing the small, white, 
sweet, succulent berries, from which it is often called the 
" Native Currant." \Vhere mud flats take the place of sandy 
beaches, however, the Spurious Mangrove, Avicennia officvaalis, 
grows freely in low, squat bushes fringing the sea, in the water, or 
left nearly high and dry as the tides rise and fall. This plant fruits 
at Christmas time, the fruit being yellow, of about the size of 
almonds. An interesting feature in connection with the Spurious 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 215 

Mangrove, and one possessed by mud-loving plants of other 
countries, such as Sonneratia, sp., and La<jiincularia racemosa, 
&c,, is the thrusting up through the mud of what appear to be 
at first sight, so many small dead stems of seedlings. These are 
the pneumataphores, or organs by which the plant obtains 
oxygen for its roots, which would otherwise be asphyxiated in 
the dense, evil-smelling mud. 

Of grass land there is in all about 2,000 acres worthy of the 
name, distributed in isolated parts. One area is at the Derby 
River, and another in the valley between the Oberon and Norgate 
Ranges, and stretching miles inland easterly from Oberon Bay. 
This division of the vegetation consists principally of Garex 
ccespitosa, C. pseitdocyperus, and the true grasses Aloj^ecurus 
prateusis, Festuca hookeriana, and Poa ccespiiosa 

The gully vegetation is poor both in quality and quantity, and 
particularly noticeable is the numerical poverty of ferns. The 
botanical section made a special effort to find something of the 
typical Dandenong, Otway, or Black Spur valley shrubberies, but 
without success. With the exception of Roaring Meg Creek and 
a few other small streams in the south the ferny and thickly- 
shrubbed watercourses and valleys appear to be confined to the 
sheltered east coast. There is a too abrupt transition from the 
small stream, dashing down amongst granite boulders on the 
steep hillsides, to the quiet tea-tree swamp and sedgy morass, 
to allow of the growths we sought, the lack of humus on the 
higher parts being very evident. Where tree-ferns did appear it 
seemed that in most cases the Hill Tree-fern, Alsophila australis, 
grew at the creeks, often to the exclusion of Dicksonia hillardieri, 
but not on the slopes ; though on several of the creeks the King- 
fern, Osinuiida barbara, exercised a monopoly as regards large 
ferns. 

In the fioral colouring of the landscape at Christmas the 
innumerable tints of the foliage of tea-tree, banksia, eucalyptus, 
and casuarina ranged from dark green to golden yellow, but of 
flowers the predominating colours were blues and yellows, reds, 
purples, and whites being rarer. On granite-sandy soil of the 
slopes at the foot of Mt. Vereker, at south corner of Corner Basin, 
and elsewhere, fine waves of blue are given to the landscape by 
beds of the purple orchid Glossodia rfiajor, the Blue-bell, Wahhn- 
bergia gracilis, and the blue pin-cushion, Brwwnia cmstralii, 
sometimes intermingled, but often each species forming individual 
patches. Of this latter exclusive habit two species of Lobelia 
were conspicuous— the tall, pale blue L. rhombijolia, and the 
shorter and dark blue L. simplicicaulis. L. anc^ps flowered well, 
but in proportionately small quantity. 

Of yellow flowers the genus Helichrysum presented most 
species, several kinds of " everlastings " being common. Two 



216 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

very conspicuous yellow blooms were those of swamp plants, the 
shrubby " Golden Spray," Viminaria deniidata, forming belts 
along parts of many creeks, and mingling with other marsh 
plants, while the herbaceous Limnwuthemum exaltatinn, the so- 
called Yellow Swamp-Lily (N.O. Gentianeas) was seen here at its 
best, acres of shallow swamp being filled almost exclusively with 
it, but with here and there a purplish Pattersonia longiscapa 
giving a dash of complementary colour. 

It would be hard to find a prettier floral scene than that 
presented by a dark-green bank of tea-tree, and from it, reaching 
to our feet, a terraced series formed by, first, the tall, graceful 
" Golden Spray," next, the shorter white-flowering Veronica 
derwentia, and for a foreground the grass flecked with large 
golden everlastings and the purple blooms of Indigofera avstral.is 
or Hovea heterojiliijlla. 

White-rayed blooms of Helichrysum Uucojjsi'lium dotted the 
slopes, and the Wiiite Iris, DijAarrhena morcea, grew well, 
not only on the moist lowlands near the southern shores of 
Corner Basin and in sheltered lower valleys, but also ascended a 
considerable distance up the drier slopes. These, with the 
Veronica already mentioned, Epacris imjirensa, E. ohiiisi/olia, and 
Kunzea corijolia, were the only white or almost white flowers 
worth mentioning. 

In the deeper marshes the prevailing green of other seasons is 
at Christmas relieved by the rich brown flowers or fruits of various 
" sedges " and grass-like plants, flecked here and there with the 
rich yellow of Viminaria denudata, the creamy flowers of 
Melaleuca squarrosa, the swamp "bottle-brush," having appeared 
earlier. 

It will be seen on reference to the list which follows that, as 
might have been expected, the order Compositse is more strongly 
represented than any other, twenty species of composite plants 
being noted ; of ferns, fourteen species are recorded ; while 
Leguminoss has thirteen species, representing twelve genera. 
Four genera of Myrtacese present eleven species in all ; and, as 
the proportion of species to an order diminishes, we reach a 
group of orders — Orchide^e, Gramineae, and Cyperacese — each 
with seven species, but with varying numbers of genera. 
Epacridae and Liliacec'e give equal results — six species each. 
There were five species of campanulate plants, while two 
Buttercups and two Clematis made a total of four species for the 
Ranunculaceae, Equal in having only three species noted are 
the following seven orders : — Casuarinese, Salsolaceae, CandoUea- 
cese, Irideae, Scrophularineas, Labiatae, and Fluviales. Twelve 
orders were represented by only two species each, while twenty- 
seven orders presented only a single genus each with only one 
species. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 217 



The last-mentioned group embraces a number of widely 
different plants, which range from timber trees, such as the 
Native Beech or Myrtle, Fagus cunninghami, down through the 
Native Mulberry, Hedycarya ctmninghami, to herbs such as the 
Native Nettle, Urtica incisa, the fleshy-leaved " Pig-face," 
Mesemhrianthenmm ceqidlaterale, the Swamp " Lily," Limnati- 
thcmum exaltatum, the Pond Weed, Myriophyllum varii/olium, 
with the " Liver-wort," Marchaatia polyraorplia — sole representa- 
tive of the Hepaticae. 

Of the total, 57 orders, embracing 119 genera and 182 species, 
no species, as far as I am aware, is restricted to this region, but 
some are becoming more scarce yearly throughout the State, 
and might well be preserved and increased by the planting, 
where practicable, of specimens from other parts of the State. 

In the search for plants I was given much assistance by Mrs. 
Hardy, and in the identification of many of the specimens 
obtained I was glad to consult Mr. Charles Walter, whose 
acquaintance with the Promontory flora occurred in a way worth 
relating. In 1873, when the late Mr. Ernest Giles was preparing 
for one of his exploring expeditions in Central Australia, the late 
Baron von Mueller was asked to take in hand, for training, the 
botanical member of the projected party, the trainee being Mr. 
W, H. Tietkens. With this object in view the Baron, Mr. Walter, 
and Mr. Tietkens travelled by boat to the Wilson's Promontory 
Lighthouse, and, landing there, struck northerly, crossing the 
ranges into the Oberon-Norgate Valley, and penetrated as far as 
the Tidal River. Thus the expedition, which was primarily 
intended to train a collector for a more extensive trip, helped 
considerably the regional distribution records. Those records, 
however, were for regions of too great extent and of too indefinite 
boundary to be precise, and the value of this excursion's work 
lies in marking off a subdivision of definite extent. 

Systematic List of Plants Collected or Seen. 
(* = bloom, = fruit, -|- =many seen, - =fe\v seen.) 



Ranunculacea^ — 

Clemaiis aristata, R. Brown 
o-C. microphylla, Candolle 
o - Ranunculus aquatilis, Dodoens 

- R. rivularis. Banks and Solander 
Dilleniacea; — 

*Hibbertia striata, R. Br. 
*-l-H. acicularis, F. v. Mueller 

Monimiere — 

Hedycarya cunninghami, Labil- 
lardiere 

Violacese — 

- Viola hederacere, Lab, 

- V. betonicifolia, Smith 



Polygaleffi — 

* - Comesperma volubile, Lab. 
*-l-C. ericinum, Cand. 

TremandrcK — 
*— l~etratlieca ciliata, Lindley 
*-f T. ericinum, Smith 
Rutacece — 

•Correa speciosa, Andrews 
Linear — 

Linum marginale, Cunningham 
Geraniacea; — 

Erodium cygnorum, Nees 

* + Pelargonium australe, Wilidenow 
.Sterculiacete — 

Thomasia petalocalyx, F. v. M. 



218 



THK VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



Euphorbiaceje — 

* + Amperea spartioides, Brongniart 
UiticaccK — 

- Urtica incisa, Poiret 
Cupuliferae — 

Fagus cunninghami, Hooker 
Casuarinere— 
o + Casuarina quadrivalvis, Lab. 
o - C. suberosa, Otto and Dietrich 
*o + C. distyla, Ventenat 
Stackhousiete — 

* + Stackhousia linarifolia, Cunn. 
Salsolaceae — 

Rhagodia billardieri, R. Br. 
Suaeda maritima, Dumortier 
Atriplex (?) 
Ficoideae — 

* + Mesembrianthemumaquilaterale, 

Haworth 
PolygonacetE — 

* - Polygonum minus, Hudson 
*Muehlenbeckiaadpressa,Meissner 

Leguminosa; — 

* + Gompholobium minus, Sm. 

*G. huegelii, Bentham 

* + Viminaria denudata, Sm. 

- Pultentea daphnoides, Wendland 
Dillwynia ericifolia, Sm. 

*+ Platylobium triangulare, R. Br. 

- Goodia lotifolia, Salisbury 
Lotus australis, And. 

*o + Indigofera australis, VVilld. 
*Swainsonia lessertifoiia, Cand. 

* - Kennedya prostrata, R. Br. 

Acacia myrtifolia. Willd. 
A. verticillata, Willd. 

- A. melanoxylon, R. Br. 
Rosacese — 

o + Ac?ena sanguisorba?, Vahl 
Saxifrages; — 

* + Bauera rubioides, And. 
Crassulaceje — 

TilJ?ea recurva, J. Hooker 
Onagrese — 

Epilobium tetragonum, Linne. 
HalorageiT- — [Hook. 

*- Myriophyllum variifoliuni, J. 
Myrtacese — 

0+ Leptospermum lanigerum, Sm. 

o+L. scoparium, R. and G. Forster 

o+L. myrsinoides, Schlechtendal 

o-f-L. iKvigatum, F. v. M. 

*Kunzea penduncuiaris. F. v. M. 
't'+K. corifolia, Reichenbach 

0+ Melaleuca squarrosa, Donn 

o + M. ericifolia, Sm. 

o+ Eucalyptus amygdaliiia. Lab. 

o + E. obliqua, I'Heritier 



Myrtaceos — 
o + E. globulus. Lab. 
E. gunnii, J. Hook. 
Rhamnacex- — 

— Pomaderris apetala, Lab. 

* + Cryptandra hookeri, F. v. M. 
Umbellifera; — 

- Hydrocotyle, sp. (?) 

* - Apium prostratum, Lab. 
Santalacea.' — ■ 

oExocarpus stricta, R. Br. 
Proteaceae — 

o - Hakea nodosa, R. Br. 
o-H. sp. (?) 

0+ Banksia serrata, Linne fil. 
o + B. collina, R. Br. 
o + B. integrifolia, L. fil. 
OtB. marginata, Cavanilles 
Compositae — 

*Aster huegelii 

*A. myrsinoides, Lab. 

*A. ramulosus, Lab. 

* + A. argophyllus, Lab. 

*Gnaphaliumjaponicum,Thunberg 
*Podolepis acuminata, R. Br. 
*Leptorrhynchos tenuifolius, F. 
V. M. 

* + Helichrysum apiculatum, Cand. 

* + H. leucopsidium, Cand. 

* - H. lucidum, Henckel 

* + H. scorpioides. Lab. 

* - H. ferragineum, Lessing 

* - Cassinia aculeata, R. Br. 

*Cotula coronopifolia, Linne 
*- Senecio velleyoides, Cunn. 

* - S. dryadeus, Sieber. 

* - .S. odoratus, Hornemann 
*-S. bedfordii, F. v. AI. 

* - S. lautus, Solander 

*Calocephalus fastigiatus 
Campanulacere — 

* — Lobelia anceps, Thunb. 

* + L. simplicicaulis, R. Br. 

* + L. rhombifolia, Ue Vriese 

* + Isotoma fluviatilis, F. v. M. 

* + \Vahlenbergia gracilis, Cand. 
Candolleace?e — 

* + Brunonia australis, Sm. 

* - Dampiera stricta, R. l!r. 

Scavreola aemula, R. Br. 
Goodeniacere — 

*Goodenia ovata, Sm. 
Gentianeffi — [v. M. 

* I- Limnanthemum exaltatum, F. 
PlantagincK— 

*Plantago varia, R. Br. 
Primulacece — 

Samolus repens, Persoon 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



219 



Apocynetc — 

Alyxia huxifolia, R. Br. 

Lyonsia straminea, R. Br. 
SolanaceK — 
- Solanum vescum, F. v. M. 

(?) aviculare, G. Forster 
Scrophularinere — 

Mimulus repens, R. Br. 

* + Veronica derwentia, Littlejohn 

* 4- Euphrasia brownii, F. v. M. 
Lentibularinas — 

* — Utricularia dichotoma, Lab. 
Labiatae — 

* - Brunella vulgaris, Lin. 

* - Prostanthera lasiantha, Lab. 

* - Mentha auslralis, R. Br. 
VerbeniaceEe — 

oAvicennia officinaHs, Lin. 
Myoporinse — 

* - Myoporum viscosum, R. Br. 
Epacridese — 

o + Styphelia humifusa, Pers. 
O + S. richea, Lab. 

- S. virgata, Lab. 

* + Epacris impressa, Lab. 

* + E. obtusifoUa, Sm. 

*.SprengeHa incarnata, .Sm. 
Orchidece — 
— Thelymitra aristata, Lindley 
o- P. longifoba, R. and G. F. 

* + Prasophyllum fuscum, R. Br. 

* + P. patens, k. Br. 

* + Microtis porrifolia R. Br. 

o - Dipodium punctatum, R. Br. 

* + Glossodia major, R. Br. 
Irideae — 

* + Diplarrhena moraja. Lab. 

Pattersonia glauca, R Br. 

* + P. longiscapa, Sweet 
Liliacese — 

*Dianella revoluta, R. Br. 

* - Burchardia umbellata, R. Br. 
o + Xerotes longifolia, R. Br. 

o + X. thunbergii, F. v. M. 
o + Xanthorrhoea australis, R. Br. 
o - X. minor, R. Br. 
Typhacese — 

- Typha angustifolius, Lin. 



Lemnacece — 

- Lemna minor, Lin. 
Fluviales — 

- Triglochin procera, R. Br. 
+ T. striata, Ruiz and Pa von 

- Potamogeton natans, Lin. 
Cyperacere — 

- Cyperus lucidus, R. Br. 

* - Heleocharis sphacelata, R. Br. 
+ Scirpus nodosus, Rottboell 
+ Schoenus brevifolius, R. Br. 
+ Lepidosperma concavum, R. Br. 
+ L. exaltatum, R. Br. 
+ Cladium glomeratum, R. Br. 
o + Carex pseudo-cyperus, Lin. 
o + C?espitosa 
Juncacea;— 

+ Juncus communis, E. Meyer 
+ J. pauciflorus, R. Br. 
Restiacece — 

+ Restio tetraphyllus, Lab. 
+ Leptocarpus brownii, J. Hook. 
Graminea; — 

- Anthistiria ciliata, Lin. fil. 

- Spinifex hirsutus, Lab. 
+ Poa ccespitosa, G. F. 

- Ehrharta stipioides. Lab. 

+ Festuca hookeriana, F. v. M. 

- Arundo phragmites, Dod. 
+ Alopecurus pratensis (?) 

Lycopodinea; — 

- Selaginella uliginosa, Sprengel 
Filices — ■ 

o - Gleichenia circinata, Swartz 

- G. flabeliata, R. Br. 
o + G. dicarpa, R. Br. 
o+Osmunda barbara, Thunb. 
o - Alsophila australis. R. Br. 

o - Dicksonia billardieri, F. v. M. 
o - Davallia dubia, R. Br. 
- Lindsaya linearis, Swartz 
- Adiantum aethiopicum, Lin. 
+ Pteris aquilina, Lin. 

- P. incisa, Thunb. 

- Lomaria lanceolata, Spr. 
+ L. discolor, Willd. 

- L. capensis, Willd. 
Hepaticeoe — 

o - Marchantia polymorpha 



Geological Notes. — By G. B. Pritchard, F.G.S. 

Granite. — In dealing with the geology of Wilson's Promontory 
one cannot do better, in the first place, than make a few remarks 
on the most extensively developed rock of the district. The 
granite is in the main composed of the three typical minerals 
quartz, orthoclase, and mica, but in parts other minerals make 



220 THK VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

their appearance, and the most striking feature about the rock is 
the uniformity of its coarseness over such a large area. At the 
landing place in the south-west corner of the Corner Basin, where 
the rock could be first examined, one was struck by the large 
felspar crystals, but afterwards similar rock was met everywhere 
with much larger crystals, and is reported similar right down to 
the Lighthouse, so that it soon lost its novelty in its commonness. 
Fine-grained rock is comparatively scarce, and is consequently 
usually interesting where it occurs. On the south side of Oberon 
Bay there is a fairly large outcrop of fine-textured aplitic-looking 
rock, the relations of which to the coarser-grained granite are by 
no means clear, but it appears to be a later intrusion. A similar 
feature at the Lighthouse is also recorded by R. A. F. Murray, in 
his report on South-Western Gippsland, in the following words : — 
" The Lighthouse at the end of the Promontory is built of a very 
finegrained grey granite, occurring on the spot in the form of a 
thick band between that of a coarse description." Along the 
shore at Oberon Bay this rock on weathering is slightly iron- 
stained, and shows some remarkably regular rings, which at first 
sight appeared artificial, but which are really a type of spheroidal 
weathering. Again, some peculiar holes in the rock appeared 
quite as if they had been drilled, but further investigation showed 
that there are occasional large felspar crystal inclusions, the 
decomposition and disintegration of which leaves the hole in 
question. 

In the coarser rock quartz-veins occur occasionally, and in 
some cases good specimens of black tourmaline are obtained in 
the vein quartz, but this mineral is not restricted to the quartz, 
but is common in the granite in parts, as at the Bad Saddle and 
Mt. Norgate. The tourmaline is mostly schorlaceous, but some 
fair prismatic crystallizations were also procured. In some places 
associated with the tourmaline occurrence Cassiterite makes its 
appearance, and one prospector's locality was pointed out to us 
on the way to Waterloo Bay, but no examples of this mineral 
were obtained by us. 

The coarse-grained granite has, of course, suffered very much 
from weathering, and some splendid tors may be seen on any of 
the hills and mounts, and at every point where the granite 
projects into the sea enormous rounded masses may be seen, 
which look rather like tors let down to sea-level than examples of 
marine erosion. Some magnificent examples of weathering occur 
on the hills south of Oberon Bay — great masses of rock, closely 
studded all over with large felspar crystals in relief. The felspar 
appears to answer in all respects to orthoclase, and every crystal 
appears to be twinned on the Carlsbad type, sometimes simply 
two crystals, but occasionally rosettes of six or eight crystals 
blended together. The crystals are a combination of the oblique 



THE VICTOIUAN NATUKALIST. 221 

rhombic j)rism witli orthopinacoid, clinopinacoid, ortliodome, 
and basal planes, and their habit is a broad development parallel 
to the clinopinacoid, and rather narrow parallel to the 
orthopinacoid. The largest crystal measured in situ was 4 inches 
in length, but 2 5^ to 3 inches was more about the average size of 
the large crystals. Another very remarkable example of rock 
weathering is shown in this same locality, where the rock appears 
at first sight like a heavy conglomerate, with large pebbles sticking 
out of it, owing to the removal of the matrix. The rock is not so 
coarse as that just mentioned above, but when in its original 
molten state it included masses of other material of apparently a 
more basic character, and these are the rounded and irregularly 
disposed, fine-grained, dark-greyish lumps that appear like 
pebbles, owing to the faster weathering of the granitic matrix. 

Both black and white micas, apparently Biotite and Muscovite, 
are abundantly distributed through the rock, but none was seen of 
any size. 

To the south of Oberon Bay, the medium-grained granite was 
also garnetiferous, the species represented being Almandite. 
Washings from granitic detritus at Yanakie landing are recorded 
to have yielded zircons, sapphires, and topaz, but we did not 
procure any along our route. Most of the exposed hills and 
points jutting into the sea appear pretty bare of vegetation until 
one tries to climb up ; then they are covered with a mass of 
matted vegetation which it is easier to walk over than to force a 
passage through, as the various plants are beaten down flat by the 
strong winds. Where the granite is usually bare of vegetation is 
only on the steepest and most inaccessible slopes, and on the 
tors, but even the latter show evidence in places of the inroads 
caused by plant growth. On other parts the granite carries 
heavy timber, and in places much undergrowth. In some of the 
valleys there is good drainage, and splendid water runs down to 
the sea at frequent intervals ; but in some there is no longer fall 
for the water to get away, and the development of swamps and 
morasses is a consequence, as up the Tidal River, and on the 
way to Waterloo Bay, and other places. These deposits can 
only be regarded as a recent development from the granitic 
detritus. 

Silurian. — There is none of this rock on the lower part of the 
promontory itself, but around Foster it is frequent enough, and 
extends over to the northern slopes of the Hoddle range. A 
junction of this rock with the granitic rock of the Promontory is 
recorded on the Corner Basin coast, near Yanakie, which shows 
the granite to be of younger age than the Silurian. 

At Foster the rocks are mudstones, shales, and sandstones, 
very similar in lithological character to the rocks round Mel- 
bourne, such as at Diamond Creek. From the mullock heap of 
the mine at Foster a hard, close-grained, yellowish-grey rock con- 



222 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



taining small cubic crystals of pyrite may be noted as probably a 
dykestone of some kind, but none of this material was visible in 
situ. Turton's Creek is, I believe, about the nearest locality 
from which Silurian fossils have been obtained to fix the horizon 
of these beds. 

Tertiary. — In the neighbourhood of Foster there is a fairly 
heavy white quartz gravel and conglomerate, as at New Zealand 
Hill, Kaffir Hill, and Cement Hill, which is characterized by 
being almost entirely siliceous, even to the finer material holding 
the coarser together. Towards the base of this deposit there is a 
considerable amount of drift lignite, but no identifiable plants or 
fruits were collected. This deposit is also auriferous, and was 
considerably worked at one time as the Stockyard Creek diggings. 
Mr. R. A. F. Murray, in his report, refers to the deposit as Older 
Pliocene, but there is no conclusive evidence as to the correct 
horizon for these deposits. 

Pleistocene. — The older dune limestone forming the base of 
the present dunes along the coast northwards from the mouth of 
the Derby River, may best be referred to under this head. On 
the Admiralty chart, opposite Shellback Island and on the main- 
land, a note may be read — " Low red cliffs," which evidently 
refers to the dune-rock, and one can only conclude that this 
deposit must have been casually examined from the sea, whence 
in certain lighting this view might hold. Everyone is, however, 
now pretty familiar with the fawn or yellowish appearance of 
these rocks, as at the Back Beach, Sorrento, and their cementing 
with carbonate of lime is also well known. Here also, as is 
usually the case with this rock, some fine examples of current 
bedding may be seen, but another feature which is not often 
present is the very fine platy layers firmly cemented together 
occurring for some distance along the coast north of the Derby 
River mouth. Some of these layers were only the thickness of 
ordinary cardboard, yet they were strong enough to resist hand 
breakage. The usual rugged character and fantastic weathering 
is also present. 

Recent. — That the upper portions of this deposit are of no 
great antiquity is clearly shown by an old sandy soil layer, 
containing recent terrestrial and freshwater shells, including a 
small Endodonta, Bulimis tenuistriatus, Bulinus 2^^'oductus, 
Succinea australis, and Vitrina verreauxi. 

There is some dune rock over this layer, which points to the 
probability that the whole deposit might perhaps be regarded as 
recent, as well as the present loose shifting dunes. Some very 
fine examples of sand volcanoes were seen amongst the dunes on 
the day of our passage across the Corner Basin. Good accumu- 
lations of shells, flints, bones, &c., and a few stone axes and 
grinding stones, were noted as relics from the aborigines, mostly 
on the dunes. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 223 



Another deposit along the shore at about high tide calls for a 
brief comment. This is a peaty and coal-like deposit to be seen at 
the foot of the dunes north of the moulh of the Derby River. 
In some places this carbonaceous accumulation is covered with 
sand, but a layer from 4 to 6 inches thick is often visible, and 
this appears to me to be nothing more than a preservation of 
accumulations of seaweed into a form of peat. 

Ethnology. — By A. S. Kenyon, C.E. 

Any expectations of interesting discoveries in the anthro- 
pological line were destined to be disappointed. The remains — 
kitchen middens and stone implements — present the usual 
features of any part of the Victorian coast line in their kind and 
occurrence. The only part of the Victorian coast presenting 
unusual features is at Cape Otway, where the physical conditions 
favour a certain amount of isolation. No such conditions are 
present at the Promontory. The tribes making Shallow Inlet, 
where large middens occur, their rendezvous, worked naturally 
and easily along the isthmus to the Derby River and the range. 
Food is plentiful — molluscan, mammalian, or vegetarian — the whole 
way, while fresh water occurs frequently in swamps and soaks. 
At each point of shelter adjacent to rocks large shell-mounds 
occur, containing the usual varieties of shells, a few bones of 
birds and animals, quartz and flint chips and flakes, and broken 
stone implements of various sorts — axes (polished and chipped), 
hammers, grinding stones, &c. No human bones were met with. 
One bone implement was found. On the Promontory itself, 
considered apart from the isthmus, the same remarks apply. 
Progression from bay to bay through the comparatively open 
timbered country was easy. The middens of Oberon Bay show 
distinct evidence, by the variety of implements found, of tribal 
camps — that is, women as well as men penetrated so far. In the 
bush country itself little evidence was to be found. The granites 
in disintegrating provide such a plentiful supply of crystalline 
quartz in all sizes and shapes that there was no need for the 
aboriginal to carry foreign stones with him to strike flakes off for 
his knives, &c. 

Although much recent formations exist, both as dunes and as 
dune rocks, and, although they are much denuded and exposed, 
no trace of any different and inferior race to the one we know 
was to be found. The remains discovered were all on the surface 
of such comparatively recent formations as to lead to the suspicion 
that the natives did not get on to the Promontory until very little 
before ourselves. Much interesting work in this regard remains 
to be done, both on the Promontory and in particular in the 
island chain representing all that is left of the old Tasmanian 
land-bridge. 



224 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



FIELD NATURALISTS' CLUB OF VICTORIA. 

{Concluded from page 190.) 

NATURAL HISTORY NOTES. 

Wallaby at Sea. — Mr. F. Wisewould stated that when 
coming from San Remo recently he noticed an object in Western 
Port Bay, about one hundred yards from the beach, which proved 
to be a wallaby swimming towards Phillip Island. It seemed 
very exhausted, and fell down upon reaching the shore, taking 
several minutes to reach the scrub, only a short distance off. 
It is alleged there are no wallabies on either French or Phillip 
Island. Should this be correct, the animal must have been caught 
by the tide on one of the mud banks or sand spits at the head of 
the bay, and carried by the ebb, which was running very fast, a 
distance of eight or ten miles. 

Growth in Lobelia. — Mr. J. S. Kitson called attention to 
some specimens of Lobelia simjilicicaulis, R. Br., exhibited, 
which had been picked some six weeks ago, and though neither 
in water nor earth, had grown from one to two and a half inches 
since being picked, notwithstanding the weather had been very 
warm during the whole period. One specimen, placed between 
the leaves of a book to press, had grown two inches out of the 
book. He said some of the specimens were still growing, and 
asked if this had been noticed by other collectors. 

EXHIBITS. 

By Mr. F. G. A. Barnard. — Growing plants of the Nardoo, Mar- 
silea qiiadrifolia, L., from East Kew. 

By Mr. F. Chapman, A.L.S., on behalf of Rev. A. W. 
Cresswell, M.A. — Abnormal leaf of Gangamopteris spatulata, 
M'Coy, from Bacchus Marsh, in illustration of paper. 

By Mr. C. French, jun. — Fine specimen of aboriginal stone 
wedge, from Hamilton, Victoria. 

By Mr. F. G. D'Ombrain. — Dove-like Prion, Prion detolatus, 
Gm., from Huonville, Tasmania. 

By Mr. H. Jeffery. — Six species of South African shells. 

By Mr. J. S. Kitson. — Specimens o{ Lobelia siniplicicaulis, R. 
Br., from Red Hill, near Dromana, in illustration of note. 

By Mr. F. Pitcher, for the Director. — Blooms of Grevillea 
banksii, vax. forsterii, from Queensland and North Australia, and 
Melaleuca lateritia, from Western Australia, now flowering in 
Melbourne Botanical Gardens. 

By Dr. Sutton. — Growing plant of fern, Lomaria paterso7ii, 
Sprengel, from Eurobin Falls. 

After the usual conversazione the meeting terminated. 



Snpplciuciit to the '^Victorian Naturalist," April, 1906, 



THE 



Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria. 



Hfc M E M B E R S , ^^^■ 

9lh APRIL, 1906 

(With pnrticulnrs of lirancb of Study). 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 

t ATKINSON, E. D., CE.^ F.R.G.S,, Tasmania. 

BROUN, Captain T., Ilowick, N.Z. 

COX, Dk. J. C, F.L.S., C.M.Z.S., Sydney, N.S.W. 

FINSCII, Dr. Oito, Germany. 

HECTOR, SiK Jas., K.C.M.G., M.D., F.R.S., Wellington, N.Z. 

tliOWITT, A. W., D.Sc, F.G.S., Metung, Victoria. 

tLEGGE, Lieut. -Col. W. V., R.A., F.Z.S., M.B.O.U., &c., Hohart. 

*tLUCAS, A. IE. S., M.A., H.Sc, Grammar School, Sydney. 

RAMSAY, I)u. K. P., F.R.S.E., &c., Sydney, N.S.W. 



hlhU MmiBHRS. 

BAGE, Mrs. Mary C, " Cranford," Fulton-street, East St. Kikla. 
PATFV, 1!. K., Esq., Premier Buildings, Collins-street, Melbourne. 



Supplement to the " Victorian Naturalist." 



ORDINA R Y MEMBERS. 



Andrews, H., 206-208 Flinders-1., M. 
Armitage, R. W., Continuation 

School, Melbourne, 
t Beige, Miss F., B.Sc, " Cranford," 
Fulton-street, St. Kilda. General 
Biology. 
Baker, F., Hoddle street, Richmond. 

t Baker, H. H., 78 Swanston-street, 
Melbourne. 

^Bale, W. M., F.R.M.S., Walpole- 
street, Kew. Hydroids. 

o Barnard, F., " Bracondale," Kew. 

^* + Barnard, F. G. A., 49 High- 
street, Kew. Ent., Ferns. 

Barnet, Miss, G.P.O., Abbotsford. 

* Barrett, C. L., " Craigielea," New 
and Were streets, Brighton. Orn. 
and Reptilia. 

t Ba.stovv, R. A., 183 Brunswick- 
street, Fitzroy. 

f*tBest, D., 291 Little Collins- 
street, M. Ent. (Col.) 

t Billinghurst, F. L., National Bank, 
Bacchus Marsh. Ent. (Col.) 

Bird, D., " Clareton," 43 Spring- 
street, Melb. 

Blackburn, J. W., "Leura," Toorak- 
road. 

Booth, J., " Orwilda Ruma," 25 
Rathdown-street, Carlton. 

Booth, Mrs. J., "Orwilda Ruma," 
25 Rathdown-street, Carlton. 

Booth, Miss D. E. H., "Orwilda 
Ruma, " 25 Rathdown-street, 
Carlton. 

Booth, Miss E. S., " Oakover," 
Bell-street, S. Preston 

Brown, A. A., 124 Eiardet-street, 
Port Melbourne. 

Browne, H. A., Croydon-road, 
Surrey Hills. 

Brunning, J., Somerville. 

* t Campbell, A. J., Elm-grove, 
Armadale. Orn., Ool. 

t Campbell, A., Elm-grove, Arma- 
dale. Orn., Ool. 

Cannon, Wm. M'Kay, 29 Rosebery- 
street. Auburn. 

Carter, A. G., "Bunnong," Black- 
street, Brighton. 

Carter, G. H., "Bunnong," Black- 
street, Brighton. 

Cayley, F. J., Outtrim. 

tChapman, F., A.L.S., F.R.M.S., 
Nat. Museum, M. Geol.,Pala;on. 



ctChristy, F. C, M.I.C.E., "St. 

Cyr," William-street, S. Yarra. 

Clark, A., "Glenara," Bulla. Orn. 

Cochrane, Miss .S. W. L., Queen's 

Coffee Palace, Victoria-st., M. 

Bot. 

* Coghill, G., 72 Swanston-st., M. 

Bot. 
Cole, P. C, Napier-street, Fitzroy. 
t Coles, A., 339 Elizabeth-street, M. 

Orn., Ool. 
Coles, H. B., Mercantile Chambers, 

Collins-street. 
Coles, H. J., 339 Elizabeth-street, M. 

Orn., Ool. 
Coles, W. F., 33 Little Smith-street, 

N. Richmond. 
Cooper, S., 113 Coppin-st., Richmd. 
Corbett^ J. F., State School, Moonee 

Ponds. 
Cormack, F. G. , Mail Branch, G. P. O. 
Cowle, Miss L., Devonport W., 

Tas. 
Cowle, Miss C, 25 Gipps-st. , E.M. 
Craig, R. , State School, .S. Yarra. 
Crellin, E. D., 529 Collins-street, M. 
Cudmoie, Mrs., " Springfield," 

Murphy-street, South Yarra. 
D'Alton, St. Eloy, C.E., Dimboola. 
Danks, A. T., Bourke-street, M. 
Davey, H. W., Bright. 
Davies, Wm. L. , Cromwell-road, 

Jiawksburn. 
Dawes, Capt. R. J., 76 Morris-street, 

W^illiamstown. 
Day, A. J., Lands Department, M. 
Day, Mrs., Toorak-road, South 

Yarra. 
* Dixon, J. E., 50 Swan-street, 

Richmond. Ent. (Lep.) 
d'Oliveyra, J. F., c/o J. C. Kauf- 

mann, LL.D. 
D'Ombrain, F. G., Monomeith- 

avenue. Canterbury. 
Edmondson, Mr. and Mrs. C. H., 

Victoria-road, Hawthorn 
oEllery, Major R. L. J., C.M.G., 

F.R.S., F.R.A.S., S. Yarra. 
Ewart, Professor J. A., D.Sc, 
Ph.D., F.L.S., University, Carlton. 
*t Fielder, Rev. W., F.R.M.S., 
"Croft," Orrong-road, Arma- 
dale. Mic. Biol. 
Flower, Miss A. F. \V.. Mathuura-id , 
Toorak. 



Supplement to the "' Victorian Naturalist. 



Flower, P. D., Mathoura-rd., Tooiak. 
o*tFiench, C, F.L.S., F.E.S., 
Railway-road, Malvern. Ent. 

* t French, C, jun., Department of 

Agriculture, Ent. Urancli, M. 

Ool., Ent. 
Fripp, S. J. A., 126 Wattletree-road, 

Malvern. 
Fowler, Miss D. , Bamfylde-street, 

Sandringham. 
Fraser, Rev. W., Athol-st., Moonee 

Ponds. 
Friend, Miss M., " Grosvenor," 

Malvern. 

* t Frost, C, F.L.S., Mont Victor-rd., 

E. Kew. Reptiles, Spiders. 
Fullard, A., c/o Foy and Gibson's, 

Colling wood. 
*t Fulton, S. W., 369 Collins-street, 

M. Stalk-eyed Crustacea. 
*t Gabriel, J., 293 Victoria-street, 

Abbotsford. (Jrn. , Ool. , Polyzoa. 
Gabriel, C. J., 293 Victoria-street, 

Abbotsford. Mar. Conch. 
Gates, W. F., M.A., Benalla. 
*tGatliff, J. H., Commercial Bank, 

Lygon-st., Carlton. Mar. Conch. 
+ Gatlifil', H. E., Commercial Bank, 

Lygon-street, Carlton. 
i'Godfrey, F. R., "Graylings," Alma- 
road, St. Kilda. 
t Goudie, J. C, Birchip. Orn., Ent. 
t Goodie, D., Birchip. Ent. (Lep.) 
Grant, Kerr, M.Sc, Ormond College, 

Parkville. 
Greig, Miss C, 43 Brunswick-street, 

Fitzroy. 
Grundt, H., Collins-street, City. 

* t Haase, J. F., 17 Swanston-street, 

M. Entomostraca. 
Haig, H. G., 20 Nicholson-street, 

Fitzroy. Orn. 
*tHall, R., F.L.S., C.M.Z.S., 

Elgar-road, Box Hill. Orn. 
*tHall, T. S., M.A., University, 

Carlton. Gen. Biol., Geol. 

(Graptolites). 
Hamilton, Jas. T., Ileidelberg-road, 

Ivanhoe. 
Hammet, E. R. , Loch, 
"tllardy, A. D., F.L.S., F.R.M.S., 

Lands Uept. , .M. Bot. (Fresh- 
water Algre). 
tHardy, Mrs. A. D., Sludley- 

avenue, Kew. Orn., Ool. 
+ Hart, T. S., NLA., School of Mines, 

Ballarat. Geol., Bot. 
Hartnell, H., Burke-rd., Camberwell. 
Harvey, J. IL, 128 Powlett-st., E.M. 



ILatfield, E. IL, Pakenham. 

Haynes, J. F., State School, Home- 
bush, W. Avoca. 

Henderson, A. A., B. Sc, Geological 
Branch, Mines Department. 

* llill, G. R., "Glenrowan," Dande- 

nong-road, Windsor. 

+ Hill, J. A., Kewell, via Ahirtoa. 
Ent., Orn. 

Hooper, Dunbar, J. W., surgeon, 70 
Collins-street, Melbourne. 

Jeflery, H. W., Nicholson-street, 
Abbotsford. 

tjutson, J '1"., "Oakworth," Smith- 
street, Noithcote. Geol. 

Kaufmann, Mrs. J. C. 

Kaufmann, J. C, LL. D., 21 Koo- 
yongkoot-road. Hawthorn. 

* + Keartland, G. A., Cramer-street, 

Preston. Orn., Ool. 
Kendall, IL, 14 Rathmines-grove, 

Auburn. 
Keppel, Miss, Marysville. 

* t Kershaw, J. A., F.E.S., National 

Museum, M. Zoology. 
Kiely, Miss, 98 River-street, South 

Yarra. Bot. 
t Kitson, A. E., F.G.S., Department 

Mines, M. Geol. 
Kitson, J. S., Red Hill, via Morn- 

ington. 
Knight, J., Alexandra. 
Larking, R. J., 348 Flinders-st., M. 
*t Leach, J. A., B.Sc, Continuation 

School, Melb. Biol., Geol. 
Lees, E. H., M.I.C.E., F.R.A.S., 

Fairhavtn, Mallacoota. 
Lees, E., Continuation School, Melb. 
*tLe Souef, D., C.M.Z.S., Royal 

Park. Parkville. Orn., Ool. 
Luly, \V. H., Preston 
tLyell G., jun , Gisborne. Ent. (Lep.) 
MacDonald, D., Argus Office, M. 

* + Macgillivray, Dr. W., Broken 

Hill. Orn., Ool. 
Mackay, A. C, J. P., Apollo Bay. 
Madden, F., M.L.A., Studley Park, 

Kew. 
Mahood, Thos., Argus office, 
t Maplestone, C.M.,Eltham. Polyzoa 

(recent and fossil), 
t* Mattingley, A., Alfred-street, North 

M. Orn., Echinoids. 
fM 'Alpine, D., Armadale-street, 

Armadale. Bot. 
*M'Caw, W. J., 7 Liddiard-street, 

Glenferrie. Zoology. 
M'Lennan, J. P., State School, 

Emerakl. Botany. 



Snpplcniciit to I he " V i dorian Naturalist." 



M'Mahon, W. H., Warrnambool. 
M'Nab, L. K., " Rraeside," Waiora- 

road, Caulfield. 
Montgomery, Miss INI., Stale School, 

Ecluica. 
Morgan, W. J., ii R()l)l)-.stieet, N. 

Essendon. 
Morrison, Dr. A., Brown-street, 

Terth, W.A. Bot. 
Morrison, J. S., "Cooeya," Eglin- 

ton-street, Moonee Ponds. 
Mowling, G., "Atliol," Aiiburn-rd., 

Hawthorn. Birds under domesti- 
cation. 
Murdoch, J. R., Mortlake, Vict. 
Newell, J., jun., Zoological Gardens, 

Berth, W.A. 
fNichoUs, E. B., 164 Victoria-street, 

N.M. Orn. 
Norris, F., l.)rummond-st., Carlton, 
^t North, A. J., CM. Z.S., Australian 

Museum, Sydney, N.S.W. Orn. 
O'Neil, \V. J., Department Lands, M. 
Parkin, A. C., Camphell-rd., Balwyn. 
Paul, J. T., Grant ville. Bot. 
t;* Pitcher, F., Botanical Gardens, M. 

Bot. 
Preston, C. G., 44 Albert-street, 

Kew. 
t Pritchard, G. B., F.G.S., 22 Mantell- 

street, Moonee Ponds. Conch., 

Geol. 
Quiney, H., Mortlake. 
Randall, Miss M., "Litchfield," 

Primrose-street, Essendon. 
Reed, W., Govt. Continuation School. 
Roger, W. H. A., National Bank, 

Collins-street. Ent. (Lep. ) 
Rollo, Miss, 65 Tivoli-rd., S. Yarra. 
Ross, J. A., 116 Albion-st. , E. 

Brunswick. 
Russell, Arthur, Bourke-street east. 
t Ryan, Dr. C, Collins-street F., M. 

Orn., Ool. 
0*1 .Sayce, O. A., Harcourt-st., Haw- 
thorn. Crustacea. 
Scott, W., Fletcher-street, Essendon. 

* Searle, f., 274 Collins-street, M. 
Shappere, Miss M. P., "Elma," 19 

Canterbury-road, Albert Park. 
*tShephard, J., 135 City-road, S.AL 

Pond life. 
tShepherd. G. E.,Somerville. Ornith. 
Simpson, A. W., Cornalla, via Den- 

iliquin, N.S.W. 

* Simson, Mrs. J. 'j " Trawalla," 
Simson, Miss / Toorak. 
Skeats, Professor E. W. , D.Sc. , 

University, Carlton. 



t Sloane, T. G., " Moorilla," 
Young, N.S.W. Ent. (Col.) 

Smith, A. j.. Port Albert. 

Smith, Miss J., 15 Droop-street, 
Footscray. 

Somers, Dr. Edgeworth, Mornington. 

Somerville, W., 16 Bellevue-street, 
Richmond. 

Spark, J. AL, Isabella-street, Mal- 
vern. 

* t Spencer, Professor W. Baldwin, 

C.M.G., M.A., F.R.S., Univer- 
sity, Carlton. 

tSpry, F., Napier-st., S.M. Ent. 
(Lep.), Geol. 

Stickland, J., 153 Auburn-road, 
Auburn. Pond life. 

* t Stickland, W., 20 Latrobe-st., M. 

Pond life. 

t Sutton, Dr. C. S. , Ralhdown-st., 
Carlton. Bot. 

Swan, J. B., "Alma," Selborne- 
street, Coburg 

*tSweet, G., F.G.S., Wilson-st., 
Brunswick. Geol. 

Tarrant, J. S., Railway-road, Mal- 
vern. 

Thiele, A. F. , Doncaster. 

tThiele, E. O., " Heimruh." Finlayson- 
street, Malvern. Geol. and 
Mineral. 

Thiele, O. A., " Heimruh," Finlayson- 
street, Malvern. 

Thomson, Dr. J. R. M., Mt. Alex- 
ander-road, Essendon. 

Thonger, C. W., 103 Drummond- 
street, Carlton. 

Thorn, \V., Findon-st., FLawthorn 

*tTopp, C. A., M.A., LL.B,, 
South Yarra. Bot. 

Townsend, S. P., " Garrycloyne,"' 
Mornington. 

Trebilcock, R. E., " Leopold," Gee- 
long. Ent. (Lep.) 

Tricks, A. H., Victoria-street, Cam- 
ber well. 

Tuckett, J. H., Neerim-road, Murrum- 
beena. 

Turner, Miss, " Torridge," Domain- 
road, South Yarra. 

Walker, J. B., Mackillop-st., M. 

Wallace, Wm., Grantville. Bot. 

t Wallis, C. C, Toorak-rd., Toorak, 
Bot. 

Ware, S. M., 3 Lyall-st., Haw- 
thorn. 

Waterhouse, G. A., B.Sc, F.E.S., 
Royal Mini, Sydney, N.S.W. 
Ent. (Lep.) 



Supplement to the ''Victorian Naturalist. 



Waugh, Miss E., " Eiiene," Lynd- 
hurst-crescenl, Havvthoin, 

+ Weindorfer, G., Kindred, Tas- 
mania. Hot. 

tWeindorfer, Mrs. (]., Kindred, Tas. 

^Vestley, Rev. A. H., Thie Vicar- 
age, Loch. Ent. (Col, Bnpres- 
lidte, and Ceraml)ycida;). 

VVeslmoreland, Miss .A., Staw<;Il-.st., 
Kew. 

White, Miss J., l>..Sc., Ohservalury 
Quarters, South Yarra. Bot. 

Wilcox, J., 4 Loch-st., Hawthorn. 



Williamson, H. B., Hawkesdale. Bot. 

Wilson, J., 153 Buckleyst. Foots- 
cray. 

£^*t Wisewoukl. F., Imperial Cham- 
bers, 408 Collins-street, M. 

Wisewould, Miss G., 27 Cromwell- 
road, Hawksburn. 

WoJlen, A., Killara. Orn., Ent. 

Woods, G., Marshall-slreet, Moonee 
Ponds. 

Young, Miss, "Scarsdale," Tivoli- 
road. South Yaira. 



+ 
M. 

Ent. 
Orn. 

Geol. 

Bot. 

Conch. 



References. 

nihes " Original Members," elected June, 18S0. 

Members who have held office. 

Members who have contributed Papers at the meetings. 

Address— Melbourne ; S.M., South Melbourne; E.M., East 
Melbourne. 

Entomology ; Col., Coleoptera ; Lep., Lepidoptera. 

Ornithology; Ool., Oology. 

Geology. 

Botany. 

Conchology. 



SiifiplenioU to tlic " Viclorian Naturalist." 



Balelier, M. 
Carter, Miss V. 
Christian, E. J. 
D'Oml)r,iin, R. 
D'Ombraiii, J. 
French, C. 



ASSOCIATES. 

Gillespie, R. M. 
Larking, E. K. 
Mansfield, A. 
Marshall, J. E. 
Nicholls, Miss ]. 
Oke, C. 



Schaefc-r, F. 
Taverner, P. 
Thomson, J. M. 
Wilson, F. E. 
Wilcox, D. H. 



JUNIOR MEMBERS. 



Miss L 

„ D. 

,. J- 

„ A. 

,, M. 

„ F- 

,, H. 

„ L. 

„ D. 

„ R. 

„ J- 

,, L. 

„ C. 

„ D. 

,, F- 

„ D. 

,, N. 

„ R. 

„ B. 

„ W 

,, H. 

,, S. 

,, I- 

,, B. 

„ H. 

„ J- 

„ E. 

., R. 

„ N. 

,, W 

„ E. 

„ F. 

„ P- 

., H. 



, Andrews 

Andrews 
Bage 

Bage 

Barnard 

Barfus 

Bowles 

Carpenter 

Debney 

Debney 
French 

French 

Gibson 

Gibson 

Gray 

Haase 

Hughes 

Johnston 

Keartland 
. Larard 

Le Souef 

Leach 
M'Kechnie 

Preston 

Ramsay 

Roberts 

Sayce 

Sayce 

Shappere 
. Shephard 

Stewart 

Swan 

Vale 
, Wilson 



Master N. Barnard 

,, G. E. Barrett 

,, W. D. Chapman 

„ J. Colpoys 

„ E. H. Coghill 

,, F Cadmore 

,, A. Cudmore 

,, E. Cudmore 

„ J. W. Collings 

„ A. Day 

,, H. Dew 

,, H. Denston 



Master R. 

,, F. 

„ F. 

„ J- 

„ A. 

,, L. 

,, A. 

„ T. 

„ A. 

,, A. 

., L. 

„ M. 

„ S. 

„ D. 

,, H. 

,, L. 

„ W 

„ A. 

,, A. 

„ B. 

., J- 

„ C. 

„ E. 



Elder 
Finding 
F'armer 
Fry 
Gaye 
Gomm 
Godfrey 
M. Hall 
S. Hall 
M. Hall 
Henderson 
'Jackson 
G. Johnston 
Johnston 
E. Kershaw 
N. Kershaw 
. Keartland 
Lawrence 
W. Le Souef 
Leach 
S. -Mann 
J. Mann 
Mead 
Maxwell 
Minifie 
Moore 
Mackay 
M'Dermot 
. O'Dowd 
O'Dowd 
Phillips 
Preston 
Ruppell 
Riordan 
. Rabling 
Schreuder 
Seaton 
Snadden 
Silk 

Seelenmeyer 
Seeger 
Sullivan 
Taylor 
Watson 
Wilson 
WHiittield 
, S. Wilkinson 



Supplement to the " Victorian Naturalist." vii 



List of Journals to which the Clnb Subscribes. 

Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 

Entomologists' Monthly Magazine. 

Geological Magazine. 

Journal of the Koyal Microscopical Society. 

Zoologist. 



List of Publications which the Club Receives 
in Exchange. 

Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria. 

Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales. 

Publications of the Royal Society of South Australia. 

Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania. 

Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland. 

Transactions of the New Zealand Institute. 

Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales. 

Publications of the New South Wales Naturalists' Clul). 

Publications of the Australian Museum, Sydney. 

Publications of the Victorian Department of Mines and Water Supply. 

,, ,, ,, Agriculture. 

Hawkesbury Agricultural College Magazine 
Publications of the Queensland Agricultural Department. 

,, New South Wales Mines Department. 

,, New South Wales Department of Agriculture. 

Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society of 

Australasia (Victoria). 
The Emu : the Journal of the Australasian Ornithologists' Union. 
Geelong Naturalist. 

Nature Notes : the Journal of the Selborne Society, London. 
Nature Study. 

Reports of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science. 
Scientific Australian. 

Journal of the Anthropological Society, Sydney. 
Publications of the Smithsonian Institute, Washington, U.S.A. 
Publications of the Field Columbian Museum, U..S.A. 
Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadeliijiia. 
Bulletin of the Buffalo Society of Natural Science. 
Publications of the Missouri Botanical Gardens. 
Report of the American Museum of Natural History. 
Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy. 
Minnesota Botanical Studies. 

Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History. 
Transactions of the Nova Scotia Institute. 
Knowledge. 



viii Supplement to the " Victorian Naturalist." 



THE 

Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria. 



OFFICE-BEARERS. 1905-1906. 

President : 
Mr. F. G. a. Barnard. 

Vice-Presidents : 
Mr. G. Keartlano ; Mk. F. WhSEWOULD. 

Hon. Treasurer : 
Mr. G. Coghii.l, Queen's Walk, 72 Swaiiston-street (Tel. 702). 

Hon. Librarian : 
Mk. S. \V. Fulton, 369 Collins-street. 

Hon, Secretary : 
.Mr. J. F. Haask, 17 Swanston-street. 

Hon. Assist. Secretary and Librarian: 
.Mk. \V. II. A. Kmc.er. 

Hon. Editor of the "Victorian Naturalist:" 
Mr. F. G. a. lURNAkl), 49 IIit;h-street, Kew (Tel. 443, Hawthorn). 

Hon. Lanternist : 
Mr. J. .Skaki.e. 

Comnnittee: 

Mr. T. .S. Hall, M.A., Mr. .\. D. Haui.v, F.L.S., F.R.M.S., Mr. T- A. 
Kershaw, F.E. S., Mr. J. Leach, B.Sc, Mr. A. .vIattingley. 



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